Article

Phytoconstituents, antioxidant, sun protection and skin anti-wrinkle effects using four solvents fractions of the root bark of the traditional plant Alkanna tinctoria (L.)

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Abstract

Introduction Protection of skin from wrinkles and pigmentation changes are among the most common challenges for modern science and cosmetics. These are caused by unusual disruption of connective tissue, the formation of free radicals and ultraviolet radiation. The current research is the first study to compare the phytoconstituents, antioxidant, sun protection factor (SPF) and skin wrinkles prevention effects using four different solvents fractions for the traditional plant Alkanna tinctoria (L.) root bark. Methods Qualitative and quantitative phytoconstituents, antioxidant activity, sun protection factor and anti-elastase (skin wrinkles prevention) effects were assessed using standard pharmaceutical and cosmeceuticals assays. Results The results of antioxidant, anti-elastase and sun protection factor activities were the highest for the acetone fraction with IC50 8.51 ± 1.94 µg/ml, 10.02 ± 0.3 µg/ml and SPF value of 6.38, respectively. However, these results may occur due to its high contents of flavonoids and phenols which were 26.55 ± 1.6 mg of QUE/g and 59.48 ± 0.56 mg of GAE/g plant acetone fraction, respectively. Conclusion The acetone fraction of A. tinctoria root bark could be a promising candidate for cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations due to the potential antioxidant, anti-elastase enzyme and sun protection activities.

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... Alkanna tinctoria (alkanet) that belongs to the Boraginaceae family is widely spread in Southern Anatolia and Mediterranean [12]. Its roots are used for the treatment of wounds, ulcers, inflammation, and fever [13,14] and contain alkannin and shikonin ( Fig. 1) compounds which are responsible from the colorization [15,16]. These compounds are used as natural sources of red pigment in cosmetic, textile, and food industry, as well [13,17]. ...
... Its roots are used for the treatment of wounds, ulcers, inflammation, and fever [13,14] and contain alkannin and shikonin ( Fig. 1) compounds which are responsible from the colorization [15,16]. These compounds are used as natural sources of red pigment in cosmetic, textile, and food industry, as well [13,17]. ...
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... Alkanna tinctoria (alkanet) that belongs to the Boraginaceae family is widely spread in Southern Anatolia and Mediterranean [12]. Its roots are used for the treatment of wounds, ulcers, inflammation, and fever [13,14] and contain alkannin and shikonin ( Fig. 1) compounds which are responsible from the colorization [15,16]. These compounds are used as natural sources of red pigment in cosmetic, textile, and food industry, as well [13,17]. ...
... Its roots are used for the treatment of wounds, ulcers, inflammation, and fever [13,14] and contain alkannin and shikonin ( Fig. 1) compounds which are responsible from the colorization [15,16]. These compounds are used as natural sources of red pigment in cosmetic, textile, and food industry, as well [13,17]. ...
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Staining of tissue is a significant process in histotechnology and staining techniques are used in the examination and diagnosis of diseases. The increase of international awareness for the environment, ecology, and health directed people to reduce toxic effluents and stop usage of dangerous chemical dyes. The present trend throughout the world is shifting towards to use of natural products over their synthetic alternatives. Therefore, in this study, the dyeing ability of alkanet plant on the cells of unstained sections taken from Wistar rat liver was investigated. The extract of Alkanna tinctoria contain naphthaquinone group of dyestuff. Chemical characterization of A. tinctoria extract was performed with HPLC-TOF/MS and UV spectra analysis, respectively. Different metal salts were used in the staining processes in order to obtain different colors. In the staining of without adding mordant (metal salt) to the extract, pale brown staining was obtained in the cytoplasm. Light pink color was obtained with the addition of CuSO4 mordant. Dark pink-red color was achieved by adding alum, and also NiSO4 was added for light purple staining. The staining of cytoplasm of different cells in liver tissue was achieved successfully with the extract of A. tinctoria and different colors were obtained using various mordants.
... The antioxidant properties of Alkanet have been evaluated only with the conventional solvents consisting of water, methanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone and ethanol (Jaradat et al., 2018;Assimopoulou et al., 2004;Ozer et al., 2010). Although these conventional solvents had a high performance for the extraction of phenolic compounds, they are associated with possible hazards such as inflammation, volatility, explosivity, toxicity and environmental pollution (Chemat et al., 2012). ...
... There are many intrinsic characteristics notably diffusion, surface tension, viscosity, density, polarity, physicochemical interactions and solubility (Bi et al., 2013;Wei et al., 2015) which influence the extraction efficiency of NaDESs. The results showing the extraction performance of SAFA 12 and SALA 12 together with conventional solvents were presented in (Jaradat et al., 2018;Assimopoulou et al., 2004;Assimopoulou and Papageorgiou, 2005). As can be seen, the values of TPC, TFC, DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP were found to be higher in SAFA 12 and SALA 12 . ...
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Natural Deep eutectic solvents (NaDESs) are promising green solvents for the extraction of phytochemical compounds with antioxidant properties. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the behavior of the antioxidant properties of Alkanet (Alkanna tinctoria) root in hydrophilic NaDESs. For this purpose, two NaDESs constituted of sodium acetate : lactic acid (SALA12) and sodium acetate : formic acid (SAFA12) were synthesized to evaluate the antioxidant properties of Alkanet. 70 % ethanol, 80% methanol and water were used as conventional solvents for comparison. SALA12 and SAFA12 were characterized considering their viscosities and FITR spectra. The extracts obtained with SALA12 and SAFA12 presented the best results when compared to the conventional solvents. The NaDES presented the highest extraction performance was SAFA12. This prominent NaDES was subjected to the response surface methodology using a Box-Behnken design to figure out the optimum conditions to have the maximum antioxidant activity of Alkanet root. For total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and DPPH radical scavenging, the optimum conditions were 1:4 molar ratio, 45% water content and 25% mL solvent ratio. The confirmed responses at the optimum conditions were 390.16 mg GAE/g, 10.69 mg ECE/g and 444.68 mmol TE/g, respectively. NaDES molar ratio and water content were found to impact most significantly the antioxidant properties Alkanet. The thermal stability experimentation revealed that phytochemicals along with the antioxidant properties of Alkanet were more stable in NaDES. These findings revealed that novel NaDES is an efficient green solvent for the extraction of bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties from plants.
... In this sense, plant species containing high level of phenolic compounds stand out (Djeridane et al., 2006). Derivatives of caffeic acids, resveratrol, quercetin, ferulic acids, apigenin, genistein and tannins (and many others) belong to the group of natural compounds with high protection activity against solar radiation contributing to enhancement of SPF value (Jaradata et al., 2018). One of plants with extremely high content of such natural phenolic substances is coffee (Hečimovič et al., 2011). ...
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In this study preparation and characterization of new UV-protecting systems based on liposomes/polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) with encapsulated coffee extracts are presented. Green and roasted coffee extracts with high phenolics content, high antioxidant activity and sun protection factor (SPF) value 40–50 were used as model organic UV filters and encapsulated into liposomes and PHB-liposomes. Particle size and colloid stability was observed by dynamic light scattering and zeta-potential. Toxicity of particles was tested by MTT and LDH assay on HaCaT cell line. All prepared samples showed moderate or high encapsulation efficiency. Addition of PHB up to 50% of lecithin led to increased size and stability. As optimal addition of 20% PHB into liposome particles was found leading to optimum size and processing of particles, to high UV-protective effect as well as to increased colloid stability and SPF value during long-term storage. Significant differences in cell viability were found in cytotoxicity studies after exposure of keratinocytes to liposomes with different PHB content. Newly fabricated PHB-liposome particles with coffee extract were not found as toxic for HaCaT cells and in LDH test up to 12%. These particles can act as active carriers for organic sunscreen components in combination with UV-protective effect of PHB.
... The history of herbal products mainly began with our ancestors who learned that using certain herbs resulted in healing of some diseases [1]. Traditional medicine is known as a useful source of potentially valuable compounds for prevention and treatment of wide range of diseases [2]. ...
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Oxygen in biology is essential for life. It comes at a cost during normal cellular function, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by oxidative metabolism. Human skin exposed to solar ultra-violet radiation (UVR) dramatically increases ROS production/oxidative stress. It is important to understand the characteristics of human skin and how chronological (intrinsic) aging and photo-aging (extrinsic aging) occur via the impact of ROS production by cascade signaling pathways. The goal is to oppose or neutralize ROS insults to maintain good dermal health. Botanicals, as active ingredients, represent one of the largest categories used in dermatology and cosmeceuticals to combat skin aging. An emerging botanical is equol, a polyphenolic/isoflavonoid molecule found in plants and food products and via gastrointestinal metabolism from precursor compounds. Introductory sections cover oxygen, free radicals (ROS), oxidative stress, antioxidants, human skin aging, cellular/molecular ROS events in skin, steroid enzymes/receptors/hormonal actions and genetic factors in aging skin. The main focus of this review covers the characteristics of equol (phytoestrogenic, antioxidant and enhancement of extracellular matrix properties) to reduce skin aging along with its anti-aging skin influences via reducing oxidative stress cascade events by a variety of biochemical/molecular actions and mechanisms to enhance human dermal health.
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Mountainous vegetables are usually used in the early stage of plant growth. We attempted to identify the quantity of polyphenols (caffoeoylquinic acids (CQs) and flavonoids) and peroxynitrite scavenging effect (ONOO-) of eight Korean mountainous vegetables. The prominent characteristics were as follows: Only the roots of two plants Taraxacum platycarpum and Ixeris dentata contained chicoric acid. Five CQs were identified in the leaves of Cacalia firma whereas only 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid in the petioles of the plant was shown. The quantities of polyphenols such as quinic acid or tartaric acid derivatives in the mountainous vegetables were generally high, though those of flavonoids were very low. The IC50 of chlorogenic acid, chicoric acid and kaempferol were 0.31, 0.12 and 0.25μg/ml, respectively.
Article
Flavonoids, with various biological activities, are considered as key compounds in propolis. In this study, quantitative determinations of flavonoids in propolis were conducted by two complementary colorimetric methods, aluminum chloride method and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine method. Results suggested that the sum of flavonoid contents determined by the above two individual methods may represent the real content of total flavonoids. In this work, six raw propolis samples were investigated and the total contents of flavonoids ranged from 10.38 ± 0.14% to 24.91 ± 0.53%. As for the 12 commercial propolis products examined, the levels of total flavonoids in tinctures were all below 7% and those in powdery products varied from 2.97 ± 0.05% to 22.73 ± 0.72%.
Article
Medicinal plants are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants that can protect biological system from oxidative stress. In this study, the antioxidant activities of four species of the Alkanna genus (Alkanna bracteosa, Alkanna frigida, Alkanna orientalis and Alkanna tricophila) were evaluated. The dried roots of plant samples (100 g) were extracted separately by percolation method with MeOH/H2O (80/20) and four fractions were provided respectively with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antioxidant activities were investigated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid methods and compared with quercetin (as positive control). The results indicated that the butanol fractions of four species had the highest antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity compared with the other fractions studied (P < 0.05). The 50% effective concentration (half - effective doses) values of butanol fractions are less than quercetin and other fractions, so, these fractions showed potent antioxidant activity. This indicated that the active compounds in the root parts of Alkanna species dissolved in the butanol. All the fractions of four species of Alkanna had antioxidant activity, while, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between the total antioxidant activities of same fractions. The total antioxidant activity values of Alkanna fractions in a descending order are as follows: Butanol fraction > ethyl acetate fraction > total extract > hexane fraction > chloroform fraction > aqueous fraction. The antioxidant activities of butanol fractions of samples were higher than quercetin. This may be because most of the active compounds of Alkanna species dissolved in the butanol.
Article
Breakdown and disorganization of extracellular matrix proteins like collagen, fibronectin and elastin are main characteristics of skin aging due to the enhanced activation of proteolytic enzymes such as collagenases and elastases. Inhibition of their enzymatic activities by natural plant compounds might be a promising approach to prevent extrinsic skin aging. Especially polyphenols are supposed to interact with those enzymes due to their molecular nature. In our investigation, extracts of pomace from Riesling grapes were analyzed for their inhibitory properties on collagenase as well as elastase. Crude grape pomace extract showed a dose-dependent inhibitory activity against both enzymes with IC50-values of 20.3 μg/ml and 14.7 μg/ml for collagenase and elastase activity, respectively. The extracts were fractionated into four fractions containing phenolic compounds differing in chemical structure and polarity. Except for the stilbene containing fraction, all other fractions showed inhibitory effects on both enzyme activities. The most pronounced impact was found for the hydrophilic low molecular weight polyphenols containing the free phenolic acids. In particular, gallic acid showed considerable inhibition values. EGCG was used as a positive control and showed a dose-dependent inhibition of collagenase activity (IC50 = 0.9 mM).
Article
Many studies have been conducted with regard to free radicals, oxidative stress and antioxidant activity of food, giving antioxidants a prominent beneficial role, but, recently many authors have questioned their importance, whilst trying to understand the mechanisms behind oxidative stress. Many scientists defend that regardless of the quantity of ingested antioxidants, the absorption is very limited, and that in some cases prooxidants are beneficial to human health. The detection of antioxidant activity as well as specific antioxidant compounds can be carried out with a large number of different assays, all of them with advantages and disadvantages. The controversy around antioxidant in vivo benefits has become intense in the past few decades and the present review tries to shed some light on research on antioxidants (natural and synthetic) and prooxidants, showing the potential benefits and adverse effects of these opposing events, as well as their mechanisms of action and detection methodologies. It also identifies the limitations of antioxidants and provides a perspective on the likely future trends in this field.
Article
Introduction: The apparent productivity crisis in the pharmaceutical industry and the economic and political rise of China have contributed to renewed interest in the application of Chinese medicine for drug discovery. Areas covered: The author presents an overview of the historical development and basic principles of theory and practice of Chinese herbal medicine, its materia medica and prescription formulas, and discusses the motivation for and rationale of its application to drug discovery. Furthermore, the author distinguishes the five main approaches to drug discovery from Chinese herbal medicine, based on the decreasing amount and detail of historical and clinical Chinese medicine knowledge that informed the research effort. Expert opinion: Many compounds that have been isolated from the Chinese materia medica exhibit pharmacological activities comparable to pharmaceutical drugs. With the exception of the antimalarial drug artemisinin, however, this knowledge has not led to the successful development of new drugs outside of China. The chance of success in a Chinese medicine-based drug discovery effort will be increased by consideration of the empirical knowledge that has been documented over many centuries in the historical materia medica and prescription literature. Most Chinese medicine-derived compounds affect more than one target and do not correspond to the one compound/one-target drug discovery paradigm. A new frontier is opening up with the development of drugs consisting of combinations of multiple compounds acting on multiple targets under the paradigm of network pharmacology. The ancient practice of combining multiple drugs in prescription formulas can serve as inspirational analogy and a practical guide.
Article
Patents secured on antiinflammatory plant drugs derived from 38 plants are reviewed. An attempt has been made to compare the modern and traditional use of plant drugs and to establish the relevance of folk claims in developing modern drugs. The role of plant botanicals such as polysaccharides, terpenes, curcuminoids, alkaloids, etc. in alleviating inflammatory diseases including arthritis, rheumatism, acne skin allergy and ulcers is highlighted. Chemicals that alleviate swelling are derived from plants including grape, boswellia, turmeric, devil's claw and some essential oils such as clove, eucalyptus, rosemary, lavender, mint, myrrh, millefolia and pine have been patented and used as mixed formulations. Plants containing polysaccharides are the most potent in curing inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This study is designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of the hydrodistillated essential oil and the various extracts of alkanet (Alkanna tinctoria subsp. tinctoria). Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oil were resulted in the determination of 27 different compounds, representing 93.32% of the total oil. The major compounds detected in the oil, were pulegone (22.27%), 1,8-cineole (13.03%), α-terpinyl acetate (6.87%), and isophytol (6.83%), respectively. Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined by 4 different test systems namely β-carotene/linoleic acid, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power, and chelating effect. In all systems, essential oil showed the weakest activity profile. On the other hand, ethyl acetate and water extracts exhibited excellent antioxidant activities. As well as the antioxidant activities of the extracts, they were evaluated in terms of their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In parallel to the experiments, ethyl acetate and water extracts were found to be rich-in these phytochemicals. Keywords Alkanna tinctoria -essential oil-antioxidant activity-1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)
Article
Our research to seek active compounds against human colorectal cancer from the root of Alkanna tinctoria (L.) Tausch led to the isolation of two naphthoquinones, alkannin (1) and angelylalkannin (2). The antiproliferative effects of the two compounds on human colon cancer cells HCT-116 and SW-480 were determined by the 3,4-(5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium salt (MTS) method. Cell cycle profile and cell apoptosis were determined using flow cytometry. Both of the two compounds showed significant inhibitory effects on the cancer cells. For alkannin (1) and angelylalkannin (2), the median inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) values were 2.38 and 4.76 µ m for HCT-116 cells, while for SW-480 cells they were 4.53 and 7.03 µ m, respectively. The potential antiproliferative mechanisms were also explored. At concentrations between 1-10 µ m, both compounds arrested the cell cycle at the G1 phase and induced cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Methanol and water crude extracts from Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) and straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) were investigated for their antioxidant capacity in three different assays, namely, the β-carotene and linoleic acid system, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of hemolysis of rat erythrocyte induced by peroxyl radicals. Among the four mushroom extracts, the water extract from L. edodes showed the most potent radical scavenging activity in each assay, showing 75.9% (at 20 mg/ml) in the β-carotene bleaching method, 55.4% in the DPPH radical scavenging method (at 6 mg/ml) and 94.9% of inhibition of erythrocyte hemolysis (at 5 mg/ml). Total phenolics in the water extracts were higher than that of the methanol ones. Positive correlations were found between total phenolic content in the mushroom extracts and their antioxidant activities. Edible mushrooms may have potential as natural antioxidants.
Article
Alkannin and shikonin (A/S) and their derivatives have been found in the roots of several Boraginaceous species and are also produced through plant tissue cultures. The chiral compounds A/S are potent pharmaceutical substances with a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological activities like wound healing, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antioxidant activity. High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was applied for the first time to the separation, preparative isolation and purification of A/S and their esters from extracts of Alkanna tinctoria roots, as well as commercial samples. The constituents of HSCCC fractions and their purity were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS), since DAD cannot detect oligomeric A/S derivatives that are present in most of the samples containing the respective monomeric derivatives. The purity of HSCCC fractions was compared with the one of fractions isolated by column chromatography (CC) using as stationary phases silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. As shown, the purity of monomeric alkannin/shikonin was greater by HSCCC than CC separation of commercial A/S samples.
Article
Our recent studies have shown that polyphenols present in green tea (GTP) possess significant antigenotoxic activity and afford protection against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon induced skin tumor initiation in mice. In this study we assessed the effect of oral feeding and topical application of GTP on ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis in female SKH-1 hairless mice. Chronic oral feeding of GTP (0.1%, w/v) in drinking water resulted in significantly (P < 0.01) lower tumor yield (percent of animals with tumors and number of tumors per mouse) and extended TDT50 (P < 0.05), as compared to animals receiving normal drinking water. Topical application of GTP before UVB irradiation also afforded protection against photocarcinogenesis; however, the protective response was lower than that observed by oral feeding of GTP in drinking water. These results, in conjunction with our prior publications, suggest that consumption of green tea may reduce the risk of some forms of human cancer induced by both physical and chemical environmental carcinogens.
Article
Inflammation and the resulting accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the intrinsic and photoaging of human skin in vivo. Environmental insults such as ultraviolet (UV) rays from sun, cigarette smoke exposure and pollutants, and the natural process of aging contribute to the generation of free radicals and ROS that stimulate the inflammatory process in the skin. UV irradiation initiates and activates a complex cascade of biochemical reactions in human skin. In short, UV causes depletion of cellular antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, catalase), initiates DNA damage leading to the formation of thymidine dimmers, activates the neuroendocrine system leading to immunosuppression and release of neuroendocrine mediators, and causes increased synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory mediators from a variety of skin cells. The pro-inflammatory mediators increase the permeability of capillaries leading to infiltration and activation of neutrophils and other phagocytic cells into the skin. The net result of all these effects is inflammation and free radical generation (both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species). Furthermore, elastsases and other proteases (cathepsin G) released from neutrophils cause further inflammation, and activation of matrix metalloproteases. The inflammation further activates the transcription of various matrixes degrading metalloproteases, leading to abnormal matrix degradation and accumulation of non-functional matrix components. In addition, the inflammation and ROS cause oxidative damage to cellular proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, which accumulates in the dermal and epidermal compartments, contributing to the aetiology of photoaging. Strategies to prevent photodamage caused by this cascade of reactions initiated by UV include: prevention of UV penetration into skin by physical and chemical sunscreens, prevention/reduction of inflammation using anti-inflammatory compounds (e.g. cyclooxygenase inhibitors, inhibitors of cytokine generation); scavenging and quenching of ROS by antioxidants; inhibition of neutrophil elastase activity to prevent extracellular matrix damage and activation of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP expression (e.g. by retinoids) and activity (e.g. by natural and synthetic inhibitors).
Food coloring: the natural way
  • Chaitanya Lakshmi
G. Chaitanya Lakshmi, Food coloring: the natural way, Res. J. Chem. Sci. 4 (2014) 87-96.