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Abstract

The Anti-diabetic effects of Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Husk was studied on 21 alloxan-induced diabetic rats which were randomly grouped into three (n=7). Group I served as control while group II and III served as experimental groups. The rats were made diabetic by intraperitoneal administration of 150 mg/kg of alloxan. The extract was obtained by cooking the husk in boiling water for 45 minutes in a gas stove flame at a 100 degree Celsius and the fluid was filtered out and kept as the tea for the experiment. The control group was given 2 ml of 0.9% (normal) saline daily, group II was given 2 ml of the coconut husk tea only daily, group III was given 1g of Daonil and 4g of Mephomine daily by Oro-gastric tube and random blood sugar was measured daily in the rats. The weights of the rats were checked daily using a digital electronic weighing balance. At the end of the experiments the animals were sacrificed and the pancreas harvested and histopathological slides made. In the treated diabetic rats, blood glucose levels were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) on consumption of the extracts and the drugs with greatest effect exhibited by the Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Husk extract. The Histopathological study showed same regenerative ability in the rats that received the extracts (coconut husk tea) and those that received Daonil and Metformine. It was therefore concluded that cocos nucifera (coconut) husk tea has a significant hypoglycemic and anti-diabetic effects in alloxan-induced diabetes. This effect is comparable to that of the combination of Daonil and Metformine, and could serve as an effective adjunct in the management of diabetes mellitus. It is therefore recommended that a study of this nature be done using human subjects.
16
ANTI DIABETIC EFFECTS OF THE
COCOS NUCIFERA (COCONUT) HUSK EXTRACT
*Emojevwe Victor and Jeroh E.
Department of Physiology
Delta State University, Abraka, Delta state Nigeria
E-mail: emojevwevictor@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
The Anti-diabetic effects of Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Husk was studied on 21 alloxan-
induced diabetic rats which were randomly grouped into three (n=7). Group I served as
control while group II and III served as experimental groups. The rats were made diabetic by
intraperitoneal administration of 150 mg/kg of alloxan. The extract was obtained by cooking
the husk in boiling water for 45 minutes in a gas stove flame at a 100 degree Celsius and the
fluid was filtered out and kept as the tea for the experiment. The control group was given 2
ml of 0.9% (normal) saline daily, group II was given 2 ml of the coconut husk tea only daily,
group III was given 1g of Daonil and 4g of Mephomine daily by Oro-gastric tube and random
blood sugar was measured daily in the rats. The weights of the rats were checked daily using
a digital electronic weighing balance. At the end of the experiments the animals were
sacrificed and the pancreas harvested and histopathological slides made. In the treated
diabetic rats, blood glucose levels were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) on consumption of
the extracts and the drugs with greatest effect exhibited by the Cocos Nucifera (Coconut)
Husk extract. The Histopathological study showed same regenerative ability in the rats that
received the extracts (coconut husk tea) and those that received Daonil and Metformine. It
was therefore concluded that
cocos nucifera (coconut) husk
tea
has a significant
hypoglycemic and anti-diabetic effects in alloxan-induced diabetes. This effect is comparable
to that of the combination of Daonil and Metformine, and could serve as an effective adjunct
in the management of diabetes mellitus. It is therefore recommended that a study of this
nature be done using human subjects.
Keywords:
Diabetics mellitus, coconut husk,
Cocos Nucifera, alloxan
INTRODUCTION
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an endocrine /metabolic syndrome resulting from absolute or
relative deficiency of insulin and characterized by hyperglycemia, polyuria, polyphagia and
polydipsia (Edward
et al
., 1996). Associated with acute metabolic decomposition that may
lead to permanent and irreversible functional and structural changes in the cells of the body
(Edward
et al
., 1996). Complications of diabetes’ characteristically affect the eyes, kidneys,
nervous system, reproductive organs etc (Nwangwa, 2012). Diabetes mellitus is a serious
lifelong condition that affects an estimated population of about 15 millions and a third of
these goes about undiagnosed until many years after the onset (Nwangwa, 2012). It is a
group of metabolic disorders with a common biochemical manifestation; hyperglycaemia,
hence, it is thus a derangement of carbohydrate metabolism (Murray, 2000). Uncontrolled
diabetes mellitus causes varied histopathological changes in different organs (Harold, 1978;
Volume 4, September 2012
Journal of Medical and Applied Biosciences
© 2012 Cenresin Publications
www.cenresinpub.org
ISSN 2277
-
0054
17
Thomas, 1999), and incidences of diabeticneuropathy has been on the increase (Adewole
et
al
., 2006; Carrington and Litchfield, 1999; Clements and Bell, 1982). The underlying causes
of diabetic complications have been attributed to hyperglycemia which results in oxidative
stress, alterations in enzyme activities, protein glycosylation and several structural changes
(Akpan et al., 2007). Alloxan induces diabetes in experimental animals through beta cells
destruction (Singh and Gupta, 2007). It has been shown that beta cell apoptosis is related to
alloxaninduced inhibition of pancreatic glucokinase function and there is selective beta cell
loss, leading to insulinopaenic diabetes, analogous to type I diabetes (Gao et al.,2007;
Fernandes et al., 2007; Kavitha et al., 2007; Salihu
et al
2009). Plant medicine or
phytomedicine (the sum total of practices, using herbal preparations produced by physical or
biological processes, to treat diseases relying on past experience/ observations handed down
from generation to generation) has been used in healthcare delivery in many parts of Africa
and the rest of the world (Edem, 2009). Today, medicinal plants are increasingly being used
in most parts of the world as: hypolipidemic (Ugochukwu
et al
, 2003; Ogbonnia
et al
, 2008;
Yadav
et al
, 2008); contraceptive, abortifacients, emmenagogues or oxytocic (Ritchie 2001);
Among the usefulness of plants in medicine are the uses in the treatment of diabetes
mellitus. Diabetes is a major degenerative disease in the world today (Ogbonnia
et al
, 2008),
affecting at least 15 million people and having complications which include hypertension,
atherosclerosis and microcirculatory disorders. There has been increasing demand for the use
of plant products with antidiabetic activity. The high cost, low availability, uncertainty of use
during pregnancy and undesirable side effects of synthetic drugs have been some of the
factors leading to a strong preference for hypoglycaemic drugs of plant origin, which are
believed to be suitable for chronic treatments (Berger; 1985; Okigbo & Mmeka, 2006). Plants
which have been shown to have hypoglycaemic action, act on blood glucose through
different mechanisms. Some of them may inhibit endogenous glucose production (Eddouks
et
al
, 2003) or interfere with gastrointestinal glucose absorption (Musabayane
et al
2006); some
may have insulin -like substances (Collier
et al
1987; Gray and Flatt, 1999); some may inhibit
insulinase activity and some may increase secretion of insulin from the β cells of the pancreas
i.e. pancreatotrophic action (Khan
et al
,1990; Trivedi
et al.
, 2004; Yadav
et al
, 2008), while
others may increase beta cells in pancreas by activating regeneration of these cells
(Shanmugasundaram
et al
, 1990; Jelodar
et al
, 2007). Very few traditional treatments for DM
have been scientifically scrutinized hence this study.
The coconut husk being the combination of the exocarp and the mesocarp of the coconut
fruit has never been attributed with any medical value. But have been said to have the
following industrial, commercial, household and agricultural uses. It covers about 35% of the
coconut fruit.
Nature and composition of coconut husk: The coconut husk is that 5-10 cm thick
fibrous covering of the coconut fruit which envelops the hard shell structure of 3.5 mm
thickness. The external appearance of the husk varies from decidedly dull brown when fully
Emojevwe Victor & Jeroh E
Anti Diabetic Effects of the Cocos nucifera (Coconut) Husk Extract
18
ripe to bright green when immature. There are other varieties whose husks are golden
yellow or yellow brown. The husk is full of long, coarse fibres, all running in one direction.
The fibres are embedded in a matrix of material called coir dust. Since husks are porous,
they absorb or retain water (
Tejano 1985
).
METHODOLOGY
Preparation of the coconut husk tea: A dry coconut husk was cooked for 45 minutes in a
gas stove flame at a 100 degree Celsius. After cooking, the fluid if filtered out and kept as
the tea for the experiment
The animal procedure was carried out according to the guidelines of Delta state university,
Abraka, Nigeria, and Medical Ethics Committee for the use of experimental animals in
research. Twenty one (21) Male Wistar rats weighing between 170 - 200 g were randomly
divided into four (n=7) groups after allowing the rats to acclimatize for seven days in the
animal house of the Department of Anatomy.
Each group were kept in separate cages which were cleaned daily and washed weekly with
proper identification with 12:12 hour light and dark cycle, at 25
0
C ± 2
0
C. They were allowed
access to water ad libitum and normal rat chow with standard composition supplied by Pfizer
Nigeria Ltd. Warri. All the rats in the experimental groups were made diabetic by
intraperitoneal administration of 150 mg/kg of alloxan (Katsumata et al., 1992; Katsumata et
al., 1993) and 48 h later, blood glucose oxidase strip was used to confirm the diabetic levels
of the rats using blood samples collected from the tails of the rats. The control group was
given 2 ml of 0.9% (normal) saline daily, group II was given 2 ml of the coconut husk tea
only daily while group III was given 1g of Daonil and 4g of Mephomine daily. At the end of
the experiments the animals were sacrificed and the pancreas was extracted and
histopathological slides were prepared. All the substances were given for five days by Oro-
gastric tube. The random blood sugar was measured daily in the rats and values recorded
using the strip testing method and The weight of the rats were checked daily and
documented using a digital electronic weighing balance. Histological slides prepared
according to the international research standard. For statistical data comparisons, data were
evaluated by one way ANOVA and Student
t
-Test. All values are given as mean ± SD with n
values indicating the number of subjects analyzed. P<0.05 are considered significant.
RESULTS
There was an initial inactivity in the rats following administration of the extract mixture and
their appetite was low except for the control group. There were weight changes within the
experimental groups and the control (Table 1). The blood glucose levels of the rats at the
start to the end of the experiment for the groups are given in Table 2. The histopathology of
the pancreas is shown in figure 1, 2 and 3 and 4 with figure 1 showing the normal non-
diabetic pancreas
Volume 4, September 2012
Journal of Medical and Applied Biosciences
... Also, antioxidant is important for protecting the body from cardiovascular and metabolism of cholesterol, and bile acids [8]. Consumption of "coconut husk tea" is good as an antidiabetes and hypoglycemia [20]. Ezquenazi et al. (2002) reported that, coconut husk extract has a capability as an anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and traditional treatment for diarrhea [21]. ...
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“Cungap” red (CR) coconut is an exotic coconut that has specific characters, i.e. the husk contains high antioxidant components. The study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical and phytochemical characteristics of CR coconut (husk, kernel, and water). Tender and mature CR coconut fruits were collected from farmers at Sukarena Village, Ciomas District, Serang Regency, Banten Province. The mature nuts were evaluated for the physicochemical characteristics (moisture, protein, ash, fat and fatty acids profile). Vitamins and minerals were measured from the young coconut water. Anthocyanin and β-carotene were analysed from the tender nuts (husk, meat, and water). The results showed that CR kernel contained 8.35% of water, 2.02% of ash, 7.13% of protein, and 60.09% of fat. The medium-chain fatty acids were mainly from the coconut kernel fat (52.55%). Lauric acid was the major fatty acid (45.89%). The Majority of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium) contained in the coconut water; potassium content was the highest (289.95 mg/100 ml). The β-carotene content in the husk and kernel were 18.43/100g and 1.28 mg/100g, respectively. Also, the anthocyanin contents in the husk, kernel, and coconut water were 8.01 mg/100 g, 1.5 mg/100 g, and 0.8 mg/100 g, respectively. The study implies that CR coconut is potential as anthocyanin, β-carotene, and mineral sources for human health.
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Coconut testa and tender coconut water (TCW) are by-products of coconut processing industries which are rich in natural phytonutrients, if not exploited properly it may add up to environmental pollution. In the current study, phenolic concentrate (PHE) from coconut testa and tender coconut water (TCW) concentrates were examined for their effect on high fat fed C57BL/6 mice at the level of 50 & 100 mg and 500 & 1000 mg/kg body weight respectively. Results showed increasing body weight in high fat fed animals when compared to starch fed control (ND/SFD) group. Treatment with concentrates of PHE and TCW reduced their body weight dose dependently. Lipid profile like triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL levels were significantly decreased, whereas HDL levels increased, indicating its health beneficial effect. Catalase, SOD, GPx, TBARS in tissues, analysis of OGTT, serum insulin levels, advance glycation and atherogenic protection were augmented at different levels in the treated groups. In conclusion, phenolic concentrate prepared from the coconut testa and tender coconut water concentrate revealed their hypolipidemic property which can be exploited further in the development of health foods.
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