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Abstract

The aim of this study was to explore the impact of training and development on employee performance. This study conducted under the framework of banking sector of Pakistan. Study finding reveal development leads to better employee performance, training and development both increase the employee performance. Organizations need to spend on training and development of its employees for sustainable long term competitive edge.
IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM)
e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 20, Issue 7. Ver. IV(July. 2018), PP 20-23
www.iosrjournals.org
DOI: 10.9790/487X-2007042023 www.iosrjournals.org 20 | Page
The Impact of Training and Development on Employee Performance:
1Waqar Younas, 2Muhammad Farooq,3Faisal Khalil-Ur-Rehman,
4Aneeqa Zreen
Abstract: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of training and development on employee performance. This study
conducted under the framework of banking sector of Pakistan. Study finding reveal development leads to better employee
performance, training and development both increase the employee performance. Organizations need to spend on training
and development of its employees for sustainable long term competitive edge.
Key Words: Training, Development, Employee Performance, Banking
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Date of Submission: 29-06-2018 Date of acceptance: 17-07-2018
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I. Introduction
Human resources have played a significant role in the economic development in most developed countries such as
United States of America, Britain and Japan. it can, therefore be concluded that a developing country like Pakistan, with its
rich natural resources and the necessary financial support can also experience such economic success if the appropriate
attention is given to the development and training of his human resource.
It is thus seen that in Pakistan the organizations are taking adequate steps to ensure that people acquire the
necessary knowledge and skills. Organizations make necessary to provide long term and systematic training and
development programs for their employees. This is because every aspect and activity of an organization involves people. For
instance, a manager in an organization will not be successful until he has subordinates beneath him who are well equipped
with skills, talent and knowledge because the increasing diversity of today‟s workforce brings a wide variety of languages
and environments. When the employee of the company lacks training he or she losses skills that are necessary to
communicate and enhance their performance. Trained employees are well equipped with the knowledge and tools to perform
the job. Untrained employees are not able to adopt the changes that take place inside or outside the organization.
Training and development are the processes of investing in people so that they are equipped to perform. These
processes are part of an overall human resource management approach that hope fully will result in people being motivated
to perform. It goes without saying therefore that the training and development of employees is an issue that has to be faced
by every organization. However, the amount, quality and quantity of training carried out vary enormously from organization
to organization. Organizations have to train their employees very well.
Research Question and objective of the study
To what extent training and development lead to better employee performance?
There are following objectives of the study:
1) To identify major purposes of training and development
2) To ascertain training and development policies in operations of the organizations
3) Finding impact of training and development on employee performance
II. Literature Review
Training is of growing importance to companies and is a tool by which organizations can build a more committed
and productive workforce (Brum, 2007). Continuous training and development of human resource is very crucial and vital
because training and development are very important in a world where technological advancement is very rapid and is very
important for any organization‟s success (Laing, 2009). Gap between given performance and desired performance can be
diminished by providing effective training to employees (Bossche, Segers and Jansen, 2010). Organizations, which give
training and development opportunities to their employees, can get high results because training and development play an
important role in employee performance (Saleem, Shahid & Naseem, 2011). Employee development can boom
organization‟s performance. By developing employees; employee learning, skill growth, self direction and employee attitude
enhance organization‟s performance (Hameed & Waheed, 2011). For any organization, training is considered to be of very
much importance in order to achieve excellence and competencies (Akhter, Ali, Sadaqat and Hafeez, 2011). Due to
weaknesses of vocational training and educational systems in some countries, companies have to increase their budgets for
training and development (Vo and Hannif, 2012).
III. Theoretical Framework
Three variables are used in this study for fulfilling the purpose of the study, which are; training and development
as independent variables which affect employee performance which is independent variable.
There are three variables influence transfer of training are trainee characteristics, training design and work
environment (Baldwin and Ford, 1988). Training improves individual and organizational performance and assists an agency
in achieving its mission and performance goals (human resources division, eastern services branch, afm/ars, 1998). Training
is of growing importance which is helpful for gaining advantage among competitors (Brum, 2007).
The Impact of Training and Development on Employee Performance:
DOI: 10.9790/487X-2007042023 www.iosrjournals.org 21 | Page
There is a huge need of career development programs since the new century started and the number of
organizations using them has steadily increased since the mid 1970s, as more organizations strive to meet needs of their
employees (Merchant, 1995). Quality development through training is a major factor determining long term profitability and
optimum performance of the organization (Laing, 2009). For the sake of learning and, employees should participate in many
other activities such as seminars, workshops and other training sessions, either on the job or off the job. This will definitely
lead to employee development which will lead to better employee performance (Hameed and Waheed, 2011).
Employee performance can be increased by effective management because human resource has been vital for
sustained performance (Pfeffer, 1998). Employee performance is affected by performance management in certain
organizations but not in all (Azmi, Ahmad and Zainuddin, 2009).
Quality development through training is a major factor determining long term profitability and optimum
performance of the organization (Laing, 2009). Employee performance has been increased by training and development
which enhances job satisfaction and productivity of the organization (Saleem, Shahid & Naseem, 2011). Training and
development have positive impact on employee performance (Ghafoor, Ahmed and Aslam 2011).
Based on the previous discussion, the research frame work for the study can be represented as in following
diagram. Diagram suggests that there is a relationship of training and development with employee performance.
Study Design
Training affects employee performance: the close alignment of training with development of skills and
competencies that are strategically important to the business seems to enhance the value of the training (Coony, Terzioski
and Samson, 2002). Few people argue that training is of very much importance as it has a major influence on the success of
the organization. Employees are important but expensive. For gaining optimal growth rate in the industry it is important to
optimize the contribution of employees to the aims and goals of the organization (Laing, 2009).
Although in this study it is very well exposed that training has an impact on employee performance. Thus, the null
hypothesis proposed that training does not affect employee performance for achieving organizational goals. An alternative
hypothesis might be:
H1 = Training leads to better employee performance
Development affects employee performance: multiple factors can affect learner‟s commitment to the process such
as the quality of learner and coach relationship, learner‟s comfort with the process and learner‟s motivation to change
behavior and improve performance (Alexander, 2006). When organizations contribute toward the development of their
employees, employees work hard; utilize their full skills and efforts to achieve organizational goals (Hameed and Waheed,
2011). For checking the relationship between development and employee performance, null hypothesis will be: there is no
relationship between employee development and employee performance, but the alternative hypothesis is as follows:
H2 = Development lead to better employee performance
Combined impact of training and development on employee performance: There is one major area in human
resource management that is training and development. Adequate supply of trained, competent and capable staff is ensured
by effective training and staff becomes hungry for career development into specialist departments and management positions
(Laing, 2009). A good training and development ensures that employees can understand business and position of the
organization and keeps learning skills that are necessary to perform their day to day functions that bring confidence and
improved performance (Saleem, Shahid & Naseem, 2011).
As mixed findings are observed in the field experiment so the null hypothesis would be; training and development does not
have positive relationship with the employee performance. Alternative hypothesis would be:
H3 = Training and development lead to better employee performance
The purpose of study is to find answers of questions. Hypothesis testing is in this study we will check the
relationships between different variables; training, development, and motivation and employee performance. In this study
differences among independent and dependent variables are explained.
A study in which researcher want to define the cause of one or more problems is called causal study (Sekaran and
Bougie, Research Methods for Business, 5th Edition). Type of investigation is causal because we will check the relationship
between all variables to know that whether they relate each other or not and how one variable changes due to other.
Studies conducted to establish cause and effect relationships using natural environments in which employees
normally function are called field experiments (Sekaran and Bougie, Research Methods for Business, 5th Edition). Study is a
field experiment. Primary research is conducted by going to field and receiving responses from related respondents by
questionnaires.
Study is conducted on individuals because the purpose of study is to know and judge behavior of employees
regarding training, development, and motivation and employee performance. Each employee‟s response will be treated as
The Impact of Training and Development on Employee Performance:
DOI: 10.9790/487X-2007042023 www.iosrjournals.org 22 | Page
individual data source as taken in earlier studies(Ahmed et al. 2014; Dastisheh and Farooq 2018; Farooq et al. 2018; Farooq
and Jabbar 2014; Irshad, Madeeha; Farooq 2015; Irshad, Madeeha 2014; Yasmin and Buzdar 2018; Younas, Farooq, and
Khalil-ur-rehman 2018; Zreen, Farooq, and Yasmin 2018).
The study in which data is gathered only once, perhaps over a period of days, weeks, months or years in order to
answer a questionnaire regarding research (Sekaran and Bougie, Research Methods for Business, 5th Edition). Study is cross
sectional. Questionnaires will be filled by respondents only once for whole time period of study.
Entire group of people, events or things in which researcher is interested is known as population.
Employees of whole banking sector of Pakistan are taken as population
Sampling frame is a representation of all the elements of a population from which sample is drawn (Sekaran and Bougie,
Research Methods for Business, 5th Edition).
In this case sample frame is taken from employee data base form.
Stratified sampling technique of probability sampling is used as sampling method in which number of elements is
selected by proportionate sampling. Every head office of all banks in throughout Pakistan is taken as stratified sample
(stratum) and employees from all levels are taken by proportionate sampling who have equal chances of being selected by
simple random sampling. A sample size of 500 employees was taken. Questionnaire was filled and out of 500
questionnaires only 350 were reliable.
IV. Results and Findings:
In our study, we had three variables; development, training and employee performance. Development and training
were identified as independent variable and employee performance as dependent variable. 500 questionnaires were used as
respondents. SPSS-16 was used for the analysis purpose. Results showed that in development, minimum respondents chose
option 1 (strongly disagree) and maximum chose 5 (strongly agree) whereas mean and standard deviation was 3.43 and
0.793 respectively. As far as training is concerned, minimum chose option 2 (disagree) and maximum chose option 5
(strongly agree). Mean and deviation from mean was 3.48 and 0.662 respectively. In case of organizational performance,
minimum number of respondents chose option 2 (disagree) and maximum chose option 5 (strongly agree). Mean and
standard deviation was 3.53 and 0.693 respectively. [Table 1]
As conducted in earlier studies (Buzdar, Janjua, and Khurshid 2016; Farooq and Jabbar 2014) Correlation between
development and employee performance was calculated and it was found “0.540” at 0.01 level of significance, which shows
that there is a partial development between development and employee performance. [Table 2]
After that the effect of training was checked. Before training, R2 was 0.472 whereas after the effect of training, R2
was observed as 0.479. There was a change in R2 of 0.007. Change in level of significance was 0.422. As it was less than
0.05. [Table 3]
V. Conclusion
There is a relationship between training, development and employee performance. From all the study we have
reached at a decision that training and development have positive impact on employee performance. Our all hypothesis have
resulted as correct. We have proved that training lead to better employee performance (H1). Development lead to better
employee performance (H2) and training and development both affect employee performance in a positive sense (H3).
Organizations spending a lot of money on training and development have gained a reasonable employee output.
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Performance in the Telecom Industry.” International Journal of Services and Operations Management 25(3):334. Retrieved
(http://www.inderscience.com/link.php?id=79516).
[29]. Dastisheh, Ashkan and Muhammad Farooq. 2018. “Antecedents of Employees ‟ Performance in Malaysia IT Industries.” 20(7):52–
60.
[30]. Farooq, Muhammad and Zeenat Jabbar. 2014. “Role of Word of Mouth in Building CBBE.” Elixir Marketing Mgmt. 73 (2014)
26443-26447 73:2644347. Retrieved (http://www.elixirpublishers.com/articles/1408768877_73 (2014) 26443-26447.pdf).
[31]. Farooq, Muhammad, Aneeqa Zareen, Faisal Khalil-ur-, and Mst Nilufar Yasmin. 2018. “Impact of Digitalization on Holy Quran
Readers ; Experience and Expectations.” 23(7):59–67.
[32]. Irshad, Madeeha; Farooq, M. .. 2015. “Effect of Brand Tribalism on Customer Loyalty.” Jurnal GMP Review of Marketing.
Retrieved (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285322441).
[33]. Irshad, Madeeha, Muhammad Farooq. 2014. “An Analysis of the Difference in the Affective Loyalty of Members and Non
Members of a Loyalty Program: Case Study of Shoes and Handbag Retail Outlets of Pakistan.” Retrieved
(https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285322447).
[34]. Yasmin, Nilufar and Farooq Buzdar. 2018. “Role of Social Media in Success of Fashion Products : A Malaysian Consumers Role of
Social Media in Success of Fashion Products : A Malaysian Consumers Perspective.” (July).
[35]. Younas, Waqar, Muhammad Farooq, and Faisal Khalil-ur-rehman. 2018. “Role of Celebrities in Creation of Brand Image.”
20(7):6770.
[36]. Zreen, Aneeqa, Muhammad Farooq, and Mst Nilufar Yasmin. 2018. “Antecedents of Employee Performance : A Case Study of
Pakistan Telecom Sector.” 20(7):61–66.
Index
Table 02
1 Waqar Younas "The Impact of Training and Development on Employee Performance: "IOSR
Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) 20.7 (2018): 20-23
... Examples of these drivers are employee training, employee motivation, employee performance appraisal, employee development, as well as other variables like leadership styles and citizenship behavior (Mukhlis et al., 2022;Sandhu et al., 2017;Atatsi et al., 2019;Diamantidis & Chatzoglou, 2019;Bedarkar & Pandita, 2014;Iqbal, Anwar & Haider, 2015). Specifically, scholars highlighted the importance of human resource management (HRM) practices as pivotal antecedents of employee performance (Younas et al., 2018;Ozkeser, 2019;Diamantidis & Chatzoglou 2019;Lumunon et al., 2021). In the digitization era, HRM practices are implemented using digital means, which means utilizing the Internet and technology applications to perform human resource functions (Halid et al., 2020). ...
... According to Lumunon et al. (2021), employee training, digital transformation, and work motivation have significant effects on employee performance. The results of some studies met the first condition in terms of the significant effect of employee training on employee motivation (Ozkeser, 2019), the second condition in which EM was assumed to exert a significant effect on JP (Diamantidis & Chatzoglou, 2019), in addition to the third condition in which employee training was supposed to show a significant effect on JP (Younas et al., 2018). Consequently, the following hypothesis was postulated: ...
... That is, employee motivation mediates the effect of digital training on job performance, as well as employee motivation mediates the effect of digital performance appraisal on job performance. These results found an empirical base in previous studies like Sandhu et al. (2017), Younas et al. (2018), and Ozkeser (2019) who showed a significant part of employee training in employee motivation enhancement, therefore, employee performance. Lumunon et al. (2021) found that employee training and employee motivation are significantly and positively associated with employee performance. ...
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... Training offers a paramount opportunity to strengthen employee knowledge, skill and talent (Younas, Farooq, Khalil, & Zreen, 2018;Khan, 2012). The employees who undergo the necessary and appropriate training are more likely to do their job effectively (Bhat, 2013;Mahadevan & Yap, 2019;Sasidaran, 2018). ...
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... This is supported by the explanation that has been applied in sections a, b, and c previously regarding the interpretation of the results of work engagement research on performance, training on performance, and career development on performance. Research with the same results was found by(Erisman, 2019) who found a positive effect of job involvement and job training on performance together, and by(Younas, 2018)who found a positive effect of training and career development on performance. Description of Work Involvement, Training, Career Development, and Employee Performance of LAPAN Orkum HR Bureau concluded. ...
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