Article

Two new species of cave-adapted pseudoscorpions (Pseudoscorpiones: Neobisiidae, Chthoniidae) from Guangxi, China

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  • Xinzhou Teachers University
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Abstract

Two new troglomorphic pseudoscorpion species, Bisetocreagris maomaotou sp. nov. (Family Neobisiidae) and Tyrannochthonius chixingi sp. nov. (Family Chthoniidae) are described from one cave in the tower karst of northern Guangxi Province, China. This cave is located at close proximity to a village and an adjacent urban area. As with many caves in the South China Karst, this feature occurs at an elevation slightly above agriculture and rural activities; thus, we suggest it may be partially buffered from human activities in the lowland areas. We discuss the likelihood of narrow range endemism and provide research and conservation recommendations to guide future management of these two species.

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... To date, 33 cave-dwelling pseudoscorpion species, representing three families (Chthoniidae, Neobisiidae, Chernetidae), have been described from China. Among them, eight species are known from Yunnan (Schawaller 1995;Mahnert 2003Mahnert , 2009Mahnert and Li 2016;Gao et al. 2017;Li et al. 2017;Gao et al. 2018;Li et al. 2019;Feng et al. 2020;Gao et al. 2020;Zhang et al. 2020). ...
... This genus can be diagnosed as follows (see Material and methods for explanation of abbreviations): trichobothrium sb situated midway between st and b, or closer to st; trichobothria ib and isb situated close together in a median or sub-basal position on the dorsum of the chelal hand; chelal hand not distally constricted and the movable finger without a complex or strongly sclerotized apodeme at the base; fixed finger usually with one large, medial acuminate spine-like seta at its base, but can be reduced or absent in some cave-dwelling species; coxal spines generally long and present on coxae II only; epistome pointed, triangular or rounded, inconspicuous and usually with 2 closelyflanking setae at its base (Chamberlin 1962;Muchmore 1984Muchmore , 1991Muchmore and Chamberlin 1995;Edward and Harvey 2008). So far, nine species and one subspecies of this genus have been described from China, of which six are exclusively known from karst caves: T. akaelus Mahnert, 2009 from Sichuan, T. ganshuanensis Mahnert, 2009 from Sichuan and Hubei, T. antridraconis Mahnert, 2009 from Sichuan, T. chixingi Gao, Wynne & Zhang, 2018 from Guangxi, T. harveyi Chen, 2020 andT. zhai Gao, Zhang &Chen, 2020 from Guizhou. ...
... zhai Gao, Zhang &Chen, 2020 from Guizhou. All species are troglobites without eyes (Mahnert 2009;Gao et al. 2018;Gao et al. 2020;WPC 2022). ...
Article
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Two new cave-adapted pseudoscorpion species belonging to the family Chthoniidae are described: Tyrannochthonius pandus sp. nov. from Biyu Cave (Yunnan: Luxi) and Lagynochthonius laoxueyanensis sp. nov. from Laoxueyan Cave (Yunnan: Yanshan). Both of them, collected from the dark zone of caves, are highly troglomorphic species.
... The pseudoscorpion family Chthoniidae Daday, 1888, containing three subfamilies, Chthoniinae Daday, 1888, Tridenchthoniinae Balzan, 1892 and Lechtyiinae Harvey, 1992, currently includes approximately 50 genera and 746 described species (Harvey, 2013;Zhang & Zhang, 2014;Gao et al., 2018;Benavides et al. 2019;Harvey, pers. comm.). ...
... comm.). Among them, four genera and 17 species are known from China (Schawaller, 1995;Harvey, 2013;Gao et al., 2018;Li et al., 2019). Members of this family are typically found in leaf litter, soil, under rocks and stones, but many species are also troglobitic and found in caves and karst systems across the world (Harvey, 2013). ...
... The genus Tyrannochthonius Chamberlin, 1929, belonging to the subfamily Chthoniinae and the tribe Tyrannochthoniini Chamberlin 1962, is very diverse with more than 140 recognized species from all continents except Antarctica (Harvey, 2013). So far, eight species and one subspecies of this genus have been described from China, of which four are exclusively known from karst caves: T. akaelus , T. ganshuanensis Mahnert, 2009, T. antridraconis Mahnert, 2009and T. chixingi Gao, Wynne & Zhang, 2018Harvey, 2013;Gao et al., 2018). ...
Article
Two new troglomorphic pseudoscorpion species, Tyrannochthonius harveyi, sp. nov. and Tyrannochthonius zhai, sp. nov., are described from the dark zone of caves in the tower karst of the Guizhou Province in China. Both species are presently known only from single caves and are likely to have very restricted distribution ranges.
... Most studies of cave-dwelling arthropods have focused on the extensive South China Karst, which encompasses four administrative provinces in southern China and contains thousands of caves. To date, at least 301 cave-dwelling arthropod species have been identified from this region (Tian & Clarke 2012;Ran & Yang 2015;Gao et al. 2018;Liu & Wynne 2019). Our knowledge of northern cave-dwelling arthropods is limited primarily to the Beijing area. ...
... Until now, there have not been any documented cases of subterranean-adapted pseudoscorpions in northern China, and our knowledge has been limited to 20 troglomorphic pseudoscorpion species (Families Chthoniidae, Neobisiidae and Chernetidae) from southern China (Schawaller 1995;Mahnert 2003Mahnert , 2009Mahnert & Li 2016;Gao et al. 2017;Li et al. 2017;Gao et al. 2018). ...
... While Magang Cave is much further from human activities (1 km), this cave was also recently visited by humans. Gao et al. (2018) proposed several community-based conservation measures for caves in the Guangxi Province, which may also be applicable in the north. These measures include outreach activities to educate villagers, school children and tourists concerning the fragility of cave biological resources, as well as posting educational signs discussing the sensitivity of these resources both within the villages and potentially at proximity to the cave entrances. ...
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Two new troglomorphic pseudoscorpion species, Parobisium magangensis sp. n. and P. yuantongi sp. n., belonging to the family Neobisiidae, are described based on specimens collected in karst caves from Beijing, China. These are the first troglomorphic pseudoscorpions discovered from caves in northern China. Detailed diagnosis, descriptions, and illustrations are provided. We also offer future research and management recommendations for these two new pseudoscorpion species.
... At least 100 troglomorphic (subterranean-adapted) arthropods have been identified from Guangxi (Wynne, unpublished data). Most have been identified as short-range endemic species (Tian 2011, Deharveng et al. 2008) with more than half (or 58 species) considered single cave endemics (Gao et al. 2018). ...
... Three additional subterranean-adapted species occurred in multiple caves with maximum distances ranging from 81.27 and 137.6 km ( Table 3). As many troglomorphic arthropods are identified as short-range endemic species, occurring in a single cave or geological formation (Reddell 1994, Culver et al. 2000, Christman et al. 2005, Deharveng et al. 2008, Tian 2011, Harvey and Wynne 2014, Gao et al. 2018, Nitzu et al. 2018 and that rivers and valleys/ lowland areas often result in vicariance (Barr 1985, Faille et al. 2015, Katz et al. 2018, the genetic relatedness of at least these three species should be further examined using genetic techniques. While these species may be morphological similar, we suggest they may be genetically distinct -potentially representing different subspecies or lineages. ...
... This paper revealed that at least 38 troglomorphic millipede species occur in Guangxi. Other examples of SCK's high cave diversity includes at least 19 species of troglomorphic pseudoscorpions (Gao et al. 2018), 29 vascular plant species believed restricted to cave entrances (Monro et al. 2018), and the richest globally diversity of cavefishes with at least 154 species and nearly half of these species considered single cave endemics (Zhao et al. Accepted). ...
Preprint
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We synthesized the current knowledge of cave-dwelling millipede diversity from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi), South China Karst, China and described six new millipede species from four caves from the Guilin area, northeastern Guangxi. Fifty-two cave-dwelling millipedes are known for the region consisting of 38 troglobionts and 14 troglophiles. Of the troglobionts, 24 are presently considered single-cave endemics. New species described here include Hyleoglomeris rukouqu sp. nov. and Hyleoglomeris xuxiakei sp. nov. (Family Glomeridae), Hylomus yuani sp. nov. (Family Paradoxosomatidae), Eutrichodesmus jianjia sp. nov. (Family Haplodesmidae), Trichopeltis liangfengdong sp. nov. (Family Cryptodesmidae), and Glyphiulus maocun sp. nov. (Family Cambalopsidae). Our work also resulted in range expansions of Pacidesmus trifidus Golovatch & Geoffroy, 2014, Blingulus sinicus Zhang & Li, 1981 and Glyphiulus melanoporus Mauriès & Nguyen Duy-Jacquemin, 1997. As with many hypogean animals in Southeast Asia, intensive human activities threaten the persistence of both cave habitats and species. We provide both assessments on the newly described species’ distributions and recommendations for future research and conservation efforts.
... Since 2017, 39 new subterranean-adapted species across several taxonomic arthropod groups have been described (Gao et al. 2017;Huang et al. 2017;Li and Wang 2017;Song et al. 2017;Tian et al. 2017Tian et al. , 2018Deuve and Tian 2018;Li et al. 2019a). Overall, at least 382 cave-dwelling arthropod species are now known from this region (Ran and Yang 2015;Tian et al. 2016;Li and Wang 2017;Gao et al. 2018;Feng et al. 2019;Li et al. 2019b;Liu and Wynne 2019). Incidentally, this work has also resulted in the identi cation of at least 21 troglomorphic pseudoscorpion species (refer to Feng et al. 2019;Li et al. 2019b). ...
... In the last 25 years, cave-dwelling pseudoscorpions from China, speci cally in Guizhou, Yunnan, Guangxi, Sichuan, and Hubei Provinces, and Beijing and Chongqing Municipalities, total at least 29 pseudoscorpion species (Schawaller 1995;Mahnert 2003Mahnert , 2009Mahnert and Li 2016;Gao et al. 2017;Gao et al. 2018;Feng et al. 2019;Li et al. 2019; Table 1). Of these, 23 are troglobionts and six are troglophiles (Table 1). ...
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We summarize and discuss the 29 known cave-dwelling pseudoscorpion species from China. Four new troglomorphic pseudoscorpion species, Parobisium motianense sp. nov., P. qiangzhuang sp. nov., P. san- louense sp. nov., and P. tiani sp. nov., belonging to the family Neobisiidae, are described based on speci- mens collected in karst caves in Guizhou, China. Detailed diagnosis, descriptions, and illustrations are presented. We also provide recommendations for management of caves where they occur, as well as the cave arthropod communities and the habitats that support them.
... Describiendo nuevas especies de artrópodos utilizando sólo un espécimen macho y mediante comparación con otros tres congéneres regionales, se ha determinado que este coleóptero estafilínido tenía ojos reducidos. Dadas las dificultades de acceso a muchas cavidades en general, no es infrecuente el que se describa una nueva especie con un único espécimen (por ejemplo, Harvey y Wynne 2014; Bernard et al. 2015;Gao et al. 2018). La recolección de especímenes adicionales en Sima GESM sería beneficiosa para mejorar la descripción de esta especie con nuevos datos de los caracteres utilizados originalmente para describir a los machos, así como la información requerida para definir caracteres morfométricos relevantes para la hembra. ...
... Para mejorar las tasas de captura de coleópteros, recomendamos el uso de trampas de "pitfall" con cebo. En cuanto a estimar la diversidad de escarabajos, Wynne et al. (2018) se han basado solamente en técnicas de búsqueda visual, que detectarían sólo en torno al 30% de los escarabajos que se podrían capturar si se utilizasen trampas de caída con cebo. Las nueve especies de escarabajos detectados en este estudio se identificaron con un solo ejemplar por especie. ...
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Este trabajo representa el primer inventario, a gran escala, de la biología de las cuevas del Parque Natural de la Sierra de las Nieves, Andalucía, España. Se han muestreado siete cavidades, de las cuales tres se localizan a cota relativamente baja, a una altura media de unos 1000 m.s.n.m., mientras las otras cuatro se localizan a una cota relativamente alta, con una altura media de 1600 m.s.n.m. Se han identificado, de modo preliminar, al menos 40 morfoespecies y 13 grupos taxonómicos a escala general (esto es, categorías taxonómicas de nivel orden o superior) de artrópodos que viven en cuevas, incluyendo la especie relicta de colémbolo Onychiurus gevorum Arbea 2012. Los murciélagos se detectaron en dos de las tres cuevas de cota baja; una colonia de murciélagos, posiblemente Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Schreber, 1774), consistente en aproximadamente 100 individuos que se vio en una de las cuevas; y un murciélago (Myotis sp.) que se encontró aletargado en otra cavidad. El sapo común (Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758)) se ha encontrado en dos de las cuevas de cota baja. Se proponen recomendaciones para desarrollar una investigación complementaria que ayude a la gestión futura de estos recursos biológicos.
... At present, 31 cave-dwelling pseudoscorpion species have been described from China, including the two new species reported in this study. Among them, Neobisiidae accounts for 64.5%, Chthoniidae and Chernetidae account for 22.6% and 12.9% respectively (Mahnert 2003(Mahnert , 2009Mahnert & Li 2016;Gao & Zhang 2017;Gao et al. 2018;Li et al. 2017Li et al. , 2019Feng et al. 2019Feng et al. , 2020. Fewer chthoniids and chernetids are reported probably because they are much smaller and difficult to detect. ...
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Two new species of troglomorphic pseudoscorpions of the family Neobisiidae, collected from karst caves in Yunnan, China, are described: Parobisium laevigatum sp. n. and P. muchonggouense sp. n.. A key to the Parobisium species from China is also provided.
... Given the difficulties in access to many cave sites, it is not uncommon to describe a new species with only one specimen (e.g., Harvey & Wynne 2014;Bernard et al. 2015;Gao et al. 2018). Because it is identified as cave-adapted, D. gevia should be considered a management concern species. ...
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Aim: Identify the optimal combination of sampling techniques to maximize the detection of diversity of cave-dwelling arthropods. Location: Central-western New Mexico; northwestern Arizona; Rapa Nui, Chile. Methods: From 26 caves across three geographically distinct areas in the Western Hemisphere, arthropods were sampled using opportunistic collecting, timed searches, and baited pitfall trapping in all caves, and direct intuitive searches and bait sampling at select caves. To elucidate the techniques or combination of techniques for maximizing sampling completeness and efficiency, we examined our sampling results using nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), analysis of similarity (ANOSIM), Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, species richness estimators and species accumulation curves. Results: To maximize the detection of cave-dwelling arthropod species, one must apply multiple sampling techniques and specifically sample unique microhabitats. For example, by sampling cave deep zones and nutrient resource sites, we identified several undescribed cave-adapted and/or cave-restricted taxa in the southwestern United States and eight new species of presumed cave-restricted arthropods on Rapa Nui that would otherwise have been missed. Sampling techniques differed in their detection of both management concern species (e.g., newly discovered cave-adapted/restricted species, range expansions of cave-restricted species and newly confirmed alien species) and specific taxonomic groups. Spiders were detected primarily with visual search techniques (direct intuitive searches, opportunistic collecting and timed searches), while most beetles were detected using pitfall traps. Each sampling technique uniquely identified species of management concern further strengthening the importance of a multi-technique sampling approach. Main conclusions: Multiple sampling techniques were required to best characterize cave arthropod diversity. For techniques applied uniformly across all caves, each technique uniquely detected between ~40% and 67% of the total species observed. Also, sampling cave deep zones and nutrient resource sites was critical for both increasing the number of species detected and maximizing the likelihood of detecting management concern species.
Article
Two new pseudoscorpion species of Bisetocreagris Ćurčić, 1983, B. guangshanensis sp. nov. and B. gracilenta sp. nov., belonging to the family Neobisiidae, are described based on specimens collected in karst caves in Guizhou Province, China. Detailed diagnosis, descriptions, and illustrations are presented.
Article
Four new species of the genus Bisetocreagris Ćurčić are described from caves in the provinces of Guizhou (B. chtianensis n. sp.), Sichuan (B. baozinensis n. sp., B. jiianxtiae n. sp., and Bisetocreagris sp.) and Chongqing (B. cavernarum n. sp.). On the basis of the trichobothrial pattern and the apparent fragility of the galea in this group, the following species are transferred to Bisetocreagris: Parobisium martii Mahnert, 2003, P. titanium Mahnert, 2003, P. scaurum Mahnert, 2003, and Stenohya chinacavernicola Schawaller, 1995.
Article
Four new species of the genus Bisetocreagris are described from China, prov. Guizhou (B.chuanensis n.sp.), Sichuan (N. baozinensis n.sp., B. juanxuae n.sp.) and Chongqing (B. cavernarum n.sp.). The following species are transferred to Bisetocreagris: Parobisium martii Mahnert, P. titanium Mahnert, P. scaurum Mahnert, and Stenohya chinacavernicola Schawaller.
Article
Pseudoscorpions were first reported in China when Balzan (1892) recorded Chelifer (Chelifer) pekinensis Balzan (since removed to the genus Withius Kew (Beier, 1932)) and Microcreagris gigas Balzan. Schawaller (1995) reviewed the state of knowledge of the pseudoscorpion fauna of China (excluding Taiwan) and cited 47 taxa. Song (1996) recorded five soil pseudoscorpions, with simple descriptions and illustrations, some of which have been transferred to other genera or synonymized. Since then, there have been few papers about the systematics of Chinese pseudoscorpions, except for the ten new cave-dwelling species described by Mahnert (2003) and Mahnert (2009). To date, 63 species and 7 subspecies have been reported in China (including Taiwan and Tibet) (Harvey, 2009, Mahnert, 2009). Obviously, this diversity pales in comparison to the nearly 3400 species known globally and must represent only a fraction of the true diversity considering the huge area of China. Therefore, further investigations of pseudoscorpion taxonomy from the vast and remote areas of China are badly needed.
Article
Lagynochthonius fragilis n. sp. is described from a limestone cave in the Hong Chong karst of Kien Giang Province, southern Vietnam, which is currently threatened by quarrying activities. This is the first record of a troglomorphic species of Lagynochthonius Beier, 1951 from continental Asia. The presence of chemosensory setae on the dorsum of the chelal palm is interpreted as a synapomorphy of the tribe Tyrannochthoniini Chamberlin, 1962. The New Zealand genus Maorichthonius Chamberlin, 1925 is transferred from the Chthoniini Daday, 1888 to the Tyrannochthoniini. The genus Tyrannochthoniella Beier, 1966, also endemic to New Zealand, is assigned to the tribe Chthoniini Daday, 1888. The genus Stygiochthonius Carabajal Márquez, Garcia Carrillo & Rodríguez Fernândez, 2001, from southern Spain, is synonymized with Paraliochthonius Beier, 1956 (n. subj. syn.). Five new combinations are proposed: Lagynochthonius ovatus Vitali-di Castri, 1984 (ex Tyrannochthonius); Paraliochthonius barrancoi (Carabajal Márquez, García Carrillo & Rodríguez Fernández, 2001) (ex Stygiochthonius); P. curvidigitatus (Mahnert, 1997) (ex Lagynochthonius); P. setiger (Mahnert, 1997) (ex Tyrannochthonius); and P. superstes (Mahnert, 1986) (ex Tyrannochthonius). A key is given to the genera of the Tyrannochthoniini. The parallel evolution in several groups of pseudoscorpions of a characteristic chelal morphology, here termed lagyniform, is discussed. New designations are proposed for the spot-sensilla of the chelal fingers. The so-called 'sensorium' near the tip of the fixed chelal finger of Lagynochthonius species is shown to be a modified tooth that has migrated dorsally from the dental margin. The new term rallum is introduced as a replacement for the inappropriate term 'flagellum', as applied to the cheliceral blades of pseudoscorpions. The term bothridial vestibulum is introduced for the internal cuticular sheath at the base of the bothridia of the trichobothria. Pseudoscorpion, Tyrannochthoniini, taxonomy, morphology, endangered species, cave, Vietnam, New Zealand, Spain, sensilla
Article
The new species Parobisium martii sp. n., Parobisium scaurum sp. n., Parobisium titanium sp. n., and Nudochernes lipsae sp. n. are described from caves near the city of Zhen Xiong (Yunnan), and their taxonomic positions are discussed. Parobisium titanium sp. n., with a body length of about 4.5 mm, is the pseudoscorpion species with by far the largest known pedipalpal length of about 17 mm.
Article
New species of pseudoscorpions (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones: Chthoniidae, Chernetidae) from caves in China. - Three new species are described and figured in the genus Tyrannochthonius J.C. Chamberlin (akaelus sp.n., ganshuanensis sp.n., antridraconis sp.n.), two species in the genus Megachernes Beier (glandulosus sp.n., tuberosus sp.n.) and one species of Nudochernes Beier (troglobius sp.n.). The affinities of these new taxa are discussed. They bring up to 13 the number of species currently recorded from caves in China, but this is certainly only a small proportion of the total number occurring in the numerous cave systems of this country.
Article
In the dry tropics, the main nutrient influx into caves, which occurs during monsoonal flooding, is closely simulated by the deliberate introduction of wet leaf litter into the cave environment. We describe the construction and use of a wet leaf litter trap which exploits the attractiveness of wet leaf litter to orthopteroid insects inhabiting such caves. The traps collect a greater diversity of species per unit time and a greater total number of individuals per unit time than other techniques. Apart from the efficiency of the traps they can be used to allow sampling with replacement. This technique has a minimal impact on populations of cave invertebrates, and we therefore recommend its use where sampling is likely to pose a conservation threat to the fragile cave ecosystem.
Article
We studied a variety of chthoniid pseudoscorpions collected from the semiarid zone of Western Australia. Five new species of Tyrannochthonius Chamberlin, 1929 and three new species of Lagynochthonius Beier, 1951 are named and described from the Pilbara and Gasgoyne regions, and surrounding areas such as Barrow Island. Tyrannochthonius basme, sp. nov. and Lagynochthonius asema, sp. nov. from pisolitic mesas near Pannawonica, T. garthhumphreysi, sp. nov. from limestone karst on Barrow Island, T. souchomalus, sp. nov. from calcrete deposits near Cue, T. billhumphreysi, sp. nov. and L. polydentatus, sp. nov. from a calcrete deposit on Sturt Meadows Station and L. leemouldi, sp. nov. from calcrete near Marble Bar are all considered to represent hypogean species as all exhibit typical troglomorphic adaptations including total loss of eyes and attenuated appendages. New records are provided for T. brooksi Harvey and T. butleri Harvey from Cape Range peninsula. A new epigean species, T. aridus, sp. nov., was found on Barrow Island and the Pilbara mainland. Two further putative new species based upon nymphal specimens from subterranean environments are described but not named owing to the lack of adult specimens. Although the epigean species T. aridus, sp. nov. is relatively widespread, all of the subterranean species are thought to represent short-range endemic species as they have been found at very few locations, all of which occur in localised habitats such as limestone or within mesa formations. Tyrannochthonius chamorro Chamberlin, 1947 from Guam is transferred to the genus Lagynochthonius, creating the new combination Lagynochthonius chamorro (Chamberlin 1947).
Article
Cavernicoles can be divided into 1) troglobites - obligate cave-dwellers that cannot survive outside the hypogean environment; 2) troglophiles - facultative species that live and reproduce in caves but which are found in similar dark, humid microhabitats on the surface; and 3) trogloxenes - which regularly inhabit caves for refuge but normally return to the surface to feed. Following brief comments on zoogeography, discussion centres on the nature of the subterranean biome, energy sources in caves, nutrient cycling, and behavioural responses by the arthropods. Notes are also provided on experimental work, and the need for conservation is indicated. -P.J.Jarvis
Article
Summary • Caves are arguably the hottest of the biodiversity hotspots as measured by endemism and threat, yet they receive very little attention or appropriate management. Some recent investigations in China have found that up to 90% of the animals collected in caves are new to science, yet environmental assessments for development projects in karst areas rarely if ever give attention to the cave fauna. • The lack of light, and the cave-specific conditions of humidity, air flow and source of energy have resulted in extreme adaptations among the animals living within them. • There is no government agency or non-governmental organization (NGO) on conservation concerned with caves in China or many other countries, and although there are caving expeditions, they concentrate on exploration rather than the cave fauna. • Disturbance by limestone quarrying, visitors, tourism infrastructure, and changes in water flow through, or from above, the cave can have devastating effects on the highly adapted and range-restricted fauna. • Some examples of World Bank-financed development projects which have led to cave conservation are given. • Synthesis and applications. The cave biodiversity of China and neighbouring countries is worthy of conservation and there is a huge number of nationally endemic species, most of which are unknown. Destruction or damage to caves can cause entire communities of cave species to become extinct. To address this problem, the disparate, taxon-limited specialists interested in cave fauna need to reach out to the cave exploration community, the major conservation NGOs, and the state and local conservation agencies. Those charged with the task of conserving biodiversity should give thought to how the current national protected area systems and processes manage – and fail – to address the needs of the cave fauna, and look for the means to effect the necessary changes in management, based on the peculiar ecology of caves.
Article
Aim Over 250 species of obligate terrestrial cave-dwelling animals (troglobionts) are known from single caves in the eastern United States. We investigate their geographical distribution, especially in relation to other troglobionts. We relate these patterns to taxonomic group, opportunities for dispersal and geographical location.Location Caves of the United States east of the Mississippi River.Methods We associated over 3000 records of more than 450 troglobiotic species and subspecies with hexagons of 1000, 5000 and 10,000 km2 in size. We calculated Moran's I, black–white joins and cubic regression of endemics on non-endemics at all three spatial scales. For 5000 km2 hexagons, we modelled the spatial autocorrelation of the residuals of the cubic regression of endemics on non-endemics.Results Differences among orders in percentage single-cave endemism were not significant, except for Pseudoscorpionida, which was higher (69%) than any other order. At all three scales, Moran's I and black–white joins were significant, indicating a clumped distribution of both single-cave endemics and other troglobionts. Spatial patterns were similar at all three scales and Moran's I was highest at 5000 km2. The cubic fit of endemics to non-endemics was consistently better, with less systematic error or residuals, than were linear or quadratic models. Residuals showed a significant geographical pattern with excess endemics in more southerly locations.Main conclusions There was both a non-spatial and spatial component to the pattern of single-cave endemism. The non-spatial component was the association of high levels of single-cave endemism with areas of high diversity of non-endemics. It may be that both are high because of high secondary productivity. Spatially, single-cave endemism is high in central rather than peripheral areas and in the southern part of the range. It is not higher in areas of more dissected limestone, which would reduce migration rates; if anything endemism is lower. Regional spatial effects are important, indicating that cave communities cannot be understood (or protected) in isolation.
Article
We investigated the effects of human-induced disruption in a subterranean stable environment containing valuable Palaeolithic paintings and engravings (Ardales Cave, Southern Spain) using a double analytical approach. An environmental monitoring system was installed in the cave to record temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and radon ((222)Rn) concentrations in air. In the same stations, an aerobiological sampling was conducted to quantify the level of airborne microorganisms. The combination of different methods allowed us to detect the extent of human-induced changes, confirming that these can be very hazardous in certain cave areas that should be apparently outside the scope of human disturbances, either by their remoteness to the visitor entrance or by being briefly visited. The detection of evident anomalies in the environmental parameters and airborne microorganism concentration in the cave area housing the high density of paintings and engravings helps to control human disturbances and supports the direct application of this double approach for cave management purposes.
Article
Baiyun Cave in Hebei Province is one of the main show caves in North China. The speleothem landscape is wonderful, but strongly weathered. In order to set up the relationship between visitor flow and CO2 content and temperature, these parameters were measured at observation sites No. 1 and No. 2 in the tourist peak period of May Day Holiday from May 1 to May 7, 2000. and general tourist season August and October, 2000. The results show that visitor flow strongly affects the fluctuations of cave CO2 content and temperature, that the cave topography and dimensions affect the accumulation and diffusion of CO2. Variation of air temperature in the cave has shown to be attributable to the visitors.
Aracnidi della Colonia del Kenya raccolti da Toschi e Meneghetti negli anni 1944-1946
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Caporiacco, L. di 1949. Aracnidi della Colonia del Kenya raccolti da Toschi e Meneghetti negli anni 1944-1946. Commentationes Pontificiae Academia Scientarum 13:309-492.
A synoptic classification of the false scorpions or chela-spinners, with a report on a cosmopolitan collection of the same. Part 1. The Heterosphyronida (Chthoniidae) (Arachnida-Chelonethida). Annals and Magazine of Natural History
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Chamberlin, J.C. 1929. A synoptic classification of the false scorpions or chela-spinners, with a report on a cosmopolitan collection of the same. Part 1. The Heterosphyronida (Chthoniidae) (Arachnida-Chelonethida). Annals and Magazine of Natural History [series 10] 4:50-80.
The cave fauna of Southeast Asia: Origin, evolution and ecology
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Deharveng L. & A. Bedo. 2000. The cave fauna of Southeast Asia: Origin, evolution and ecology. Pp. 603-632. In Ecosystems of the World 30: Subterranean Ecosystems (H. Wilkens, D.C. Culver, W.F. Humphreys, eds.). Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Mulun and surrounding karsts (Guangxi) host the richest cave fauna of China
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Deharveng, L.O., F. Bréhier, A.N. Bedos, M.Y. Tian, Y.B. Li, F. Zhang et al. 2008. Mulun and surrounding karsts (Guangxi) host the richest cave fauna of China. Subterranean Biology 6:75-79.
Pseudoscorpions of the World, version 3.0. Western Australian Museum
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Harvey, M.S. 2013. Pseudoscorpions of the World, version 3.0. Western Australian Museum, Perth. Online at http://museum.wa. gov.au/catalogues-beta/pseudoscorpions Accessed 12 June 2017.
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A revision of some species of Microcreagris Balzan, 1892 (Neobisiidae, Pseudoscorpiones) from the USSR and adjacent regions
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