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Prevalence of mycoplasma gallisepticum in ross-308 broiler breeder through the contrast of serological assessments in Pakistan



Chronic Respiratory disease in Poultry is mainly caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). It causes huge economic loss to the poultry industry. The present study has been undertaken to determine the sero-prevalence of MG in Ross-308 broiler breeder farm in Punjab of Pakistan. A total of 103 commercial layer serum samples from 6 Ross-308 broiler breeder farms were subjected to indirect ELISA. From 103 serum samples, overall prevalence found 53.40% for commercial broiler breeder chickens. The highest (100%) sero-prevalence of MG was recorded at 32 weeks and the lowest (0%) was recorded at 68 weeks of commercial broiler breeder laying chicks. This study demonstrated high sero-prevalence of MG in Commercial broiler breeder. Therefore, routine monitoring of the commercial broiler breeder farms for MG infection should be recommended and mycoplasma control programmers must be strictly adhered. Keywords: Broiler breeder, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Sero-prevalence, ELISA
Journal of Dairy, Veterinary & Animal Research
Prevalence of mycoplasma gallisepticum in ross-308
broiler breeder through the contrast of serological
assessments in Pakistan
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Abbreviations: MG, mycoplasma gallisepticum; ELISA,
enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay; MS, Mycoplasma Synoviae;
IBD, infectious bursal disease
In Pakistan, the poultry industry has been persistently growing
over the last decade. There are three distinct types of FAO classied
poultry production system namely industrial integrated, commercial
poultry production, and village or backyard production system. It is
one of the most lucrative agro-based industries in Pakistan. There are
approximately 1227 breeder farms and 10,000 layer farms established
in different parts of the country.1 Among the respiratory diseases
of poultry, Mycoplasmosis is a major one. Even though all the age
groups of turkeys and chickens are susceptible to this disease, the
occurrence of mycoplasmosis is higher in young birds when compare
to adults.2,3 It is mainly caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG)
and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). MG infection results in increase
Feed conversion ratio, poor weight gain and high mortality in broiler
and reduced egg production in broiler breeder chicken thereby it
causes huge economic loss to the poultry industry.4,5 Flock testing and
culling is the best control measure for MG infection.1 Diagnosis of
MG can be done by microbial culture, serological tests and molecular
methods; ELISA is routinely used for the monitoring of determining
antibody against MG.6 But for detecting the subclinical infection
in the ock serology is the best tool. The seroprevalence of Mg in
birds of different age groups, in different seasons, production status,
sex, strain and ock sizes also vary.7 The aim of this study was to
determine the seroprevalence of MG antibodies and to investigate the
associated risk factors for the introduction and spread of the MG in
broiler breeder chicken in Punjab at Pakistan.
Materials and methods
Study area
A total of 103 serum samples were obtained from 6 commercial
broiler breeder farms in Punjab randomly were selected for screening
against MG by indirect ELISA during the period of June 2017 to
October 2017.
Flock vaccination history
The age group of the birds ranged from 32 to 68 weeks. Standard
vaccination protocol against Marek’s disease, Newcastle disease, IBD
and Pox were followed in all the commercial broiler breeder birds.
But all the birds were not vaccinated against MG.
Blood samples collection
Blood samples were collected aseptically and processed for serum
separation as per standard methods. Then the sera samples were used
for the serological study.
Laboratory test procedure
MG antigen coated plate (BioChek,UK) was used for the detection
of antibody by indirect ELISA test. As per the manufacturer instruction
the ELISA test has been carried out and the S/P ratio was calculated. If
the S/P ratio is ≤0.5 the sample is considered as negative and S/P ratio
of >0.5 considered as positive i.e. vaccination or infection with MG.
Statistical analysis
Data regarding possible risk factors of Mg infection were entered
into an excel spread sheet program (Excel 2017, Microsoft) for data
J Dairy Vet Anim Res. 2018;7(1): 00185
Volume 7 Issue 1 - 2018
Ahmad Hussain,1 Adnan Yousaf,2 Aamerzish
Mushtaq,3 Mehar ul Nissa Rais4
1Department of Poultry Husbandry, Sindh Agriculture University,
2Salman Poultry (Pvt) Limited, Pakistan
3Faculty of Veterinary and Animals Sciences, PMAS-Arid
Agriculture University, Pakistan
4Department of Agriculture Economics, Sindh Agriculture
Univeristy, Pakistan
Correspondence: Adnan Yousaf, Faculty of Animal Husbandry
and Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam,
Pakistan; Email
Received: August 23, 2017 | Published: February 23, 2018
Short Communication
Chronic Respiratory disease in Poultry is mainly caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum
(MG). It causes huge economic loss to the poultry industry. The present study has
been undertaken to determine the sero-prevalence of MG in Ross-308 broiler breeder
farm in Punjab of Pakistan. A total of 103 commercial layer serum samples from 6
Ross-308 broiler breeder farms were subjected to indirect ELISA. From 103 serum
samples, overall prevalence found 53.40% for commercial broiler breeder chickens.
The highest (100%) sero-prevalence of MG was recorded at 32 weeks and the lowest
(0%) was recorded at 68 weeks of commercial broiler breeder laying chicks. This study
demonstrated high sero-prevalence of MG in Commercial broiler breeder. Therefore,
routine monitoring of the commercial broiler breeder farms for MG infection should
be recommended and mycoplasma control programmers must be strictly adhered.
Keywords: Broiler breeder, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Sero-prevalence, ELISA
Citation: Hussain A, Yousaf A, Mushtaq A. Prevalence of mycoplasma gallisepticum in ross-308 broiler breeder through the contrast of serological assessments in
Pakistan. J Dairy Vet Anim Res. 2018;7(1): 00185. DOI: 10.15406/jdvar.2018.07.00185
Prevalence of mycoplasma gallisepticum in ross-308 broiler breeder through the contrast of serological
assessments in Pakistan 2/2
©2018 Hussain et al.
management purposes. Data were imported to SAS version 9.2 (SAS
Institute Inc., Cary, NC) to perform further statistical analysis.
Results and discussion
The results of the sero-prevalence of MG in commercial broiler
breeder given in (Table 1). The highest (100%) sero-prevalence of MG
was recorded at 32 weeks and the lowest (0%) was recorded at 68 weeks
of commercial broiler breeder chicken. And overall sero-prevalence
of MG found 53.40% for broiler breeder chickens. Previous surveys
from France, Italy, Egypt and Jordan reported varying prevalence of
84%, 31%, 60% and 73.5% of MG by indirect ELISA respectively
in commercial broiler breeder.8–11 Another survey in commercial
broiler breeder chickens of Pakistan revealed 65.2% sero-positivity
of MG antibodies.1,12 In Bangladesh, 45.1% sero-prevalence of MG
was found in layer chickens.13 These above ndings are concurrence
with the present study and our results are very close in accordance
with another nding obtained in south Punjab with a positivity rate
of 54.4%.14,15 Regarding age-wise analysis, 100% prevalence of MG
infection was seen in 32 weeks age group followed by 92.31% in 35
weeks layer chickens. In 68 weeks old layer chickens, the lowest sero-
prevalence of 0% was found. It revealed that when the age increased
the prevalence of MG infection has been decreased. This denotes that
the prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in commercial broiler
breeder decreased with increasing age. Highest sero prevalence in the
younger age group, maybe due to laying stress of the birds which might
made the birds more prone to subclinical MG infections, and lowest
rate of prevalence may be due to treatment that were used in ocks.
The adult birds were treated prophylactically with anti-mycoplasmal
drugs in the feed and drinking water. So the chances of mycoplasmal
infection have been reduced, there by the prevalence of MG has been
decreased in adult birds. In consequence, M. gallisepticum is prevalent
in Pakistan. Therefore, routine monitoring of the commercial broiler
breeder farms for MG infection should be recommended. In future
studies on the current topic are therefore recommended.
Table 1 Prevalence of MG antibody in Ross-308 broiler breeder chicken
through the contrast of ELISA
Farms Age
No. of Sera
No. of +Ve
Samples Positive % Overall
1 35 13 12 92.31
2 43 16 14 87.5
3 50 29 14 48.27
4 32 13 13 100
5 62 16 2 12.5
6 68 16 0 0
Authors are thankful to owner of commercial broiler breeder farms
for cooperation.
Conict of interest
There exists no conict of interest.
Author contributions
All authors contributed equally.
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Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection of Chickens in model breeder
poultry farms of Bangladesh. Int J Poult Sci. 2005;4(1):32-35.
... A new study was documented in 2008 that revealed that several infectious agents like AI along with E. coli, Newcastle and Salmonella these disease are the highly infectious and main responsible in the flock for chronic respiratory problems [16]. The diseases widespread in the rural areas are mostly occurred due to poor vaccination, poor feeding, housing management, and wild and migratory birds [16][17][18]. The widespread occurrence of infectious as well as contagious diseases indicated poor vaccination practices, poor management on farms and non-adherence to biosecurity measures [19]. ...
... Mycoplasma is playing a key role in the loss of egg production, poor FCR, mortality and other economic losses in the world poultry industry [22]. It is documented, due to vertical transmission disease almost all ages of birds are vulnerable to this infection but young birds are more prone to the infection than adults [17,23]. The prevalence of Mycoplasmosis was documented maximum in the study of Ahmad., et al. [14] as associated to the current study. ...
... The prevalence of Mycoplasmosis was documented maximum in the study of Ahmad., et al. [14] as associated to the current study. Current results showed an advanced occurrence of MG in the wintertime as associated with the summer months in broilers [17,24]. ...
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Pakistan Poultry is facing multi challenges in the field of health and biosecurity. So, the study was conducted to find out the disease prevalence in poultry in district Rawalpindi. The current study was limited in the district. Diseases were diagnosis in poultry clinical signs in birds, overall health history, post-mortem examination, lab sample, and culture. The overall prevalence of Newcastle disease (ND) was found as the maximum (7.90%) in the broiler, followed by Fowl typhoid (6.63%), Mycoplasma (5.73%), Escherichia coli infection (5.57%), Coccidiosis (4.64%), Mycotoxicosis (4.61%), Infectious Bursal Disease (2.89%), Infectious coryza (2.55%), Hydro- pericardium syndrome (1.72%) and Infectious bronchitis (1.64%). It is documented that from April to June it looked to be relatively safer for the broilers as the low occurrence of infection was recorded. In the layers, occurrence of Newcastle disease was remain the maximum (7.97%), followed by Fowl typhoid (6.02%), Mycotoxicosis (5.57%), Coccidiosis (4.80%), IBD (3.22%), Mycoplasmosis (3.05%), Infectious coryza (2.57%), Fowl cholera (1.57%), IB (0.95%), E. coli infection (0.78%), and HPS (0.51%). It is documented that for layers birds, from January to March looked to be safer. The assumption, varied diseases are widespread in both layers and broilers. Thus, scheduled vaccination, brooding management, preventive measures, and biosecurity are highly recommended. Keywords: Bacterial Infections; Poultry Diseases; Viral Infections; Rawalpindi
... Temperature is one of the important factors affecting the growth and development of the embryo at all stages of the incubation period . The optimum temperature for fertile eggs during the storage period depends on the age of eggs, the age of broiler breeder flock, and the genetic strain of the birds (Hussain et al., 2018, Tullett et al., 2009. It must be noted that, as storage time increases, hatching eggs should be stored at lower temperatures . ...
... Cold stress 2°C before incubation increased embryo mortality, and the peak of mortality occurred after 16 days (Wilson, 2001). Eggs maintained at 2 to 3°C caused ice crystal formation, which led to irreversible damage to embryo tissues (Hussain et al., 2018). It was reported that cold stress reduced yolk consumption by the embryo. ...
... The effects of cold stress in chickens can be produced by different mechanisms (Yousaf, 2016). The cold changes the endocrine system; the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis, and the thypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis become active, and as a result, hormone responses to stress will be evident (Hussain et al., 2018). Cold stress caused a significant drop in corticosterone levels and affected cellular immunity, but had no effect on T4 (Hangalapura et al., 2004). ...
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In current experiment n=20,000 Ross-308 broiler breeder eggs collected from 33 week old flocks were subjected to cold stress during transportation. Eggs were allocated to 4 temperature groups (treatments): 1.5°C, 2°C, 3.5°C, 5°C, and a control group, 20°C. Each treatment had 4,000 eggs, and data were analyzed in a completely randomized design. The results of this study showed that cold stress had a significant effect on percentage of egg weight loss (P<0.001), and minimal egg weight loss occurred in the control group. The percentage of exploders and early hatched chicks and chick weight were higher in the below 3°C temperature treatment than the other groups (P<0.01). Cold stress had a significant effect on chick length, hatchability, and the hatching of fertile eggs (P<0.001). The effects of cold stress on chick yield and body weight uniformity were significant (P<0.01). The effect of cold stress on hatchery by product efficiency was significant (P<0.001), but did not affect fertility. Cold stress also had significant effects on early (1-8 days), middle (9-17 days), and late mortality (20-21 days); total embryo mortality; and exposed brain. Ectopic viscera was significant (P<0.001), and most mortality was observed in below 4°C treatments. Total percentages of malpositions and deformity (P<0.001) and egg contamination at 1-9 days (first stage) and 10-21 days (second phase) were affected by cold stress (P<0.001). Cold stress also had a significant impact on the number of cull chicks; percent of string navel, button navel, total string, and button; omphalitis; full body cavity; red hocks; dehydration; dirty chickens; and stubby down. Cold stress affects performance during incubation and overall chick quality.
... This hormone might cause cell mediate and humoral immunity failure because of the changing's in the plasma concentrations of corticosteroids and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) affect the lymphoid tissues, reduce the mass of spleen, thymus and bursa (Havenstein et al., 2003). Heterophils are present in the blood, formed leukocytes in the bone marrow, which are phagocytic in nature and shield the body of the bird against harmful micro-organisms and leukocytes play a key role in keeping immunity higher (Hussain et al., 2018). Heat exposure release excessive glucocorticoids, cause dissolution of lymphocytes which may cause lymphopenia . ...
... It was painted with lime stone and dried for 24 hours. One Ft 2 /bird floor space under deep litter housing system was provided to each and every chick in the house (Hussain et al., 2018). Continuous light was applied during the whole study. ...
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Environmental heat stress is one of the most challenging conditions which have adverse effect on the poultry industry. Broiler chickens are sensitive to heat stress mainly due to not having sweat glands. The current study was conducted to observe the effect of heat stress on performance of Ross-308 broiler chickens. 1600 Ross-308 broiler day old chicks were obtained from local hatchery and randomly divided into two groups, the heat stress group A (n=800) and heat free group B (n=800). Group A was reared in high temperature (101 0 F) whereas group B was reared in ideal temperature. To evaluate the physiological stress indicators blood glucose levels and total blood cell count were checked on day 21 and 28. The parameters observed were; feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, water intake and carcass yield. The results indicated that feed intake, weight gain, water intake, feed conversion ratio and carcass yield were significantly higher in group B compared to group A. It was concluded that heat stress has deleterious effect over the performance of broiler Ross-308 chicken.
... Respiratory infections have become one of the most serious threats to the industry in recent years, resulting in significant financial losses . In comparison to other Mycoplasma species, Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the leading cause of chronic respiratory disease and produces larger economic losses (Hussain et al., 2018;2019). This disease affects birds of all ages, but young birds are more susceptible to infection than adults (Hossain et al., 2010). ...
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The purpose of this study was to document the frequency of respiratory diseases in broiler and layer flocks in the Rawalpindi District of Pakistan from July 2020 to June 2021. Infectious coryza, colibacillosis, and CRD were identified in 48, 30, and 22 of 240 broiler flocks, respectively. Infectious coryza, colibacillosis, and CRD were reported to be prevalent in 20%, 12.50%, and 9.17% of the population, respectively. Infectious coryza, collibacillosis, and CRD were discovered in 41, 34 and 28 of 160 layer flocks, respectively. Infectious coryza, colibacillosis, and CRD were reported to be prevalent in layer at 25.63%, 21.25%, and 17.50%, respectively. Respiratory diseases were observed throughout the year, but were more common during the winter months. A total of n = 201 samples (liver, heart, and lungs) were cultured during the investigation, with n = 89 proving to be positive for E.coli isolates. Lincomycin, norfloxacin, and neomycin were the most effective antibiotics against E.coli infections, while oxytetracyclin, doxycyclin, and colistin had the least effective zones of growth suppression. Prevalence, respiratory diseases, and poultry are some of the terms used in this study.
... Sheep and goat items were found to be more dangerous than camel and cattle products, and the infection could also be transmitted by saving animals give birth. [8,15]. Animals infested through Brucella spp. ...
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A study was done to investigate the incidence of Brucella abortus in Camels in different districts of South Punjab. Brucellosis is a disease that affects a variety of animals, including humans, and it is more severe in humans than in animals. Because of its zoonotic nature, it poses a significant threat to human health. In this study, we tested n = 170 sera samples and n = 60 milk samples from camels in four districts of Pakistan's South Punjab province. Different diagnostic test was used to investigate the efficacy of detecting Brucella in the blood of infected animals after serum samples were proven to be positive for B. abortus by serology. Serological techniques such as the c-ELISA, Serum Agglutination Test, and Rose Bengal Plate Test were used to diagnose Brucella abortus. The screening tests employed were the Rose Bengal Plate Test, serum agglutination test, and competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA), and the overall prevalence of brucellosis was found to be 18.24%, 18.24%, and 12.94%, respectively, by the RBPT, SAT, and c-ELISA tests. RBPT and SAT tests revealed that females 20% had a higher prevalence than males 16.47%. Antibodies to the infection were detected in milk samples, however none of the samples were determined to be brucellosis diagnostic. According to the findings, brucellosis is widespread among camels in the studied areas.
... The turbidity of the inoculation tubes was then tested as a sign of bacterial development. Samples were allowed to grow on MacConkey agar plates at 37°C for 12-24 hours to acquire pure isolates (Hussain et al 2018). After the incubation period, colonies were chosen based on their morphological characteristics and cultured once more. ...
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... In field conditions, it is critical to inspect the Brucella for non-preferred host species. Interspecies transmission of Brucella, which can occur spontaneously and produce clinical disease in non-preferred hosts, is also a pressing need for time [11]. The goal of this work was to determine brucellosis seroprevalence in small ruminants and to use a real-time PCR test to detect B. abortus in sheep and goats. ...
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A molecular research was carried out in the areas of Lahore in order to confirm the existence of B. abortus antigen in Caprine and ovine by utilizing molecular techniques in this study. Small ruminants can be infected with B. abortus (the causative agent of bovine brucellosis), which complicates brucellosis control efforts because most brucellosis control programmes rely on immunological testing rather than genomic testing to determine the specific species circulating in ruminants. Now at this investigation, n = 1270 goat serum samples and n = 770 sheep serum samples were collected, respectively. After already being tested with the Rose Bengal test, all positive specimens were examined to the real-time PCR technique. RBT confirmed brucellosis prevalence of 21.43±0.37% and 18.11±0.12 in caprine and ovine respectively. Out of 230 positive goat samples, real-time PCR found B. abortus in 150 samples (65.21±0.51) in sheep and goats and 118 samples (71.51±0.21%) out of 165 seropositive sheep samples. Brucella abortus infection in small ruminants could be caused by a combination of factors including mixed farming of small and large ruminants, sharing of the same pasture, and the presence of reservoir hosts on a farm, all of which could be risk factors for Brucella species cross-infection in non-species hosts. It has been determined that B. abortus is the causative agent of caprine and ovine brucellosis in the country of Pakistan. Results of this study can be utilised to develop successful brucellosis eradication and control strategies in small ruminants, which can be applied to other animals.
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Hatchery productivity is determined by hatchability as well as the quantity of high-quality day old chicks (DOC) produced. The hatchery industry has been looking for innovative ways to improve incubation con�ditions, such as using different incubation MS or SS machines. The goal of this study was to evaluate findings as of two incubator systems—MS and SS—for all hatchery criteria such as broiler performance, hatchability and chicks quality. Chicks Performance hatch window, Hatchability and water loss vari�ables were all subjected to a completely randomized experimental design with two treatments (MS and SS). A 2 x 2 factorial configuration was used to study performance characteristics (incubator type x chick sex). MS-incubated eggs lost more weight between incubation and transfer (P<0.05). Hatchabil�ity of eggs incubated in SS was maximum (P<0.05), and the hatch window of chicks in SS was longer (P<0.05). Embryo diagnostic demonstrated increased end mortality (P<0.05) and greater ratios of living and dead piped and broken eggs (P<0.05) for embryos incubated in MS. SS chicks had higher physical quality (P<0.05). For performance results, there was no interface (P > 0.05) between the investigated parameters. Broiler performance is influenced by incubator type. SS In terms of absorption of yolk ages, incubator chicks outperformed MS chicks (P > 0.05), and male broilers outperformed female broilers (P<0.05). Although performance characteristics were unaffected by incubation type, the SS incubation system demonstrated to be superior to the MS in addressing during embryo development, with maxi�mum hatchability and quality chicks.
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The present study was aimed to determine the sero-prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens in two selected areas; Lohagara and Satkania Upazila of Chittagong district. The study was conducted from July to October 2004 that was based on Rapid Serum Plate Agglutination (SPA) test. The serological test was done on 400 samples which revealed prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum were 53% in broiler and 73% in layer at Lohagara, where as 46% in broiler and 60% in layer at Satkania Upazilla.
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Commercial chickens in Jordan suffer from respiratory disease of undetermined etiology. This study was designed to document the involvement of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in this respiratory disease. Seventy six different chicken flocks with respiratory symptoms (48 broiler flocks, 21 layer flocks and 7 broiler-breeder flocks) were examined serologically by commercial MG ELISA kit and bacterial isolation for Mycoplasma. Twenty four MG isolates from 76 flocks were cloned and the presence of MG in the cloned cultures was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The isolates were further examined using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. The prevalence of MG in the flocks examined was 73.5% and 31.6% by ELISA and isolation, respectively. This high prevalence in flocks with respiratory disease, confirms the endemic nature of the disease in Jordan. RAPD testing of the 24 isolates revealed the presence of 5 banding patterns that were different than the common MG F strain vaccine used in the field. This is the first study to isolate and characterize MG from chickens in Jordan.
The age wise status of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection of broiler breeding stock (MG nonvaccinated) in and around Lahore district was determined during the period of December, 2006 to November 2007. In this study, a total of 2777 serum samples were referred from different areas surrounding Lahore. History revealed that all the samples were from MG non vaccinated flocks and subjected to Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) to detect the status of IgG antibodies produced due to MG field exposure. The highest positive percentage(74.60%) of MG infection was found in breeding stock aging from 6 to 23 weeks while lowest (33.17%) in flocks of 60 to 76 th weeks of age. The result further revealed that the younger birds are more prone to MG infection compared to aged ones and presence of MG antibodies may not associate with clinical signs except in complicated cases.
Mycoplasmosis avium is a highly infectious disease, which has been diagnosed mainly on commercial poultry farms. It usually occurs in meat-type flocks of hens, turkeys, and also in ducks and geese. The purpose of the study was to define the level of dissemination of infections caused by mycoplasmas in flocks of reproduction meat-type hens and broilers. The experiment covered 142 reproduction meat-type flocks (1 day-65 week-old birds) and 136 broiler flocks (1-7 weeks old birds). The materials used in the studies were blood samples collected from the farm birds in 1998-1999 (until August). Blood samples were collected once in layers and in 109 broiler flocks, and twice in the other 27 broiler flocks. i.e. in one-day chicks and in the 6th week of rearing. Moreover, additional 15 broiler farms were included in the serological monitoring (tests performed on 1st day, 2nd - 3rd and 6th - 7th week of rearing). The level of M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae antibodies in serum was determine by ELISA (Idexx kit with MG/MS antigen) and additionally by RPA test (MG and MS antigen by Intervet) on 15 farms. The presence of specific Mycoplasma antibodies was found in 54.9% of the layer flocks monitored. However, the highest percentage of serologically positive flocks was recorded in the laying period (65.2%) and the lowest in one-day old chickens (30.8%). Infection with Mycoplasmosis in broilers reached 44.1%, and in these cases the occurrence of MG/MS antibodies was observed more often in one-day old chicks (55.1%) than in 6-7 week old chickens (32.1%). The flocks of broilers demonstrated more infections with M. synoviae than with M. gallisepticum (25.9% and 7.4%, respectively in the 6th week).
A serological survey on the prevalence of antibodies against Salmonella and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) was carried out in layer chickens in Rajshahi and surrounding districts of Bangladesh. A total of 605 sera samples were examined by rapid plate agglutination (RPA) test using commercial Salmonella and MG antigens to determine the Salmonella and MG specific antibody. Out of 605 sera samples 14.1% showed single Salmonella, 45.1% showed single MG and 11.2% showed their concurrent infection. Prevalence of Salmonella was recorded the highest (37.6%) in adult compared to young (16.7%). On the contrary, MG and concurrent infections were recorded the highest (71.7% and 13.3%) in young compared to adult (50.4% and 10.4%). The prevalence of Salmonella, MG and concurrent infections were recorded the highest (34.3%, 68.6% and 17.1%) in large flocks compared to small flocks (21.3%, 50.0% and 8.8%). The prevalence of Salmonella infection was the highest (30.4%) in summer followed by winter (23.7%), rainy (25.0%) and autumn (23.3%). The prevalence of MG infection was the highest (61.6%) in winter followed by autumn (56.9%), rainy (55.0%) and summer (49.6%). Whereas, their concurrent infection was the highest (12.1%) in winter followed by summer (11.9%), rainy (10.8%) and autumn (10.0%).
The sero-prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection of chickens in selected Model Breeder Poultry Farms was determined during the period January to May, 2004. To conduct this study a total of 382 sera samples were collected. Rapid Serum Plate Agglutination (SPA) test was performed using commercial MG antigen (Nobilis<sup>®</sup> MG) to detect the presence of antibodies against MG. The over all sero-prevalence of MG infection was 58.90% in the study area. The highest prevalence (62.44 %) of MG infection was found in winter season followed by summer season (53.10%). The result further revealed that the infection was higher (59.94%) in female birds than in male birds (48.57%). It was also demonstrated that the infection was higher (62.80%) in Feni sadar than in Chhagoalnaiya thana (53.45%).
In this study, the authors examined the technical performance of culture methodology using specific media: Mycoplasma isolation media of pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO) broth and PPLO agar. Digitonin sensitivity, growth inhibition, the serum plate agglutination test, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a commercially available simplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test were used to detect Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in samples collected from the lungs, trachea and tracheal swabs of poultry. These samples were collected from broiler-breeder flocks, broiler flocks and layer flocks. In addition, genomic bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted and amplified, using a simplex PCR. The seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum antibodies in chickens and chicks was also investigated. The prevalence of M. gallisepticum was found to be highest in the layer flocks, at 33.3% (17/51), when the tracheal swab procedure was adopted. In young birds, the serum plate agglutination test and ELISA assay detected antibodies against M. gallisepticum in 69.9% (320/458) and 58.3% (267/458) of the chicken samples, respectively, and 48.7% (146/300) and 60% (180/300) of the samples from the chicks.
Serum (n = 1,636) and egg yolk (n = 802) samples collected from hens on four commercial egg farms in Florida were tested for the presence of specific antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum in a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No significant differences were noted between serum and egg yolk samples with respect to distribution of positive, suspect, and negative test results or for the mean sample/positive control ratio values of positive, suspect, and negative test results. A linear relationship between the distribution of positive and negative results and the age of the birds was observed for results obtained with both serum and egg yolk samples. On the basis of the results of this study, egg yolk samples can be used in lieu of serum samples to screen flocks for antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum.
Natural cases of keratoconjunctivitis, apparently caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), in layer chickens are described. The disease occurred in a commercial flock consisting of 36,000 pullets (Babcock), first appearing around 30 days of age. Clinically, affected chickens showed unilateral or bilateral swelling of the facial skin and the eyelids, increased lacrimation, congestion of conjunctival vessels, and respiratory rales. Some of the severely affected chickens closed their eyes. The morbidity reached 27.8%, and it was estimated that approximately 10% died from reduced feed intake due to impaired vision. Ten 70-day-old chickens with clinical diseases were examined for lesions. There was acute to subacute keratoconjunctivitis in all of the chickens, and some exhibited laryngitis. Adherence of mycoplasma organisms to epithelial cells of the conjunctiva, cornea, and larynx was frequently observed. These organisms had an ultrastructure characteristic of MG and showed a positive reaction with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the S6 strain of MG by immunohistochemical analysis. MG was isolated from tissue homogenates of the eyelids and tracheas of the affected chickens. Many of the chickens had atrophic bursae, and infectious bursal disease virus antigens were detected in necrotic bursal follicles by immunostaining. Therefore, immunosuppression due to infectious bursal disease was implicated in the pathogenesis of keratoconjunctivitis in the present cases.
Fifteen chickens were inoculated with the atypical Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) K703 strain. On different dates post inoculation, tracheal swab samples were collected for mycoplasma culture and blood samples were analysed by slide agglutination test (SA) with commercial or homologous antigen and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with three different kits. Results showed that MG isolation rate was low on several sampling dates. The SA with commercial antigen did not yield positive results, although birds were positive when tested with homologous antigen. With commercial ELISA kits, the numbers of positive samples remained low. These results illustrate the difficulty of diagnosis of infections with such MG variant strains.