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Prevalence of mycoplasma gallisepticum in ross-308 broiler breeder through the contrast of serological assessments in Pakistan

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Abstract

Chronic Respiratory disease in Poultry is mainly caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). It causes huge economic loss to the poultry industry. The present study has been undertaken to determine the sero-prevalence of MG in Ross-308 broiler breeder farm in Punjab of Pakistan. A total of 103 commercial layer serum samples from 6 Ross-308 broiler breeder farms were subjected to indirect ELISA. From 103 serum samples, overall prevalence found 53.40% for commercial broiler breeder chickens. The highest (100%) sero-prevalence of MG was recorded at 32 weeks and the lowest (0%) was recorded at 68 weeks of commercial broiler breeder laying chicks. This study demonstrated high sero-prevalence of MG in Commercial broiler breeder. Therefore, routine monitoring of the commercial broiler breeder farms for MG infection should be recommended and mycoplasma control programmers must be strictly adhered. Keywords: Broiler breeder, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Sero-prevalence, ELISA
Journal of Dairy, Veterinary & Animal Research
Prevalence of mycoplasma gallisepticum in ross-308
broiler breeder through the contrast of serological
assessments in Pakistan
Submit Manuscript | http://medcraveonline.com
Abbreviations: MG, mycoplasma gallisepticum; ELISA,
enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay; MS, Mycoplasma Synoviae;
IBD, infectious bursal disease
Introduction
In Pakistan, the poultry industry has been persistently growing
over the last decade. There are three distinct types of FAO classied
poultry production system namely industrial integrated, commercial
poultry production, and village or backyard production system. It is
one of the most lucrative agro-based industries in Pakistan. There are
approximately 1227 breeder farms and 10,000 layer farms established
in different parts of the country.1 Among the respiratory diseases
of poultry, Mycoplasmosis is a major one. Even though all the age
groups of turkeys and chickens are susceptible to this disease, the
occurrence of mycoplasmosis is higher in young birds when compare
to adults.2,3 It is mainly caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG)
and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). MG infection results in increase
Feed conversion ratio, poor weight gain and high mortality in broiler
and reduced egg production in broiler breeder chicken thereby it
causes huge economic loss to the poultry industry.4,5 Flock testing and
culling is the best control measure for MG infection.1 Diagnosis of
MG can be done by microbial culture, serological tests and molecular
methods; ELISA is routinely used for the monitoring of determining
antibody against MG.6 But for detecting the subclinical infection
in the ock serology is the best tool. The seroprevalence of Mg in
birds of different age groups, in different seasons, production status,
sex, strain and ock sizes also vary.7 The aim of this study was to
determine the seroprevalence of MG antibodies and to investigate the
associated risk factors for the introduction and spread of the MG in
broiler breeder chicken in Punjab at Pakistan.
Materials and methods
Study area
A total of 103 serum samples were obtained from 6 commercial
broiler breeder farms in Punjab randomly were selected for screening
against MG by indirect ELISA during the period of June 2017 to
October 2017.
Flock vaccination history
The age group of the birds ranged from 32 to 68 weeks. Standard
vaccination protocol against Marek’s disease, Newcastle disease, IBD
and Pox were followed in all the commercial broiler breeder birds.
But all the birds were not vaccinated against MG.
Blood samples collection
Blood samples were collected aseptically and processed for serum
separation as per standard methods. Then the sera samples were used
for the serological study.
Laboratory test procedure
MG antigen coated plate (BioChek,UK) was used for the detection
of antibody by indirect ELISA test. As per the manufacturer instruction
the ELISA test has been carried out and the S/P ratio was calculated. If
the S/P ratio is ≤0.5 the sample is considered as negative and S/P ratio
of >0.5 considered as positive i.e. vaccination or infection with MG.
Statistical analysis
Data regarding possible risk factors of Mg infection were entered
into an excel spread sheet program (Excel 2017, Microsoft) for data
J Dairy Vet Anim Res. 2018;7(1): 00185
Volume 7 Issue 1 - 2018
Ahmad Hussain,1 Adnan Yousaf,2 Aamerzish
Mushtaq,3 Mehar ul Nissa Rais4
1Department of Poultry Husbandry, Sindh Agriculture University,
Pakistan
2Salman Poultry (Pvt) Limited, Pakistan
3Faculty of Veterinary and Animals Sciences, PMAS-Arid
Agriculture University, Pakistan
4Department of Agriculture Economics, Sindh Agriculture
Univeristy, Pakistan
Correspondence: Adnan Yousaf, Faculty of Animal Husbandry
and Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam,
Pakistan; Email dr.adnan011@gmail.com
Received: August 23, 2017 | Published: February 23, 2018
Short Communication
Abstract
Chronic Respiratory disease in Poultry is mainly caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum
(MG). It causes huge economic loss to the poultry industry. The present study has
been undertaken to determine the sero-prevalence of MG in Ross-308 broiler breeder
farm in Punjab of Pakistan. A total of 103 commercial layer serum samples from 6
Ross-308 broiler breeder farms were subjected to indirect ELISA. From 103 serum
samples, overall prevalence found 53.40% for commercial broiler breeder chickens.
The highest (100%) sero-prevalence of MG was recorded at 32 weeks and the lowest
(0%) was recorded at 68 weeks of commercial broiler breeder laying chicks. This study
demonstrated high sero-prevalence of MG in Commercial broiler breeder. Therefore,
routine monitoring of the commercial broiler breeder farms for MG infection should
be recommended and mycoplasma control programmers must be strictly adhered.
Keywords: Broiler breeder, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Sero-prevalence, ELISA
Citation: Hussain A, Yousaf A, Mushtaq A. Prevalence of mycoplasma gallisepticum in ross-308 broiler breeder through the contrast of serological assessments in
Pakistan. J Dairy Vet Anim Res. 2018;7(1): 00185. DOI: 10.15406/jdvar.2018.07.00185
Prevalence of mycoplasma gallisepticum in ross-308 broiler breeder through the contrast of serological
assessments in Pakistan 2/2
Copyright:
©2018 Hussain et al.
management purposes. Data were imported to SAS version 9.2 (SAS
Institute Inc., Cary, NC) to perform further statistical analysis.
Results and discussion
The results of the sero-prevalence of MG in commercial broiler
breeder given in (Table 1). The highest (100%) sero-prevalence of MG
was recorded at 32 weeks and the lowest (0%) was recorded at 68 weeks
of commercial broiler breeder chicken. And overall sero-prevalence
of MG found 53.40% for broiler breeder chickens. Previous surveys
from France, Italy, Egypt and Jordan reported varying prevalence of
84%, 31%, 60% and 73.5% of MG by indirect ELISA respectively
in commercial broiler breeder.8–11 Another survey in commercial
broiler breeder chickens of Pakistan revealed 65.2% sero-positivity
of MG antibodies.1,12 In Bangladesh, 45.1% sero-prevalence of MG
was found in layer chickens.13 These above ndings are concurrence
with the present study and our results are very close in accordance
with another nding obtained in south Punjab with a positivity rate
of 54.4%.14,15 Regarding age-wise analysis, 100% prevalence of MG
infection was seen in 32 weeks age group followed by 92.31% in 35
weeks layer chickens. In 68 weeks old layer chickens, the lowest sero-
prevalence of 0% was found. It revealed that when the age increased
the prevalence of MG infection has been decreased. This denotes that
the prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in commercial broiler
breeder decreased with increasing age. Highest sero prevalence in the
younger age group, maybe due to laying stress of the birds which might
made the birds more prone to subclinical MG infections, and lowest
rate of prevalence may be due to treatment that were used in ocks.
The adult birds were treated prophylactically with anti-mycoplasmal
drugs in the feed and drinking water. So the chances of mycoplasmal
infection have been reduced, there by the prevalence of MG has been
decreased in adult birds. In consequence, M. gallisepticum is prevalent
in Pakistan. Therefore, routine monitoring of the commercial broiler
breeder farms for MG infection should be recommended. In future
studies on the current topic are therefore recommended.
Table 1 Prevalence of MG antibody in Ross-308 broiler breeder chicken
through the contrast of ELISA
Farms Age
(Weeks)
No. of Sera
Tested
No. of +Ve
Samples Positive % Overall
Prevalence
1 35 13 12 92.31
0.534
2 43 16 14 87.5
3 50 29 14 48.27
4 32 13 13 100
5 62 16 2 12.5
6 68 16 0 0
Acknowledgments
Authors are thankful to owner of commercial broiler breeder farms
for cooperation.
Conict of interest
There exists no conict of interest.
Author contributions
All authors contributed equally.
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A serological survey on the prevalence of antibodies against Salmonella and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) was carried out in layer chickens in Rajshahi and surrounding districts of Bangladesh. A total of 605 sera samples were examined by rapid plate agglutination (RPA) test using commercial Salmonella and MG antigens to determine the Salmonella and MG specific antibody. Out of 605 sera samples 14.1% showed single Salmonella, 45.1% showed single MG and 11.2% showed their concurrent infection. Prevalence of Salmonella was recorded the highest (37.6%) in adult compared to young (16.7%). On the contrary, MG and concurrent infections were recorded the highest (71.7% and 13.3%) in young compared to adult (50.4% and 10.4%). The prevalence of Salmonella, MG and concurrent infections were recorded the highest (34.3%, 68.6% and 17.1%) in large flocks compared to small flocks (21.3%, 50.0% and 8.8%). The prevalence of Salmonella infection was the highest (30.4%) in summer followed by winter (23.7%), rainy (25.0%) and autumn (23.3%). The prevalence of MG infection was the highest (61.6%) in winter followed by autumn (56.9%), rainy (55.0%) and summer (49.6%). Whereas, their concurrent infection was the highest (12.1%) in winter followed by summer (11.9%), rainy (10.8%) and autumn (10.0%).
Article
The sero-prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection of chickens in selected Model Breeder Poultry Farms was determined during the period January to May, 2004. To conduct this study a total of 382 sera samples were collected. Rapid Serum Plate Agglutination (SPA) test was performed using commercial MG antigen (Nobilis<sup>®</sup> MG) to detect the presence of antibodies against MG. The over all sero-prevalence of MG infection was 58.90% in the study area. The highest prevalence (62.44 %) of MG infection was found in winter season followed by summer season (53.10%). The result further revealed that the infection was higher (59.94%) in female birds than in male birds (48.57%). It was also demonstrated that the infection was higher (62.80%) in Feni sadar than in Chhagoalnaiya thana (53.45%).
Article
In this study, the authors examined the technical performance of culture methodology using specific media: Mycoplasma isolation media of pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO) broth and PPLO agar. Digitonin sensitivity, growth inhibition, the serum plate agglutination test, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a commercially available simplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test were used to detect Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in samples collected from the lungs, trachea and tracheal swabs of poultry. These samples were collected from broiler-breeder flocks, broiler flocks and layer flocks. In addition, genomic bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted and amplified, using a simplex PCR. The seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum antibodies in chickens and chicks was also investigated. The prevalence of M. gallisepticum was found to be highest in the layer flocks, at 33.3% (17/51), when the tracheal swab procedure was adopted. In young birds, the serum plate agglutination test and ELISA assay detected antibodies against M. gallisepticum in 69.9% (320/458) and 58.3% (267/458) of the chicken samples, respectively, and 48.7% (146/300) and 60% (180/300) of the samples from the chicks.
Article
Serum (n = 1,636) and egg yolk (n = 802) samples collected from hens on four commercial egg farms in Florida were tested for the presence of specific antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum in a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No significant differences were noted between serum and egg yolk samples with respect to distribution of positive, suspect, and negative test results or for the mean sample/positive control ratio values of positive, suspect, and negative test results. A linear relationship between the distribution of positive and negative results and the age of the birds was observed for results obtained with both serum and egg yolk samples. On the basis of the results of this study, egg yolk samples can be used in lieu of serum samples to screen flocks for antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum.
Article
Natural cases of keratoconjunctivitis, apparently caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), in layer chickens are described. The disease occurred in a commercial flock consisting of 36,000 pullets (Babcock), first appearing around 30 days of age. Clinically, affected chickens showed unilateral or bilateral swelling of the facial skin and the eyelids, increased lacrimation, congestion of conjunctival vessels, and respiratory rales. Some of the severely affected chickens closed their eyes. The morbidity reached 27.8%, and it was estimated that approximately 10% died from reduced feed intake due to impaired vision. Ten 70-day-old chickens with clinical diseases were examined for lesions. There was acute to subacute keratoconjunctivitis in all of the chickens, and some exhibited laryngitis. Adherence of mycoplasma organisms to epithelial cells of the conjunctiva, cornea, and larynx was frequently observed. These organisms had an ultrastructure characteristic of MG and showed a positive reaction with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the S6 strain of MG by immunohistochemical analysis. MG was isolated from tissue homogenates of the eyelids and tracheas of the affected chickens. Many of the chickens had atrophic bursae, and infectious bursal disease virus antigens were detected in necrotic bursal follicles by immunostaining. Therefore, immunosuppression due to infectious bursal disease was implicated in the pathogenesis of keratoconjunctivitis in the present cases.
Article
Fifteen chickens were inoculated with the atypical Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) K703 strain. On different dates post inoculation, tracheal swab samples were collected for mycoplasma culture and blood samples were analysed by slide agglutination test (SA) with commercial or homologous antigen and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with three different kits. Results showed that MG isolation rate was low on several sampling dates. The SA with commercial antigen did not yield positive results, although birds were positive when tested with homologous antigen. With commercial ELISA kits, the numbers of positive samples remained low. These results illustrate the difficulty of diagnosis of infections with such MG variant strains.