Agnieszka Lasota*, Katarzyna Tomaszek*, Sandra Bosacki**,
*Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland
**Brock University, Canada
GRATITUDE, EMPATHY, AND RESILIENCE AMONG EMERGING ADULTS IN POLAND
The current focus on the field of positive psychology analyzes these factors of human functioning that make people able to overcome their limitations and successfully studied include that of gratitude has been the focus of researchers is gratitude. Gratitude plays a very important role in emotional well-being (McCullough et al., 2002, Watkins et al., 2003). Gratitude experiences were also positively associated with increased empathy towards others (Elfers & Hlava, 2016) and a reduced level of aggressive behavior, as well as with greater psychological immunity (Gardner, 2014).
Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the gendered relations among levels of gratitude, empathy, and resilience in young adults.
The population consists of 230 respondents in early adulthood within Poland
The GRAT – R Questionnaire (Thomas, Watkins, 2003, Polish adaptation Tomaszek, Lasota).
The Polish scale SPP-25, (Ogińska-Bulik, Juczyński, 2008)
The QCAE: A Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (R. Reniers et al., 2011, Polish adaptation Lasota, Tomaszek)
The results of the research indicate the existence of significant gender differences between females and males in terms of empathy and gratitude. No gender differences were found in resilience, whereas compared to females, males scored higher on the scale Optimist attitude to life. Separate correlational analysis for females and males showed that sex was a factor in differentiating the existence of relations between these three variables. Results showed significant correlations between gratefulness factors and resilience components across genders. Regression analysis showed significant gender equations.
The results indicate a strong link between gratitude and empathy, and between gratitude and resilience. Correlation analyses, taking into account gender, confirmed the existence of gender-related differences in the experience of gratitude and empathy among emerging adults. Findings showed that compared to males the level of females’ gratitude is affected by more components of resilience. Implications for health education for emerging adults will be discussed.