ArticlePDF Available

Homoeopathic Medicine ‘Cantharis 30CH’ Substituted Antibiotic: A Case Report of Infantile Urinary Tract Infection.



Content may be subject to copyright.
Available online at
ISSN: 2394-6709
Volume: 04 Issue: 07 July -2018
Open Access
ICV- 74.25
Impact Factor :5.985
Page no.- 1879-1883
Amulya Ratna Sahoo1, RAJAR Volume 04 Issue 07 July 2018
Homoeopathic Medicine Cantharis 30CH Substituted Antibiotic: A Case
Report of Infantile Urinary Tract Infection.
Amulya Ratna Sahoo1, Ranjita Pradhan2, Chaturbhuja Nayak3
1Drug Proving Unit of Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
2Dr Abhin Chandra Homoeopathic Medical College & Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
3Homoeopathy University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Published Online:
12 July 2018
Corresponding Author:
Amulya Ratna Sahoo
Dr Abhin Chandra
Homoeopathic Medical
College & Hospital,
Bhubaneswar, Odisha,
Introduction: Cantharis is not an uncommon homoeopathic remedy for Urinary Tract Infections
(UTI), but this case was unique as it was a case of rapidly progressing acute UTI. The patient was a
4-month-old infant and the pediatrician of modern medicine had already suggested that
administration of antibiotics was the only way of treatment, but Cantharis 30CH could cure the
case, within a short period.
Case Profile: The four-month-old male baby presented on 5th Jan.2018, with the symptoms of:
incessant crying, especially more before and while urinating; irritability and total loss of appetite.
The routine and microscopic examination (RE&ME) of urine done on 4th Jan. 2018 showed plenty
of leucocytes and subsequent culture of urine sample collected on 5th Jan. 2018 revealed growth of
E.coli >100000 CFU/ml. So the case was a confirmed case of UTI. The parents first visited an
allopathic pediatrician on 4th Jan.2018 and he prescribed antibiotics and advised to start
immediately, but the parents were reluctant to give antibiotics to their 4-month-old baby, so they
visited our OPD and requested for homoeopathic treatment. After thorough case taking and
analysis, Cantharis 30CH was selected; it was advised to dissolve one globule in the breast milk
and give thrice daily. There was significant improvement of symptoms within 3 days; microscopic
examination of urine showed decrease in leucocytes and there was complete disappearance of all
symptoms within 6 days.
Conclusion: It can be concluded from the case report that a well-selected homoeopathic similimum,
in right potency and dosage can cure awful cases of E.coli infections even in infants and can replace
antibiotics and save the little ones from the adverse effects of antibiotics. Clinical trials on the
efficacy of Cantharis on infantile UTI are suggested.
KEYWORDS: Urinary tract infection, Infants, Homoeopathy, Cantharis
After respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, urinary tract
infections (UTI) are the third most common infections
experienced by humans. UTIs are classified as Lower and
Upper UTI. Cystitis and Urethritis are lower UTIs whereas
upper UTI includes pyelonephritis.(1) The incidence of UTI
varies from infancy to old age.(2) Around 1% of boys and
3% of girls develop UTI during childhood and around 50%
of women have a history of at least one episode of UTI. (3)
Male infants have a relatively higher incidence of UTI,
reflecting congenital abnormalities. A male child with
recurrent UTI should be studied for intravenous pyelography
and micturating cystourethrography to rule out congenital
bladder neck obstruction and vescico ureteric reflux.(2) The
commonest organism of UTI is E.coli; these are the gram-
negative, gut organism. (3) More than 90% of acute UTI in
children is by E.coli and 80% of the first instance of UTI is
due to E.coli. (4) Classical symptoms of UTI are usually not
seen in pediatric practice, so there is a considerable problem
in the diagnosis of UTI, especially in the younger patients.
Clinical features of UTI in childhood are often different
from those found in adults. UTI can occasionally produce
life-threatening illness, especially in very young infants,
who may present severely with shock and septicaemia.
Though UTI is a common problem, there is no established
consensus on investigations and management in
childhood.(5) UTIs are one of the major causes of antibiotic
usage and antibiotic resistance.(1)High recurrence rates and
increasing antimicrobial resistance threaten to greatly
increase the economic burden of these infections.(6) Also
Homoeopathic Medicine ‘Cantharis 30CH’ Substituted Antibiotic: A Case Report of Infantile Urinary Tract
Amulya Ratna Sahoo1, RAJAR Volume 04 Issue 07 July 2018
administration of antibiotics to children before the age of
two increases the risk of obesity,(7) which in turn may lead
to different lifestyle disorders in future.
Homoeopathy is a system of therapeutics basing upon the
law of similia, which states that a drug, capable of producing
in a healthy person a diseases state exactly similar to
that observed in a diseased person, acts as a curative agent if
the disease is in a curable state.(8) This system provides
efficient solution for many diseases with cost-effective
medicines.(9,10) Also Homeopathy pills being very
palatable for children can be real solution for various
pediatric problems including infantile UTI.(11)
Homeopathy is considered as the ideal treatment option
for infants owing to the safety of homeopathic
medicines. Homoeopathic medicines work by
strengthening a child's immunity. Along with relieving
common acute problems of children it can prevent
recurrent episodes of ill-health.(12) Cantharis
vesicatoria is a widely used homeopathic medicine from
animal kingdom, prepared from the Spanish flies. These
flies are commonly found in Spain, Italy, Hungary, Russia
and India. To prepare the medicine, the flies are killed by
exposing them to fumes of boiling vinegar, then they are
dried and powdered. The powdered flies are triturated with
sugar of milk or mother tincture is prepared in alcohol.
Higher potencies are prepared from trituration or mother
tincture.(13) The main spheres of action of this drug are
urinary and sexual organs.(14) It produces violent, acute,
rapidly destructive inflammation of mucous membranes of
these systems, when administered on healthy individuals.
Its action is rapid and intense.(15) It is a very common and
widely used homeopathic medicine for UTI. According to
Farrington, in acute cystitis, Cantharis is indicated more
frequently than all other remedies put together.(16) In vitro
experimentation(17) and mice model animal experiment(18)
have also proved the efficacy of Cantharis on E.coli. But
sufficient numbers of clinical trials are lacking to establish
the efficacy of Cantharis in infantile UTI.
In this context, the main objective behind this case report
was to experiment the action and efficacy of Cantharis in
infantile UTI especially in regard to observing the speed of
recovery, change of symptoms in regard to frequency,
duration and intensity and change of laboratory parameters
after administration of the intervention.
A four-month-old male baby of an educated and higher
economic status parents, from Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
visited our OPD at Dr A. C. Homoeopathic Medical College
and Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India on 5th Jan. 2018.
The parents narrated that the baby was crying most of the
time since 2-3 days, which was severe before and during
urination. He was restless and irritable. The baby was not
taking his food (mother’s milk) properly. He had disturbed
sleep during these days. Regarding the birth history, the
delivery of the boy was institutional and he was born
through caesarian section after full term. His food was only
breast milk. He had no previous history of any disease. He
took vaccines as per immunization schedule. The urine
investigation report of 4th Jan 2018 revealed presence of
plenty of leucocytes and albumin in urine (Fig.1).
Subsequent culture of urine sample of 5th Jan.2018 revealed
growth of E.coli >100000 CFU/ml after 48 hours of
incubation (Fig.2). So the case was diagnosed as UTI and
the causative organism was E.coli. For this the parents had
first visited the nearest paediatrician on 4th Jan.2018, who
prescribed some antibiotics to start immediately. But the
parents were reluctant to administer antibiotics to the small
baby. So in search of some alternative therapy, they came to
the hospital of this institute. On physical examination, the
baby was thin, clinging to his mother. There was no fever;
palpation of lower abdomen made the child to cry
suggesting tenderness of bladder area; other parameters
were normal. As this was an acute case of 4 month old
infant and there was not much to elicit from the case, the
acute totality was portrayed considering the following
symptoms (Table-1).
Table-1 Presenting Complaints of the Patient
Sl. no.
Aggravation of pain before and during urination
Loss of appetite
Incessant crying
Disturbed sleep
The suffering of the small baby and the anxiety of the
parents demanded a speedy recovery of the case. So
considering the acute totality, sphere of action and important
modality, i.e. aggravation of pain before and during
urination, Cantharis was selected as the single
individualized medicine. It was prescribed in the 30th
centesimal potency, one globule dissolved in the mother’s
milk to be administered thrice daily. Parents were advised to
continue the medicine for 3 days without any interruption.
After completion of three days of medication, the parents
came for follow up on 8th Jan.2018. There was significant
decrease of the symptoms, irritability reduced, food intake
improved, crying reduced and sleep improved, but
occasional crying during urination was there. The urine
report of 8th Jan. 2018 showed that there was no albumin
and number of leucocytes reduced to 10-15 (Fig.3). Since
there was significant improvement of symptoms but the
patient had some complaints of less intensity, it was decided
to continue the same medicine in 30th potency, one globule
thrice daily for a few more days. The parents were asked to
Homoeopathic Medicine ‘Cantharis 30CH’ Substituted Antibiotic: A Case Report of Infantile Urinary Tract
Amulya Ratna Sahoo1, RAJAR Volume 04 Issue 07 July 2018
come after 3-4 days with urine report and to continue the
medicine till that time. They turned again after 4 days on
12th Jan. 2018; there was no unusual crying, no irritability,
food intake was normal, sleep was normal. Urine report of
12th Jan. 2018 showed absence of leucocytes (Fig.4). The
recovery was full and complete. The parents were utmost
happy as their child recovered without the administration of
antibiotic. There were no adverse events during the process
of treatment; instead, the improvement of symptoms was
steady in regard to frequency, intensity and duration. Also,
there has been no recurrence of the symptoms till date.
Table 2. First prescription and Follow-up
Investigation Reports
Medicine Prescribed
5th Jan. 18
Incessant crying, especially more
before and while urinating.
Food intake much reduced.
Disturbed sleep, 8-9 hours.
Urine report-
Epithelial cells 2-4.
Leucocytes- Plenty.
Urine culture report- Growth of
E.coli >100000 CFU/ml.
Cantharis 30CH, one globule
thrice daily.
8th Jan. 18
Crying reduced.
Irritability reduced.
Food intake improved.
Sleep improved, 8-10 hours.
Occasional crying during urination.
Urine report-
Epithelial cells 1-2.
Leucocytes- 10-15.
Cantharis 30CH, one globule
thrice daily.
12thJan. 18
No unusual crying.
No irritability.
Food intake normal.
Sleep normal, 12-14 hours.
Urine report-
Epithelial cells 1-2.
Leucocytes- Nil.
No medicine
Fig.1 Urine Report (RE&ME) before treatment
Fig.2 Urine Culture Report before treatment
Homoeopathic Medicine ‘Cantharis 30CH’ Substituted Antibiotic: A Case Report of Infantile Urinary Tract
Amulya Ratna Sahoo1, RAJAR Volume 04 Issue 07 July 2018
Fig.3 Urine Report (RE&ME) during treatment
Fig.4 Urine Report (RE&ME) after treatment
UTI is a common disease of all age groups but its
management in newborns or infants becomes more
challenging due to lack of symptoms, non-specific
symptoms or difficulty in eliciting the symptoms. The
commonest way to treat a UTI in the modern school of
medicine is through antibiotics. But the adverse effects of
antibiotics and emergence of antibiotic resistance are now a
real challenge in the field of medicine especially in
developing countries like India, and it also exerts a negative
effect on progressing economy. Apart from other adverse
effects, administering antibiotics in an earlier age also
increases the risk of obesity, which may lead to different
lifestyle diseases in future.(7) As per literature, 1% of boys
can develop UTI during their childhood and this is one of
such cases. The revelation of E.coli as the causative
organism in this case also corroborates with the available
literature that more than 90% of acute UTI in children and
80% of the first instance of UTI are due to E.coli. In this
case, the parents preferred Homeopathy over antibiotics.
The case was approached simply by selecting the remedy on
the basis of acute totality, the sphere of action and important
modality aggravation of pain before and during urination.
Cantharis, one of the leading homoeopathic medicines for
urinary tract infections as per homoeopathic literature
emerged as the prominent medicine and it was selected and
administered. Disappearance of symptoms and complete
recovery of the baby in the short span of time justifies the
selection of Cantharis and proves its efficacy, and also
confirms the golden words of Farrington that Cantharis is
indicated more frequently than all other remedies put
together in acute cystitis.(16) The case of a 4-month-old
baby, the absence of any other prominent symptoms and
demand for a speedy recovery were the main challenges in
this case.
Although non-specific symptoms of infantile UTI may be a
challenge to treat, proper selection of remedy can lead to a
rapid, gentle and permanent cure. In this particular case,
when Cantharis was selected on the basis of acute totality,
sphere of action and important modality, the disappearance
of symptoms occurred and there was complete cure. This
further suggests that it can be a very good remedy for
infantile UTI, and also can avert the use of antibiotics. Thus,
Homeopathy can be a better option for the treatment of
cases of infantile UTI, which can prevent or replace the
early use of antibiotics in these cases. Homeopathy has also
been found effective in the treatment of other urological
disorders like Urolithiasis and Benign Prostate Hyperplasia.
(1923) Randomized controlled trials to evaluate the
efficacy of Cantharis in infantile UTI with a suitable sample
size are suggested.
The parents of the patient provided written informed consent
for use of the investigation reports and publication of the
case report.
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
Homoeopathic Medicine ‘Cantharis 30CH’ Substituted Antibiotic: A Case Report of Infantile Urinary Tract
Amulya Ratna Sahoo1, RAJAR Volume 04 Issue 07 July 2018
1. Rane A, Dasgupta R. Urinary tract infection :
clinical perspectives on urinary tract infection.
London: Springer; 2013.
2. Acharya VN. Nephrology. In: Sainani GS, editor.
API Text book of Medicine. 5th ed. Bombay:
Association of Physicians of India; 1994.
3. Tomson C. Urinary Tract Infection. In: David A
Warrel, Timothy M Cox, John D Firth EJBJ,
editors. Oxford Text Book of Medicine. 4th ed.
New York: Oxford Univeristy Press; 2003.
4. Paladhi PR. Practical Pediatrics Basics and
Beyond. Kolkata: Current Books International;
5. Lambert HJ and MGC. Urinary tract infections in
infancy and childhood. In: Davison, Alex M.J
Stuart Cameron, Jean P Grunfeld, Claudio
Ponticelli, Ebergard Ritz, Christopher G Winearls
C van Y, editors. Oxford Text book of Clinical
Nephrology. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University
Press; 2005.
6. Flores-Mireles AL, Walker JN, Caparon M,
Hultgren SJ.Urinary tract infections: epidemiology,
mechanisms of infection and treatment options. Nat
Rev Microbiol. 2015 May 8;13 (5): 26984.
7. Scott FI, Horton DB, Mamtani R, Haynes K,
Goldberg DS, Lee DY, et al. Administration of
Antibiotics to Children Before Age 2 Years
Increases Risk for Childhood Obesity.
Gastroenterology. 2016;151(1):1209.
8. Dhawale ML. Principles and Practice of
Homoeopathy. 3rd ed. Mumbai: Dr M L Dhawale
Memorial Trust; 2004.
9. Ullman D. Efficacy and Cost-Effectiveness of
Homeopathic Medicine [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2018
May 13]. Available from:
10. Bornhoft G, Wolf U, Von Ammon K, Righetti M,
Maxion-Bergemann S, Baumgartner S, et al.
Effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of
homeopathy in general practice - Summarized
Health Technology Assessment. Forsch
Komplementarmed. 2006;13(2):1929.
11. Jones K. The use of homeopathy in women and
children’s health. Br J Midwifery.1996;4(4):2147.
12. Homeopathy for your children - Times of India
[Internet]. [cited 2018 Jun 10]. Available from:
13. Mathur K. Systematic Materia Medica of
Homeopathic Remedies. 3rd ed. New Delhi: B.
Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd; 1991.
14. Boericke W. Pocket Manual of Homeopathic
Materia Medica. 9th ed. New Delhi: B. Jain
Publishers Pvt. Ltd;1996.
15. Phatak SR. Materia Medica of Homeopathic
Medicines. 2nd ed. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers
Pvt. Ltd; 1977.
16. Farrington EA. Clinical Materia Medica. New
Delhi: B. Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd; 2002.
17. Kawakami AP, Osugui L, César AT, Waisse S,
Carvalho VM De, Bonamin LV, et al. In vitro
growth of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated
from a snow leopard treated with homeopathic and
isopathic remedies : a pilot study. Int J High
Dilution Res. 2009;8(27):414.
18. de Paula Coelho C, Motta PD, Petrillo M, de
Oliveira Iovine R, Dalboni LC, Santana FR, et al.
Homeopathic medicine Cantharis modulates
uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC)-induced cystitis in
susceptible mice. Cytokine. 2017 Apr;92:1039.
19. Hati AK, Paital B, Naik KN, Mishra AK, Chainy
GBN, Nanda LK. Constitutional, organopathic and
combined homeopathic treatment of benign
prostatic hypertrophy: a clinical trial. Homeopathy.
2012 Oct;101(4):21723.
20. Nayak CM, Sahoo AR, Nayak CB, Prusty U, Hati
AK, Paital B. A case report of ureteric calculus
treated with homoeopathic medicine, Hydrangea
arborescens 30. Indo Am J Pharm Sci. 2018;
05(01): 62733.
21. Nayak C, Hati AK, Dash SK, Paital B. A case
report on benign prostatic hyperplasia with
homoeopathic remedies. Indo Am J Pharm Sci.
2017; 4(11):4398403.
22. Misra A, Nayak C, Paital B. Carcinosin, a boon for
pediatric nephrolithiasis: case reports. World J
Pharm Res. 2018;7(3):92231.
23. Siddiqui VA, Singh H, Gupta J, Nayak C, Singh V,
Sinha M et al. A multicentre observational study to
ascertain the role of homoeopathic therapy in
Urolithiasis. Indian J Res Homoeopath. 2011; 5(2):
... 13 Though the physical generals can easily be elicited from the patient, accurate retrieval of mental symptoms needs skill, compassion and patience. 12,14 Several studies have already established the efficacy of homoeopathy in different urological disorders such as benign hypertrophy of prostate (BHP), 15-18 urinary tract infections (UTIs) 19,20 and urolithiasis, 21-24 etc. In vitro studies also suggested the positive role of homoeopathic medicines in renal stones. ...
Introduction Urolithiasis is a very common disease. Stones in any part of the urinary tract can produce symptoms and complication, but because the lower part of the ureter is the narrowest part of the urinary tract, stones get lodged easily producing pain and haematuria commonly. If we keep in mind the limitation and complication of the surgical procedure, homoeopathy can provide a real solution for such conditions. There are several ways of homeopathic prescription, such as based on keynotes, general symptoms, constitution, miasm, etc. Two cases of ureteric calculi are presented here, who were prescribed on the basis of constitutional symptoms and got good results. Case Profile In the first case, the only symptom was pain in the right flank, and as per ultrasonography (USG) report, there was 7.4 mm calculus in the lower part of the right ureter. In the second case, there were symptoms like pain in the left flank, burning urination and haematuria. The USG report confirmed 6 mm stone in the left ureterovesical junction (UVJ). After detailed case taking, both the cases were prescribed on the basis of constitutional symptoms. Lycopodium in 50 millesimal potencies (0/1–0/4) in the first case and Phosphorus in centesimal potency (1M) in the second case provided prompt relief of the symptoms within a short period. USG reports of both the cases also confirmed no stones after approximately 2 months of treatment. Conclusion Homeopathy provided good relief in two cases of ureteric calculi; constitutional medicines were found useful in combating acute ureteric colic and facilitating expulsion of stones. Because the constitutional symptoms matched, the polychrest homoeopathic medicines like Lycopodium and Phosphorus produced their best effect. But the inferences drawn from the two case reports may not be sufficient to reach a definitive conclusion. So clinical trials to establish the efficacy of constitutional remedies in the treatment of ureteric calculi are suggested.
Full-text available
Introduction: Urolithiasis denotes formation of stone in the urinary tract; it may be in the kidney, ureter or in the bladder. Urinary stones are considered as a very common cause of morbidity affecting about 5-15% of population. Apart from conservative treatment, shock wave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy are commonly practiced in conventional medicine, in cases of calculi, but these interventions are expensive for the common people and may lead to complications. Here is a case of ureterolithiasis or ureteric calculus successfully treated with homoeopathic organ remedy Hydrangea arborescens 30. Case Profile: A 59 year old female presented with intense pain in loins, especially on the right side and increased frequency of urine. Ultrasonographic report confirmed a solitary stone of 8 mm in the right vesico-ureteric junction. Although advised for surgical intervention, she opted for homoeopathic treatment. She was prescribed with Hydrangea arborescens 30 as an organ remedy, on the basis of certain particular symptoms and pathology pertaining to this medicine, after which she was relieved from the intense pain. Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) score showed significant improvement and ultrasonography after 3 months of treatment showed no stone. Most importantly, although Hydrangea arborescens is popularly known as a left-sided medicine for ureteric colic and stone, and the patient had right-sided ureteric stone, yet its local affinity for ureters and pathological affinity for ureteric stones guided its prescription and ultimately, yielded the desired result. Conclusion: Besides the constitutional or individualized treatment, correct homoeopathic organ specific medicines selected on the basis of important particular symptoms can also be effective. As per the homoeopathic literature, Hydrangea arborescens has profound action on the ureters particularly ureteric stones and this case report has justified the fact. However, randomized control trials on action of Hydrangea arborescens in cases of urinary stones are suggested.
Full-text available
Study was aimed to ascertain the role of homoeopathic medicines in Urolithiasis. A prospective, multicentre observational study was conducted by Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH) from October 2005 to January 2010 to find the usefulness of homoeopathic medicines in cases of Urolithiasis. 901 cases were screened, out of which 311 cases were enrolled and 220 cases were analyzed in this study. The symptoms pertaining to urolithiasis were assessed before and after treatment. Pain, Dysuria and Haematuria were graded from 0-3 as per severity of complaints. Calculi were graded as per Number, Size and Position of calculi. The difference between the scores was assessed by using 'Wilcoxon sign rank test' in SPSS software (ver. 16). Out of 220 cases, there was expulsion of calculi in 106 cases (single calculus in 76 cases, multiple calculi in 30 cases) and in 114 cases, calculi remained but the symptom score reduced, indicating improvement in the case. The symptom score at baseline and after treatment was analysed and found statistically significant (P<0.005). The medicines found most useful were Lycopodium clavatum in 40.9% (n=90) cases; Sulphur in 12.3% (n=27) cases; Pulsatilla nigricans in 8.2% (n=18) cases; Nux vomica in 6.2% (n=14) cases and Cantharis vesicatoria in 5.9% (n=13) cases. Treatment with homoeopathic medicines showed positive response in dissolution/expulsion of calculi. Further validation of these results is needed by conducting randomized clinical trial.
Full-text available
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. In this Review, we discuss how basic science studies are elucidating the molecular details of the crosstalk that occurs at the host–pathogen interface, as well as the consequences of these interactions for the pathophysiology of UTIs. We also describe current efforts to translate this knowledge into new clinical treatments for UTIs.
Full-text available
This paper reports the results of incubation of a strain of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolated from a snow leopard - which had died of septicemia secondary to necro-hemorrhagic cystitis - with homeopathic and isopathic remedies. Methods: UPEC was isolated from heart blood and previously typified for virulence factors; it was incubated with homeopathic remedies Cantharis vesicatoria (urinary tract infection affinity), Mercurius solubilis (from symptoms analysis) and nosode prepared from the actual strain, all in dilution 12cH. Results: 2 patterns of bacterial growth were observed, associated to the quality of nutrients in the culture medium; in rich-nutrient medium, nosode of E. coli 12cH had a significant inhibitory effect; in poor-nutrient medium, Merc 12cH exerted significant inhibitory effect. Conclusion: results suggest that the previous conditions of prokaryote systems may influence the in vitro response to homeopathic and isopathic remedies. Keywords: urinary tract infection; Felines; Uropathogenic Escherichia coli; Homeopathy; Isopathy. Estudo do crescimento (in vitro) de Escherichia coli uropatogênica isolada a partir de um leopardo das neves e tratada com medicamentos homeopáticos e isopáticos: estudo piloto. ResumoEste artigo relata os resultados da incubação de uma linhagem de Escherichia coli uropatogênica (UPEC) isolada a partir de um leopardo das neves, que morreu de septicemia secundária a cistite necrótica-hemorrágica. A UPEC foi tratada com preparados homeopáticos e isopáticos. Métodos: UPEC foi isolada de sangue cardíaco e previamente tipificada para fatores de virulência; foi incubada com o medicamento homeopático Cantharis vesicatoria (afinidade com infecção do trato urinário), Mercurius solubilis (a partir da análise de sintomas) e nosódio preparado a partir da mesma linhagem de bactérias, todas em 12 cH. Resultados: 2 padrões de crescimento bacteriano foram observados, associados à qualidade dos nutrientes do meio de cultura; em meios ricos em nutrientes, nosódio de E. coli 12 cH teve um significativo efeito inibitório; em meio pobre de nutrientes, Merc 12 cH exerceu efeito inibitório significativo. Conclusão: os resultados sugerem que as condições prévias do sistema procarioto estudado podem influenciar as respostas proliferativas in vitro para preparados homeopáticos e isopáticos. Palavras-chave: infecção do trato urinário, felinos, Escherichia coli uropatogênica; homeopatia, isopatia. Crecimiento in vitro de Escherichia coli uropatogenica, aisladas de un leopardo de la nieve, tratadas con remedios homeopáticos y isopáticos: un estudio preliminar ResumenEste trabajo presenta los resultados de la incubación de una cepa de Escherichia coli uropatogenica (UPEC) aislada de un leopardo de la nieve, que había muerto de septicemia secundaria a la necro-hemorrágica cistitis, con remedios homeopáticos y isopáticos. Métodos: Se aisló UPEC de la sangre del corazón y caracterizado por factores de virulencia, y se incubó con los remedios homeopáticos Cantharis vesicatoria (afinidad con la infección del tracto urinario), Mercurius solubilis (a partir de la análisis de los síntomas) y nosódio preparado a partir de la cepa, todos em la dilución 12cH. Resultados: 2 patrones de crecimiento de las bacterias se han observado, asociado a la calidad de los nutrientes en el medio de cultivo. En medio rico en nutrientes, nosódios de E. coli 12cH tuvo un importante efecto inhibitorio; en médios pobres en nutrientes, Merc 12cH haz ejercido importante efecto inhibitorio. Conclusión: los resultados sugieren que las condiciones anteriores de los sistemas procariotos pueden influir en la respuesta in vitro a los remedios homeopáticos y isopáticos. Palabras-clave: Infección del tracto urinario; Felinos; Escherichia coli Uropatogenica ; Homeopatía; Isopatía Correspondence author: Leoni Villano Bonamin, How to cite this article: Kawakami AP; Osugui L; César AT; Priven SW; Carvalho VM; Bonamin LV. In vitro growth of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from a snow leopard treated with homeopathic and isopathic remedies: a pilot study. Int J High Dilution Res [online]. 2009 [cited YYYY Month dd]; 8 (27): 41-44. Available from:
Full-text available
The Health Technology Assessment report on effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and appropriateness of homeopathy was compiled on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office for Public Health (BAG) within the framework of the 'Program of Evaluation of Complementary Medicine (PEK)'. Databases accessible by Internet were systematically searched, complemented by manual search and contacts with experts, and evaluated according to internal and external validity criteria. Many high-quality investigations of pre-clinical basic research proved homeopathic high-potencies inducing regulative and specific changes in cells or living organisms. 20 of 22 systematic reviews detected at least a trend in favor of homeopathy. In our estimation 5 studies yielded results indicating clear evidence for homeopathic therapy. The evaluation of 29 studies in the domain 'Upper Respiratory Tract Infections/Allergic Reactions' showed a positive overall result in favor of homeopathy. 6 out of 7 controlled studies were at least equivalent to conventional medical interventions. 8 out of 16 placebo-controlled studies were significant in favor of homeopathy. Swiss regulations grant a high degree of safety due to product and training requirements for homeopathic physicians. Applied properly, classical homeopathy has few side-effects and the use of high-potencies is free of toxic effects. A general health-economic statement about homeopathy cannot be made from the available data. Taking internal and external validity criteria into account, effectiveness of homeopathy can be supported by clinical evidence and professional and adequate application be regarded as safe. Reliable statements of cost-effectiveness are not available at the moment. External and model validity will have to be taken more strongly into consideration in future studies.
Objective: This is a random blinded placebo controlled murine experimental model to study the effects of Cantharis 6 CH, a homeopathic medicine, on E coli-induced cystitis. Methods: 24 adult susceptible female BALB/c mice were inoculated with E coli - UPEC O4:K-:H5 by a transurethral catheter. Cantharis 6cH or vehicle (placebo) was offered to mice by free access into the drinking water (1:100), during 24 h after infection. Spleen, bladder and kidneys were processed for quantitative histopathology after immunohistochemistry, using anti-CD3, CD79, MIF, NK and VEGF antibodies; the cytokines present in the bladder washing fluid were measured using a LUMINEX-Magpix KIT. Mann-Whitney and Fisher exact test were used as statistical analysis. Results: Cantharis 6 CH increased IL12p40, IFN-γ and decreased IL10 concentrations in the bladder fluid (p⩽0.05); in the bladder mucosa, it increased the ratio between B and T lymphocytes (31%) and between B lymphocytes and MIF+ macrophages (57%, p⩽0.05). In the pelvis, instead, it decreased the B/T cells ratio (41%, p⩽0.05) and increased the M1/M2 macrophage ratio (42%, p⩽0.05). No differences were seen in the kidney and spleen analysis. Conclusion: The inverted balance of inflammatory cells and cytokines in bladder and pelvis mucosa shows specific local immune modulation induced by Cantharis 6cH.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common condition, accounting for 1 to 3% of all primary care consultations in the United Kingdom. It affects patients of both sexes and all ages. The commonest organism causing uncomplicated community-acquired bacterial UTI is Escherichia coli . The occurrence and course of a UTI is influenced by the integrity of the host defence and by bacterial virulence factors. Disruption of the highly specialized transitional cell epithelium which lines the urinary tract, incomplete bladder emptying, anatomical abnormalities, and the presence of a foreign body, such as a urinary catheter, can all contribute to disruption of the host defence and increase the likelihood of infection. Sexual intercourse, use of condoms, and use of spermicides all increase the risk, and genetic factors influence the susceptibility of some people, e.g. girls with the P1 blood group are at increased risk of acute pyelonephritis. Bacterial characteristics that determine their ability to cause infection include specific mechanisms to adhere to the uroepithelium (‘pili’ or ‘fimbrias’ in the case of certain ...
Background & aims: Childhood obesity is increasing and is associated with adult obesity. Antibiotics have been used to promote weight gain in livestock for several decades. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for children, but it is not clear how exposure to antibiotics early in life affects risk for obesity. We performed a population-based cohort study to assess the association between antibiotic exposure before age 2 years and obesity at age 4 years. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 21,714 children in The Health Improvement Network -a population-representative dataset of more than 10 million individuals derived from electronic medical records from 1995 through 2013 in the United Kingdom. Eligible subjects were registered within 3 months of birth with complete follow-up and height and weight were recorded within 12 months of their 4th birthday. Antibiotic exposure was assessed before age 2 years, and classified based on anti-anaerobic activity. The primary outcome was obesity at age 4 years. We performed logistic regression analyses, adjusting for maternal and sibling obesity, maternal diabetes, mode of delivery, socioeconomic status, year and country of birth, and urban dwelling. Results: In the cohort, 1306 of the children (6.4%) were obese at 4 years of age. Antibiotic exposure was associated with an increased risk of obesity at 4 years (odds ratio [OR]=1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.38). Odds ratios increased with repeated exposures: for 1-2 prescriptions, OR=1.07 (95% CI, 0.91-1.23); for 3-5 prescriptions, OR=1.41 (95% CI, 1.20-1.65); for 6 or more prescriptions, OR=1.47 (95% CI, 1.19-1.82). Antifungal agents were not associated with obesity (OR=0.81; 95% CI, 0.59-1.11). Conclusions: Administration of 3 or more courses of antibiotics before children reach an age of 2 years is associated with an increased risk of early childhood obesity.