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The paper investigates how workflows can be communicated and shared through linguistic descriptions, digital content and technological tools. We focus primarily on the content and digital tools of e-learning and VR learning, however the results of the paper can be applied to collaborative workflows in general. The paper compares the effectiveness of three techniques, ranging from well-known to radically new: classical e-mail / attachment based sharing, sharing through web interfaces (through a Moodle frontend), and sharing through a VR interface provided by a recently developed VR engine called MaxWhere. To this end, the paper introduces new methods and a new set of concepts for the purposes of benchmarking digital capabilities and user effectiveness within the domain of workflow sharing. The paper applies these concepts and methods to compare the use of the above listed technologies with the participation of 379 test subjects. Tests shows that the users were able to complete the required workflow at least 50% faster in the MaxWhere 3D environment than in all other competing cases. The paper also proves that 3D environments are capable of providing users with a much higher level of comprehension when it comes to sharing and interpreting digital workflows.
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Acta Polytechnica Hungarica Vol. 15, No. 3, 2018
125
MaxWhere VR-Learning Improves
Effectiveness over Clasiccal Tools of e-learning
Balint Lampert, Attila Pongracz, Judit Sipos, Adel Vehrer,
Ildiko Horvath
VR-Learing Research Lab, Apáczai Faculty, Széchenyi István University
Liszt F. u. 42, H-9022 Győr, Hungary
lampert.balint@sze.hu, pongracz.attila@sze.hu, sipos.judit@sze.hu,
vehrer.adel@sze.hu, horvath.ildiko@sze.hu
Abstract: The paper investigates how workflows can be communicated and shared through
linguistic descriptions, digital content and technological tools. We focus primarily on the
content and digital tools of e-learning and VR learning. However, the results of the paper
can be applied to collaborative workflows in general. The paper compares the effectiveness
of three techniques, ranging from well-known to radically new: classical e-mail /
attachment based sharing, sharing through web interfaces (through a Moodle frontend),
and sharing through a VR interface provided by a recently developed VR engine called
MaxWhere. To this end, the paper introduces new methods and a new set of concepts for
the purposes of benchmarking digital capabilities and user effectiveness within the domain
of workflow sharing. The paper applies these concepts and methods to compare the use of
the above listed technologies with the participation of 379 test subjects. Tests show that the
users were able to complete the required workflow at least 50% faster in the MaxWhere 3D
environment than in all other competing cases. The paper also proves that 3D
environments are capable of providing users with a much higher level of comprehension
when it comes to sharing and interpreting digital workflows.
Keywords: VR-learning; e-learning; Cognitive Infocommunications
1 Introduction
In the past decade, the everyday use of the Internet has become widespread in all
areas of life, including education. However, the question of which digital tools can
be used most effectively in education is still open to debate.
Many educators share their curriculum and learning material using e-learning
tools, which can also be accessed by students having the required access
privileges. Others prefer to simply share the learning materials through e-mail.
B. Lampert et al. MaxWhere VR-Learning Improves Effectiveness over Clasiccal Tools of e-learning
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In the past few years, VR applications have been used in education primarily as
tools for visualization. The MaxWhere VR platform for education was first
released in 2016. Besides serving visualization purposes, MaxWhere’s strength
lies in its ability to present complete electronic notes on smart slides in 3D space.
Through MaxWhere, a powerful combination of interactive 3D visualization,
working environments fit to specific workflows and e-learning can be achieved.
The topic of the paper belongs to Cognitive Infocommunications [1, 2], where the
blended cognitive capabilities of Human and IT solutions are investigated. Within
this topic the paper focus in the research direction of VR-learning and papers
investigating user experience in virtual 3D environments [3, 4,..,25].
The goal of this paper is to provide a systematic comparison among the three
aforementioned techniques in education and in the sharing of collaborative
workflows.
2 Properties and Definitions of Workflow and Digital
Content Sharing
In this section, we provide definitions of key concepts relevant to digital content:
its comprehensibility and accessibility as well as the various forms in which it can
be shared. Further sections of the paper will provide evaluations of various digital
tools and methodologies based on this nomenclature.
Definition 1: Digital element (DE)
A digital element is taken to mean a unit that has to be opened or loaded
separately, in itself with an appropriate software.
Example 1: PDF files, PPT presentations, video files, content accessed through a
specific URL (as a Moodle test or Google form), web apps (e.g. Octave Online),
or source files that can be opened using an editor or IDE are all examples of
digital elements. In the experiments described in the paper, the following digital
elements will be used:
doc1.pdf, doc2.pdf, doc3.pdf
home page 1 at www.hp1.com
pres1.ppt, pres2.ppt
test1 at url www.test1.com es test2 at url www.test2.com
video1.avi,
Definition 2: Digital content
Digital content are defined as a set of digital elements. Digital content can be
quantified based on the number of digital elements contained in the content.
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Example 2: If we consider the digital elements listed in example 1.1. to be the
building blocks of a digital content, the size of the content will be 9 DEs.
Definition 3: Digital fragmentation (DF)
Digital fragmentation is a property of digital content that shows how many
different formats are represented by the digital elements forming the content - i.e.
how many different software tools are required to open or load them.
Remark: we regard digital elements that can be accessed on the web through a url
as being different formats, even though all of them can be loaded using a web
browser. For example, a web page or a Google Drive document or a Moodle test
are three different formats, not one. The reason for this is that although all of the
examples can be opened using a web browser, separate web apps are required to
open all of them.
Example 3: The digital content referred to in the previous examples have a digital
fragmentation of 5 DFs.
Defintion 4: Digital project
A digital project is a set of tasks that are to be carried out on a digital content.
Example 4: Consider the 5DF, 9DE digital content referred to in the previous
examples. The tasks in a digital project associated with that content might be to
fill out two questionnaires based on the information contained in the digital
elements forming the content.
Definition 5: Digital workflow (DW)
Digital workflows determine the order in which individual digital elements are to
be accessed or processed during the course of a digital project. We distinguish
among the following types of digital workflows:
1st order (linear): The digital elements are to be accessed in a static and
sequential order, one after the other
2nd order (loopy): There are loops in the order in which the digital elements are
to be accessed, so that individual elements, or smaller sequences thereof, are to be
accessed repetitively. Such loops can be characterized by length and number of
repetitions.
3rd order (networked): Digital elements accessed during the project are
structured as hierarchical loops, so that the project may contain subprojects of
subprojects, and / or the ordering of digital elements may be different upon
different repetitions of the loops.
4th order (algorithmic): It is possible that the project contains branches, so that
different digital elements are accessed dynamically in an order that depends on
information obtained during the project.
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Example 5.1: The digital workflow is of the 1st order if the order in which the
digital elements are accessed is static and sequential, e.g.:
doc1.pdf -- doc2.pdf -- pres1.ppt -- test1 -- doc3.pdf -- video1.avi -- pres2.ppt --
test2 -- homepage1
Example 5.2: The digital workflow is of the 2nd order if the order in which the
digital elements are accessed has repetitions, loops, e.g.:
doc1.pdf -- doc2.pdf -- pres1.ppt -- test1 -- doc2.pdf -- pres1.ppt - test1 --
doc3.pdf -- video1.avi -- pres2.ppt -- test2 -- pres2.ppt -- test2 -- homepage1
akkor ezt a digitalis workflow-t 2 rendunek nevezzuk
Example 5.3: The digital workflow is of the 3rd order if the order in which the
digital elements are accessed has hierarchical, embedded loops, e.g.:
doc1.pdf -- [doc2.pdf -- pres1.ppt -- test1] -- [doc2.pdf -- pres1.ppt - test1] --
(doc3.pdf -- video1.avi -- {pres2.ppt -- test2} -- {pres2.ppt -- test2} - [doc2.pdf --
pres1.ppt -- test1] -- [doc2.pdf -- pres1.ppt - test1] -- doc3.pdf -- video1.avi --{
pres2.ppt -- test2 }-- {pres2.ppt -- test2} - [doc2.pdf -- pres1.ppt -- test1 ] --
[doc2.pdf -- pres1.ppt - test1 ]--) -- [doc2.pdf -- pres1.ppt -- test1] -- doc3.pdf --
video1.avi --{ pres2.ppt -- test2} --{ pres2.ppt -- test2} - [ doc2.pdf -- pres1.ppt --
test1] --[ doc2.pdf -- pres1.ppt - test1] -- homepage1
where in reality
[doc2.pdf -- pres1.ppt -- test1]
and
{pres2.ppt -- test2}
can also be regarded as subprojects
Based on the definition, the workflow is also of the 3rd order if the repeating
loops are not always the same
doc1.pdf -- doc2.pdf -- pres1.ppt -- test1 -- doc2.pdf -- pres1.ppt - test1 --
doc2.pdf -- -- test1 -- pres1.ppt - test1 -- doc3.pdf -- video1.avi -- pres2.ppt --
test2 -- pres2.ppt -- test2 -- homepage1
Example 5.4: if the order of access of digital elements depends on information
obtained during the workflow (i.e. there are branches in determining access to
digital elements), then the workflow is of the 4th order, as in the following case:
doc1.pdf -- doc2.pdf -- pres1.ppt -- test1
if test 1 was successful then -- doc3.pdf -- video1.avi -- pres2.ppt -- test2 --
homepage1
if test 1 was NOT successful then -- homepage1
we may have a further branch at test 2 that leads to an even more complicated
chain.
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Through examples 5.1 - 5.4, it is clear that as the order of the workflows grows, so
it becomes more difficult to represent them. For example, the workflow in
example 5.1 can be expressed as a list:
Step 1 -- doc1.pdf - click here to open
Step 2 -- doc2.pdf - click here to open
Step 3 -- pres 1.ppt - click here to open
Step 4 test1 - click here to open
step 5 doc3.pdf - click here to open
step 6 video1.avi - click here to open
step 7 pres2.ppt - click here to open
step 8 test2 - click here to open
step 9 homepage1 - click here to open
However, the workflows in examples 5.2 and 5.3 are already very difficult to
convey using text, which makes the execution of such workflows even more
difficult than purely justifiable by their order. In such cases, representation
through a dashboard or 2D graphical UI can help a lot (see Figures 1-3).
Figure 1
Workflow of the 2nd order, from example 5.2, as expressed using a process diagram
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Figure 2
Workflow of the 3rd order, from example 5.3
Figure 3
Workflow of the 4th order, from example 5.4, expressed using a process diagram
Based on the following, we make the following remarks in terms of accessibility
and comprehensibility.
Lemma 1: Digital workflows of the 1st order can be conveyed well using text
alone. Digital workflows of the 2nd order can be conveyed using text, but are
better conveyed using a graphical process diagram. Digital workflows of the 3rd
order are very difficult - if not impossible - to convey using text, depending on the
complexity of the workflow. In more complex cases, the paths guiding the
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workflow may even intersect and become entangled on the process diagram,
making it difficult for humans to comprehend the diagram (see Figure 4, which
shows that in such cases spatial diagrams may be used to good effect). In the case
of digital workflows of the 4th order, where the workflows, in addition to being
characterized by complex paths between the digital elements to be accessed, are
also dynamic, no 2D graphical representation can be expected to work well, aside
from the simplest of cases.
All of the above observations are summarized in Table 1.
Figure 4
In more complex cases, loops in the workflow can better be represented in 3D space
Table 1
In the table, a value of 1 means that a digital workflow of the given order can be well represented in
the given representation. A value of 0.5 means that although a digital workflow of the given order may
be represented using the given representation, in more complex cases the representation cannot be
expected to be effective. The letter X in the table symbolizes the fact that the given representation is
not effective or cannot be used at all for a digital workflow of the given order.
DW
1
2
3
4
text based description
1
0,5
x
x
2D description
1
1
0,5
x
3D description
1
1
1
1
The comprehensibility of a digital workflow can be improved if the blocks in its
representation can be clicked on and the corresponding digital elements open or
load accordingly (or are already displayed alongside the blocks to begin with).
The reason for this is that any ordering (even alphabetical ordering) of the digital
elements that are independent of the representation itself will lead to the user
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having to continually search for the element that needs to be accessed - a task that
can be tedious and error-prone. Thus, it is worth distinguishing between
representations in which the digital elements are embedded into the representation
and those, in which, that are not.
Definition 6: Linked Digital Element (LDE)
A digital element is referred to as a Linked Digital Element (LDE) if it can be
accessed by clicking on a link included in the representation (whether text-based
or other) of the digital workflow.
Definition 7. Embedded Digital Element (EDE)
A digital element is referred to as an Embedded Digital Element (EDE) if it can be
accessed without any additional interaction, together with the blocks
corresponding to the digital elements within the representation of the digital
workflow.
Example 7: Figure 5 shows an example of the block diagram with a pdf file, a
video and an interactive application (Octave Online) providing real-time graphical
output. All of the digital elements in the example are embedded into the
representation of the workflow.
Based on the above, the following definition is formulated:
Definition 8: Digital comprehension (DC)
Digital comprehension is a qualitative concept that can be used to describe the
quality of a representation with respect to a digital workflow. The following types
of digital comprehension can be distinguished:
0th order: There is no ordering among the digital elements of the workflow.
1st order: There is a linear (sequential) ordering among the digital elements of
the workflow, potentially supplemented with text descriptions.
2nd order: The linked digital elements of the digital workflow are ordered in 2D
using icons on a dashboard. Relationships between the linked digital elements are
represented in 2D and the icons representing the digital elements act as links to
the elements.
3rd order: The order among the linked digital elements within the digital
workflow is represented in a 3D space. The icons within the space are
representations of the digital elements and links to them at the same time.
4th order: The digital elements and their relationships are represented in 3D
space in a linked or embedded form - i.e. the digital elements are not only
accessible through links but are also displayed continually as part of the visual
description of the workflow.
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Remark: there is no such representation as the embedded (EDE) form of 2nd order
iconic dashboards. The reason for this is that in such cases, the running
(embedded) applications cannot be effectively presented on a 2D monitor, so that
the representation itself is already considered to be 3D; even if they are displayed
on a flat screen, users need to access them via zoom in / out operations, and on a
virtual canvas that is usually much larger than the 2D screen itself (for example,
this is how Prezi software is able to call its presentations 3D).
Example 8: The text-based description of the digital workflow in example 5.6 has
a digital comprehension (DC) of the 1st order. Figures 1, 2 and 3 show workflows
of with a DC of the 2nd order. Figure 4 shows an example of a workflow with a
DC of the 3rd order.
Figure 5
A workflow represented at a DC level of the 4th order, such that the digital elements are presented in
3D via running applications (EDE type elements).
Based on the above, the following relationship can be set up between digital
comprehension and digital workflows.
Table 2
In the table, a value of 1 means that a representation with a digital comprehension of the given order
can be used to represent a workflow of the given order effectively. A value of 0.5 means that although
a representation with a digital comprehension of the given order may be used with respect to a given
order of workflow, in more complex cases the representation cannot be expected to be effective. The
letter X in the table symbolizes the fact that the given representation is not effective or cannot be used
at all for a digital workflow of the given order.
DW
1
3
4
1 rendu DC
1
x
x
2 rendu DC
1
0,5
x
3 rendu DC
1
1
0,5
4 rendu DC
1
1
1
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Definition 9: Digital guidance
none: no guidance is applicable, or the representation of the digital content
doesn’t involve embedded digital elements (instead, the elements are provided
through separate lists).
sequential (DG-S): The digital elements are traversed in sequential order. It is
thus possible to jump between one element to the next in the context of a digital
workflow.
random access (DG-R - event/dynamic focus-driven): One can switch between
sequences of digital elements, and thus follow non-static sequences (for example,
in the case of DWs of the 4th order).
Example 9: Consider a DW of the 1st order represented with a DC of order 1,
such that the digital elements are embedded using hyperlinks within the text. In
this way, one can step forward and backward between digital elements using the
page dn / page up keys.
In non-linear cases it is especially effective when users can jump, or branch in a
random access fashion within a workflow represented in a 2D or 3D space (DW of
the 4th order), such that the jumps are automatically adapted to the workflow.
Similar to table 1 and 2, it is possible to define a relation between digital
guidances and digital workflows:
Table 3
Contains the result of comparing in pairs with the final result
DW
1
2
3
4
DG-S
1
1
0,5
x
DG-R
1
1
1
1
To summarize the above tables, it is clearly visible that a platform allowing for
Digital Comprehension and Digital Guidance of the 4th order can be expected to
be most effective in the transmission of even Digital Workflows of the 4th order,
while a system capable of achieving a Digital Comprehension of only the 1st order
(text-based) will be very limited in its ability to convey workflows.
For the sake of completeness, it is worth introducing a further two definition.
Definition 10: Digital complexity
Digital complexity describes the complexity of the mapping (“assignment”)
between digital elements. For example, if in order to fully interpret a digital
element, the user has to access a further digital element, then the two are
“assigned” to each other. Three different kinds of assignment can be
distinguished:
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135
i) one-to-one: refers to pairs of digital elements which are assigned to each other
in both directions (i.e. the interpretation of each requires the other).
ii) one-to-many: refers to digital elements that can be interpreted only in the
context of multiple other digital elements.
iii) many-to-many: refers to groups of digital elements that can be interpreted only
in the context of (the same group of) multiple other digital elements.
Example 10: if a user needs to consult two digital elements in order to fill out a
test, the digital complexity of the test is one-to-many.
Defintion 11
A digital map is the contextual system underlying digital elements, which in many
cases coincides with the digital chain.
3 Comparison of Classical, e-learning and
MaxWhere VR-based Learning Frameworks
In the following, we begin by outlining the 3 most common techniques used for
sharing digital workflows. We then compare those techniques based on the
conceptual framework outlined in earlier sections.
1. Classical - TXT based message
This technique consists of sending digital elements and digital content to a group
of recipients as attachments to a text-based message, or as web links inside a text-
based message (e.g. sent via e-mail or any kind of messenger application).
Because of the text-based medium it uses, the classical technique can be regarded
as an example of Digital Comprehension of the 1st order. In the case of digital
workflows conveyed through text, the associated digital elements cannot be
integrated into the text (although links to web-based content can). Therefore, this
approach can be referred to as having an LDE of 0.5. Correspondingly, it cannot
be a part of a continuous guiding scheme, and therefore can be conceived of as
representing a DG level of Not Applicable.
Lemma 3.1: The classical approach therefore can be characterized as having a DC
of order 0, no EDE, an LDE of 0.5 and a DG of ‘not applicable’.
2. Online interfaces such as Moodle
This technique consists of helping users access and / or download digital elements
and digital content through an on-line web-based interface.
In the simplest of cases, the approach of using online interfaces can be equivalent
to the classical approach (with the added quality of being web-based), such that
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the task to be carried out is described using text, and the required digital elements
are listed in some order at the end of the text.
At the same time, an important advantage of online interfaces is that links
embedded into the text can be used to share not only digital elements that have a
web-based url, but more generally any kind of digital format (EDE). Thus, the
digital elements can be ordered inside the text as required by the digital workflow,
and sequential DGs can be conveyed without a problem, as long as the digital
elements are ordered and users are able to move between them using a scrolling
operation or a specific combination of keys (e.g. page up and page dn).
Online interfaces are not amenable to the presentation of digital elements in a 2D
process diagram. Thus, even if a digital workflow is presented through an image
or a diagram, this solution can be regarded as only partial in view of the
requirements of 2nd order DCs.
Lemma 3.2: As a result, online e-learning systems are typically capable of
presenting DCs of the 1st order (complemented with LDE, DG-S), and can
therefore be used to represent digital workflows of the 1st (and in some cases,
2nd) order.
3. The MaxWhere Operating System
From an IT perspective, the MaxWhere OS contains no digital elements. Instead,
it gives users access to a single (pack or bundle) file, which can be loaded and
which contains references to all of the digital elements that are in turn loaded
recursively.
All digital content and elements thereof are displayed in thematic groups in 3D.
Digital elements are displayed in smartboards, or opened using browser
technology integrated into smartboards, hence the representation of the elements is
of type EDE. In contrast, to text-based descriptions, the entire process underlying
the workflow is in this case represented spatially, through digital elements that are
laid out and opened in space.
Lemma 3.3 In summary, MaxWhere has the capability to represent workflows
with a DC of the 4th order, with EDEs and DG-R - hence, it is suitable for the
effective execution of DWs of the 4th order.
The following table summarizes the capabilities of classical, online web-based (e-
learning) and MaxWhere operating system based approaches:
Table 4
Capabilities of classical, online web-based (e-learning) and MaxWhere operating system based
approaches
DW
1
2
3
4
EDR
EDE
Classical
1
0.5
x
x
0.5
x
e-learning
1
1
0.5
x
1
x
MaxWhere
1
1
1
1
1
1
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4 Experimental Evaluation of User Effectiveness
In this chapter, results of experimental evaluations are provided. The goal of these
experiments was to investigate the effectiveness with which users can execute
digital workflows shared through classical approaches, online interfaces and
MaxWhere. The digital workflow used in the experiments was of the 1st order,
with 11 DEs and a DC of type 5DF. The experiments were carried out on 379
students.
4.1 Digital Content
The digital content was comprised of 1 PowerPoint file, 1 PDF file, 1 video file, 4
webpages and a further 4 tests. From the point of view of digital complexity, the
task involved both one-to-one and one-to-many relationships. Specifically, 1
(separate) test was to be filled out in the context of the PowerPoint file, the PDF
file and the video file, respectively. A final test was given to users in the context
of the 4 webpages. Therefore, the last test was characterized by a one-to-many
relationship.
4.2 Digital Workflow
The key to solving the digital workflow effectively was the appropriate
organization of the digital elements. Thus, users had to make sure that they could
answer the questions on the first three tests based on the information contained in
the PowerPoint file, the PDF file and the video file, respectively; and that they
could answer the questions on the final test based on all 4 webpages provided to
them in the context of that test. Since the task could be carried out by considering
the digital elements in sequential order, the DW can be regarded as being of the
1st order. Naturally, the fact that in specific cases users could decide to go back to
the previous digital elements for clarification does not mean that they are required
to do so, and does not increase the order of the DW.
4.3 Sharing of the DW
Classic: one group of users received the DW based on the classical approach,
through e-mail. The body of the email contained a textual description of the
workflow, and the digital elements required for the workflow were attached to the
e-mail. Finally, the webpages and tests were included as links at the end of the
body of the email. The naming of the attachments and links were chosen to reflect
the identity of the digital elements well.
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Online interface: A second group of users received the DW on through the
Moodle platform. Similar to the classic approach, the description of the workflow
was text-based in this case as well. However, a simple form of digital guidance
was also available to users in this case, given that each step within the description
of the workflow included an embedded reference to the digital elements required
for that step. As a result, users were able to perform the workflow step by step
instead of first having to obtain a holistic overview of the workflow. In effect, the
users’ ability to scroll through the steps guaranteed a DG of type S in this case.
MaxWhere: Regardless of whether this group of users received the workflow on
an online surface or through the classical approach, they could import the digital
elements into MaxWhere, which then provided a spatial arrangement of EDEs in
smartboards. In the case of the PowerPoint file, each slide was added to a separate
smartboard. The tests were loaded in smartboards that were closest to the digital
elements related to them. The MaxWhere Operating System also had built-in
functionalities for S and R type DG, which could be made use of by the test
subjects.
4.4 Experimental Procedure
In the classic case, test subjects received the workflow via e-mail or Facebook.
The measurement of time to complete the workflow began when the e-mail or
Facebook message was opened. In the case of the Moodle-based approach, the
measurement of time began when the module for the workflow was opened.
Finally, the same approach was used in the MaxWhere condition: the
measurement of time began when users opened the e-mail containing the pack file
for the workflow.
4.5 Details of Workflow Transmission
4.5.1 In the Classic Case, Test Subjects Received the Following e-mail
---------------------------------------------------------------
Dear Students,
Please take a look at the material listed under poinot A), and fill out the tests under
point B) based on the material.
A. Materials on Google Drive and other webpages:
a. Click here:
https://drive.google.com/open?id=0By19Pc3VT68aOUZ2bGtKMGNSRzQ
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1. Diasor.pptx
2. PDF-dokumentum.pdf
3. Video.mp4
b. Webpages:
https://drive.google.com/open?id=0By19Pc3VT68aNHRFY2Q2dUkzLU0
2. https://drive.google.com/open?id=0By19Pc3VT68abEIyWjJDblVyTW8
3. https://drive.google.com/open?id=0By19Pc3VT68aY21yWU0zc0FIc1U
4. https://drive.google.com/open?id=0By19Pc3VT68aLWRLUFBCZDI2dFE
B. Test forms:
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdd8tF1R9pwmmwc-
GqNrQvirnog8IgvTJmBbbrq90tBGbu8uw/viewform?usp=sf_link
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScNGnvtAEard6yfdpXGMw2lj6cG
MoawZJ6kCvlriXUgseQG5A/viewform?usp=sf_link
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdmeMFNDEFRTLEdfK5PTIy7uwZ
bQTwmKKddiYn9_q7_9X_CQg/viewform?usp=sf_link
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScEflnfw8bfla0Tw3gpY-
kJATTOo1TvqVXLK5ng7rY0NWYGcg/viewform?usp=sf_l
Sincerely, ...
------------------------------------
It is clear based on the above that the relationships between digital elements are
not at all transparent. We used two different ways to add the digital content to the
e-mail. In the first case we attached all files to the e-mail. In second case we put
the link of the content located on the Google drive.
4.5.2 In the Case of the Online Interface, Test Subjects had to Open the
Following Page
---------------------------------
Dear Students,
Diasor
B. Lampert et al. MaxWhere VR-Learning Improves Effectiveness over Clasiccal Tools of e-learning
140
Please click on the "Diasor" link above, take a look at the slides and then answer
the test questions that can be accessed through the following link:
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdd8tF1R9pwmmwc-
GqNrQvirnog8IgvTJmBbbrq90tBGbu8uw/viewform?usp=sf_link
PDF documentum
Please click on the "PDF-dokumentum" link above, take a look at the pdf file and
then answer the test questions that can be accessed through the following link:
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScNGnvtAEard6yfdpXGMw2lj6cG
MoawZJ6kCvlriXUgseQG5A/viewform?usp=sf_link
Video
Please click on the "Video" link above, watch the video and then answer the test
questions that can be accessed through the following link:
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdmeMFNDEFRTLEdfK5PTIy7uwZ
bQTwmKKddiYn9_q7_9X_CQg/viewform?usp=sf_link
Please take a look at the following webpages:
https://drive.google.com/open?id=0By19Pc3VT68aNHRFY2Q2dUkzLU0
2. https://drive.google.com/open?id=0By19Pc3VT68abEIyWjJDblVyTW8
3. https://drive.google.com/open?id=0By19Pc3VT68aY21yWU0zc0FIc1U
4. https://drive.google.com/open?id=0By19Pc3VT68aLWRLUFBCZDI2dFE
Afterwards, please answer the test questions that can be accessed through the
following link:
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScEflnfw8bfla0Tw3gpY-
kJATTOo1TvqVXLK5ng7rY0NWYGcg/viewform?usp=sf_l
-------------------------------------
In this case, the order in which the sub-tasks were to be completed and the
relevant digital elements to each sub-task were clearly delineated, therefore the
workflow was supported by a DG of type S.
Acta Polytechnica Hungarica Vol. 15, No. 3, 2018
141
4.5.3 In the MaxWhere Case, Test Subjects Received the Following e-mail
—————
Dear Students,
Please open the following pack file using MaxWhere, and go through the space
using the guiding functionality of MaxWhere. While doing so, please fill out the 4
tests included in the pack.
Sincerely,
-------------
4.6 Details of the Digital Elements
The PowerPoint file contained 14 slides. Each slide contained an image of a cat or
a dog (see Appendix 1).
The PDF file contained 3 pages, each showing images of either a cat or a dog (see
Appendix 2).
The video (30sec) contained a sequence of 5 static images, with one of them
showing a dog (see Appandix 3).
Finally, each of the 4 webpages contained an image of a single animal -- either a
cat or a dog (see Appendix 4).
4.7 Results of the Experiment
The number of students tested using the classical e-mail with attached content and
with linked contennt, online platform and MaxWhere-based approach were 115,
77, 97 and 90 respectively.
Figures 6, 7 and 8 show the results of the test. The horizontal axes represent the
time required to complete the test. The vertical axes represent the precentage of
users corresponding to the given number of minutes.
The average and standard deviation of the time required to complete the workflow
in each of the cases were:
E-mail with attachment: average: 6:42, standard deviation: 3:02
E-mail with Google Drive links: average: 5:54, standard deviation: 1:39
Moodle average: 6:42, standard deviation: 3:03
MaxWhere average: 3:11, standard deviation: 0:46
B. Lampert et al. MaxWhere VR-Learning Improves Effectiveness over Clasiccal Tools of e-learning
142
Figure 6
Test in which files were sent via e-mail attachment.
Figure 7
Test in which digital content was sent through Google Drive links via e-mail
Figure 8
Test in which the digital workflow and digital content was shared through the Moodle e-learning
framework
Acta Polytechnica Hungarica Vol. 15, No. 3, 2018
143
Figure 9
Test in which the digital workflow and digital content was shared through the MaxWhere 3D
environment
Conclusions
This paper investigated how workflows can be communicated and shared through
linguistic descriptions, digital content and technological tools. We focused
primarily on the content and digital tools of e-learning and VR learning. However,
the results of the paper can be applied to collaborative workflows in general. The
results of the paper show that users of the MaxWhere VR environment could
complete digital workflows in considerably less time (i.e., 50% faster) than using
the more traditional (e-mail based and content management system based)
approaches. It is also remarkable that the standard deviations of completion times
are considerably smaller in the case where the MaxWhere-based approach was
used. Although the reasons behind this observation may need to be clarified
through further investigations, it nevertheless points to the conclusion that the
whole process of comprehension is rendered clearer than usual in 3D
environments capable of representing 4th order digital workflows with automatic
guiding, as pointed out in the paper.
Acknowledgement
This work was supported by FIEK program (Center for cooperation between
higher education and the industries at the Széchenyi István University, GINOP-
2.3.4-15-2016-00003)
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Appendix
Appendix 1. Slides
Appendix 2. Pages of the PDF file
Acta Polytechnica Hungarica Vol. 15, No. 3, 2018
147
Appendix 3. Content on the Video
Appendix 4. Webpages
... In more application-specific works, researchers have shown specifically that desktop 3D environments can be highly effective in a variety of education and training scenarios [18][19][20][21][22][23]. Still, the question of whether immersive and non-immersive 3D applications can be used to the same benefit is a topic of debate and seems to depend on several (perhaps even some as yet unknown) factors. ...
... In an experiment conducted by Lampert et al. [23], a group of test subjects were tasked with carrying out a specific workflow in the shortest possible time on different platforms. In order to control for differences in test subjects' background knowledge, a simple task was chosen, in which the goal was to count the number of dogs versus cats on a large set of images, pdfs and videos. ...
... One additional result in the paper by Lampert et al. was that they also proposed a qualitative framework (based on numeric degrees) with which to characterize the complexity of workflows. One can conceptualize a workflow as a control flow graph similar to the way algorithms are formally described, and the characteristics of different kinds of loops within the graph can be associated with the complexity of the workflow [23]. ...
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3D virtual reality spaces, whether running on desktop environments or on immersive displays, have been noted to support a radically new and highly stimulating way of working with digital content in a variety of application domains. At the same time, research in recent decades has produced a number of experimental results showing that the use of 3D, as opposed to 2D interfaces, can lead to performance improvements from a wide range of aspects, including the ability to comprehend and retain knowledge, ability to work collaboratively in more creative and effective ways, and ability to carry out workflows integrating numerous sources of information in less time. In this paper, we first review the relevant literature; then, we describe an exploratory study that we carried out with test subjects, both in a 3D desktop virtual environment and in a 2D web-based environment, while collecting eye tracking data. In the study, subjects were presented with a set of multimedia content on a range of topics within the field of astronomy, based on which they were subsequently asked to fill out a set of questionnaires. By comparing the 2D and 3D cases in terms of correctness of answers, time taken to perform the task, pupil dilation measurements, subjects’ self-reported difficulty assessments, as well as various kinds of high-level interaction patterns employed during the task (in 3D), we were able to identify a set of descriptive markers which may be relevant to the prediction of users’ effectiveness in virtual reality workspaces. In a weaker sense, the results also seem to support previous research works claiming improved effectiveness in 3D spaces compared to 2D web-based interfaces, although further work is needed to more clearly identify the constraints within which such benefits can be guaranteed.
... The COVID-19 pandemic forced a mass migration to emergency remote learning (ERT) where the primary objective of educators was to get all students online as quickly as possible [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. This rapid transition lies in contrast to how many effective online platforms were previously built using careful design, planning, and significant student feedback [17]. ...
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In August of 2020, the United Nations reported that the COVID-19 pandemic had affected 1.6 billion learners, in more than 190 countries and on all continents [1]. The closing of schools and other learning spaces impacted an astonishing 94% of the world's student population. These sudden school closures, at all levels, had the immediate and unprecedented effect of triggering a mass migration to emergency remote teaching. While mass vaccinations have enabled educational institutions to reopen and students to return to classrooms in the Fall of 2021, the educational disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic is far from over. Higher education must now permanently transition from reductionist, emergency remote learning systems to permanent, holistic online learning platforms. In order to better understand this transition, an online survey was delivered to diverse groups of international students attending Corvinus University and ESSCA School of Management, at the beginning and end of the Spring 2021 semester. The analysis of this survey, strongly indicates that the home and social environments of University, had a significant impact on the student's learning aptitudes.
... Metacognition also refers to a domain-general skill (Biró et al., 2017;Lampert et al., 2018) that helps individuals "learn how to learn" (Delors, 1996;Flavell, 2000;Medel-Anonuevo et al., 2001). In educational contexts, metacognition is considered to be crucial for students' learning, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills (Gogh & Kovari, 2018;Lai, 2011;Sonnenberg & Bannert, 2016; van Velzen, 2016; Winne & Hadwin, 2012). ...
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