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The impact of a boxing training program on physical fitness and technical performance effectiveness

  • Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University

Abstract and Figures

The aim of the recent study was to investigate the impact of boxing training intervention on general and specific physical fitness variables, as well as technical performance effectiveness (TPE) components. Thirty two male participants (aged = 22.84 ± 2.6 years) were recruited into a boxing (n=17) or control (n=15) groups. For eight weeks, both groups were carried out 3 workouts per week, comprising of sum 24 workouts of 120-min each (≈48 hours). General physical fitness variables (e.g. 30-min sprint test, 5×10m shuttle run test, 30 s sit ups, 10 s push-ups , standing broad jump, sit and reach test), specific physical fitness variables (e.g. lead hand punch 30s, rear hand punch 30s, total punches 30s, total punches in 1-min) and TPE components (e.g. defensive skills effectiveness, offensive skills effectiveness, and total TPE) were investigated before and after post the training interventions. After eight weeks, significant differences were noted (P< 0.05) among the boxing and control groups within the post measurements, to the preferability of the boxing group. Boxing intervention was more efficient to develop physical fitness and TPE variables better than traditional intervention. Boxing coaches should utilize specific physical fitness exercises next to technical and tactical drills which comprise the vital components of effectual contest.
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Journal of Physical Education and Sport
(JPES), 18(2), Art 137, pp. 926 - 932, 2018
online ISSN: 2247 - 806X; p-ISSN: 2247 – 8051; ISSN - L = 2247 - 8051 © JPES
926 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Corresponding Author SAID EL-ASHKER., E-mail:
Original Article
The impact of a boxing training program on physical fitness and technical
performance effectiveness
Faculty of Physical Education, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
Department, Deanship of Preparatory Year, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University,
Dammam, KSA
Published online: June 30, 2018
(Accepted for publication June 05, 2018)
The aim of the recent study was to investigate the impact of boxing training intervention on general and specific
physical fitness variables, as well as technical performance effectiveness (TPE) components. Thirty two male
participants (aged = 22.84 ± 2.6 years) were recruited into a boxing (n=17) or control (n=15) groups. For eight
weeks, both groups were carried out 3 workouts per week, comprising of sum 24 workouts of 120 minutes each
(48 hours). General physical fitness variables (e.g. 30 m sprint test, 5×10m shuttle run test, 30 s sit ups, 10 s
push-ups , standing broad jump, sit and reach test), specific physical fitness variables (e.g. lead hand punch 30s,
rear hand punch 30s, total punches 30s, total punches in 1m) and TPE components (e.g. defensive skills
effectiveness, offensive skills effectiveness, and total TPE) were investigated before and after post the training
interventions. After eight weeks, significant differences were noted (P< 0.05) among the boxing and control
groups within the post measurements, to the preferability of the boxing group. Boxing intervention was more
efficient to develop physical fitness and TPE variables better than traditional intervention. Boxing coaches
should utilize specific physical fitness exercises next to technical and tactical drills which comprise the vital
components of effectual contest.
Key Words:Boxing, physical fitness, defensive skills, offensive skills
Combat sports has been reported that might occupy affirmative impact on physical fitness (Cox, 1993;
Woodward, 2009). The impact of combat sports exercise was examined in some researches on young people
(Fukuda et al., 2013; Violan, Small, Zetaruk, & Micheli, 1997) adolescents (Fong & Ng, 2012; Melhim, 2001),
older people (Brudnak, Dundero, & Van Hecke, 2002; Pons Van Dijk, Lenssen, Leffers, Kingma, & Lodder,
2013) and disordered persons (Fong, Tsang, & Ng, 2012). The majority of these researches informed that combat
sports practice included a considerable development in both physical fitness and motor competence.
Boxing is a combat sport dates back to the ancient Egypt civilizations and is likely one of the oldest martial arts
in the historiography of combating (Jordan & Herrera, 2008). Boxers wear official gloves, engaged at equal
weight category, fighting in a timed contest (3 rounds x 3 min) with one minute interval between rounds (AIBA,
2017). At each round, judges evaluate scores of both boxers in accordance with the sum of clean punches
directed the target area of the opponent with the knuckle part of the glove (Osman, 1993). Performing attacks
and defenses using from variety of movements and positions that incorporate offensive and defensive actions as
well as counter-attack movements necessitate a high extent of physical capacity (Davis, Wittekind, & Beneke,
2013; EL-Ashker, 2011).
Boxing training program comprises a variety of basic and complex skills (El Ashker, 2012), plus
sparring drills (Thomson & Lamb, 2016; Thomson & Lamb, 2017). Recent research (Jackson, Edginton-
Bigelow, Cooper, & Merriman, 2012), inspected a significant effect of utilizing a sport specific training program
on selected physical fitness component (i.e., balance) with mobility impairments. To date, no researches
investigated the effect of boxing training program on general or specific physical fitness components plus
technical performance effectiveness among adults boxers neither in Egypt nor in the Eastern Mediterranean
region. In reference to the hypothetical deliberation recommended, we hypothesized that boxing training
program would be linked positively with physical fitness and technical performance effectiveness. Consequently,
the aim of the recent study is to examine the impact of boxing training program intervention on general and
specific physical fitness components as well as technical performance effectiveness.
Materials and methods
Thirty two male participants from Dakahlia (Egyptian province lying northeast of Cairo) sports clubs
who participated three times at least in national boxing contests, were recruited to contribute in the current study.
Participants were randomly apportioned to boxing (n=17) or control (n=15) groups. Of the preliminary
commencing cohort (see Figure 1), participants accomplished all study procedures. The boxing group
characteristics were (age: 22.6 ± 1.7 years, body weight: 75.3 ± 8.2 Kg, stature: 174.7 ± 9.4 cm, body mass
index: 20.4 ± 3.8 kg/m
) whereas the control group characteristics were (age: 23.1 ± 2.1 years, body weight: 77.2
± 9.1 Kg, stature: 173.9 ± 10.2 cm, body mass index: 21.2 ± 2.6 kg/m
). Eligibility criteria predetermined that
participants were involved at least in 2 to 3 training workouts per week, non-smokers, and were qualified to
participate in the interventions according to the study plan, based on a written medical questionnaires completed
earlier to the study.
Exclusion criteria were as follows: present or past severe illness, recent physical injury, performing
other boxing training workouts per week, attend ˂ 90% training adherence, or absence from post-test. All
participants were knowledgeable about the study objectives, risks and benefits, that contribution was voluntary,
as well as they possibly retreat from the study. Local institutional review board reviewed and approved the study.
Figure 1. Participant recruitment and contribution in the training interventions.
All Participants were examined at baseline (pre the training programs interventions) and after eight
weeks (post the training program interventions). All were familiar with measurements procedures two weeks
prior to the beginning of the measurements. All measurements were executed at the similar time of day to
decrease the impact of diurnal differences on performance (Rae, Stephenson, & Roden, 2015). Participants were
informed not to receive any medications, caffeine, or implement any vigorous activity in the 24 hours prior to
assessing measurements. Six qualified research assistants and three neutral boxing referees examined
participants’ physical fitness and technical performance effectiveness variables.
Training program interventions
Both training program interventions were carried out 3 times per week lasting for 8 weeks, comprising
of sum 24 workouts of 120 minutes each (48 hours). Within training workouts, participants informed to keep
the daily dietary as consistent as possible. Training programme’ intensity was considered using Karvonen’s
method [Target Pulse Rate = [(utmost pulse rate resting pulse rate) × %Intensity) + resting pulse rate] (Diaz-
Buschmann, Jaureguizar, Calero, & Aquino, 2014) ; whereas utmost pulse rate was estimated as deduct
participant’s age from 220.
Boxing training program intervention
Boxing intervention program were divided into three progressive stages; 1
stage was intended to
general physical fitness development in addition to affirm building up essential and basic technical skills; 2
stage planned to expand specific physical fitness variables as well as improve complex technical skills together
with contest practice; 3
stage was projected to regulate and correct technical performance, practice competition
plus highlighting tactical guidance. Workouts consist of boxing specific activities [i.e., core strengthening
exercises - shadow boxing - simulate quick, counter with a snap back and twist include - skipping rope-
medicine ball rotational throws speed footwork - cardio boxing –boxing bags working with dancing ball
speed ball – combating with one hand or two handed – combating with tall, short, right, or opponent left handed
opponent- boxing combinations –conditioned boxing – and free boxing].
Control training program intervention
Control group executed only general physical exercises activities consisted of a number of recreational
and physical fitness practice near to school’s classes, intended to be more comprehensive and active. The
workouts involved of general sport and physical activities [i.e., basketball volleyball football – handball -
table tennis – athletics - core conditioning – running - basic motor skills - perform offensive or defensive skills
individually – closed boxing ‘both boxers are familiar with what is going to happen’].
Test procedures
10×5 m shuttle run test
This test was utilized to measure speed and agility. Participants were instructed to sprint as quick as possible
between two markers 5 m apart 10 times (Council of Europe, 1988).
Sit and reach test
Each participant was seated on the floor with legs stretched out straight ahead with knees locked, pressed flat to
the floor, and fully extended. Participants were instructed to touches forward along the scale line as far as
possible, whereas palms lining downwards, and hands side by side. Score is considered to the nearby centimeter
as the length attained by the hand (Council of Europe, 1988).
30 m sprint test
Subsequently a 10-min standardized warm-up with lower body stretching routine, from a standing start
positionon a football field, participants instructed to accomplish two 30-m sprints with 60 s recovery
intervalsbetween sprints. Best sprint time was considered for data analysis (Chu, 1996).
10 s Push-Up Test
The participants informed to push up off the floor as quick as possible and straighten their arms without bending
the elbow joints, while maintaining back and legs straight. During the test, the back must be sustained continuing
in the equivalent line without any deviating between head and toes. Then, participants should lowers the body by
the arms till elbows angles reach 90° with upper arms are paralleled to the floor. Test movement is repeated as
quick as possible (Hassanein, 1987).
Sit-ups in 30seconds
Starting from sitting on aflat ground with the knees is bent ≈90° of flexion,alongwithkeeping the feet areheld
down by a research assistant and located≈10cm apart on the ground.Handswere fastened behind the neck region.
After hearing the beep sound, participant raise the chest with the upper body is upright, subsequently go back to
the ground and return this movement as quick as possible(Council of Europe, 1988; Ryman Augustsson et al.,
Standing broad jump
The participant stood with feet somewhat apart behind a marked line, with swinging the arms along with bending
knees to supply forward drive then take-off strongly to jump forward and landing on both feet. Measurement is
considered from take-off point to the closest point of touch on the ground when landing (back of the heels). Test
was performed 2 times, and the highest record was accredited (Castro-Piñero et al., 2009; Council of Europe,
Technical performance effectiveness (TPE)
All subjects were video analyzed trough 3 x 3 min duration boxing match. Three authentic neutral boxing judges,
who weren’t aware of the study objectives, evaluateand referee the defensive, offensive, and total TPE based on
Khedr’s (1996) method as below.
Participants defensive performance was evaluate by dividing the sum of correct accomplished participant'
defense (n) whether performed by hand, foot, or trunk’ by the total number of attacks demonstrated by the
opponent in attacking boxing tactics (N) throughout the contest (Khedr, 1996).
Offensive Skills Effectiveness(n1/N1)
Evaluating the offensive performance was derived from dividing the sum of successfulattacking skills (n1) by
the wholeattack endeavor (N1) performed through the contest (Khedr, 1996).
Total Technical Performance Effectiveness (TPE)=(n/N+n1/N1)/m
Having both offensive and defensive skills effectiveness amounts, easily we can get the total TPE (M) by adding
the amount of both defensive and offensive skills and dividing by the amount of playedrounds (m) (Khedr,
Data Analysis
The statistical analysis was processed utilizing the SPSS application package V 16.0 (SPSS Inc,
Chicago, IL, USA). The means and standard deviations were computed for all the parameters. Consequently,
paired t-tests were utilized to evaluate the differentiations between the two sets of observations (pre and post)
within groups. Student's t-test were utilized to conclude statistical differences between groups. P value was set at
5% for all statistical analyses.
For control group measurements (pre and post tests) weren’t equivalent following to 8 weeks. Results
presented significant enhancements for post tests within tested components. Table 1 shows the positive
significant differentiation in the post tests than pre tests. There were relative improvement ratios for the general
physical fitness variables (e.g. 30 m sprint test, 5×10m shuttle run test, 30 s sit ups, 10 s push-ups , and standing
broad jump), post tests were significantly (p < 0.05) higher comparable to pre tests, ranged 4.94%, 2.34%,
13.04%, 6.64%, and 7.33% correspondingly. Surprisingly we found a negative changes in sit and reach test,
which decreased to -10.72%. With regard to specific physical fitness variables in post tests, (e.g. lead hand
punch 30s, rear hand punch 30s, total punches 30s, total punches in 1m) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than
pre tests by 8.13%, 6.56%, 4.27%, and 5.85% respectively. TPE variables, (e.g. defensive skills effectiveness,
offensive skills effectiveness, and total TPE) were significantly (p < 0.05) advanced relative improvements in
post tests comparable to pre tests by 4.17%, 30.00%, and 18.60% respectively.
Table 1. General and specific physical fitness, and TPE of control group after 8 weeks.
Parameter Pre: Mean(s) Post: Mean(s) Change (95% CL) P-value
General physical fitness
30 m sprint test (s) 4.67±0.16 4.45±0.26 -0.22 (-0.38 / -0.06) <0.01
5×10m shuttle run test (s) 11.80±0.41 11.53±0.41 -0.27 (-0.37 / -0.17) <0.00
30 s sit ups (reps) 33.07±3.90 36.73±2.58 3.66 (2.37 / 4.97) <0.00
10 s push-ups (reps) 17.07±1.71 18.07±2.09 1.01 (0.16 / 1.84) <0.02
Standing broad jump (cm) 229.00±7.32 244.33±8.63 15.33 (12.05 / 18.62) <0.00
Sit and reach test (cm) 15.76±1.59 14.07±1.62 1.09 (-1.01 / -0.19) <0.00
Specific physical fitness
Lead hand punch 30s (reps) 61.09±4.13 65.65±4.19 4.56 (2.31/ 3.22) <0.00
Rear hand punch 30s (reps) 57.86±3.48 61.33±3.44 3.47 (1.90/ 2.64) <0.00
Total punches 30s (reps) 102.53±4.55 105.33±4.65 2.8 (3.08/ 4.15) <0.00
Total punches in 1m (reps) 127.11±5.44 132.67±5.69 5.56 (4.77/ 3.55) <0.00
TPE components
Defensive skills effectiveness (%) 0.24±0.05 0.25±0.03 0.01 (0.03 / 0.09) <0.00
Offensive skills effectiveness (%) 0.20±0.05 0.26±0.03 0.06 (0.04/ 0.06) <0.00
Total TPE (%) 0.43±0.09 0.51±0.06 0.08 (0.05 / 0.07) <0.00
TPE: technical performance effectiveness. Change; post mean minus pre mean. ns: not significant.
Boxing group measurements (pre and post tests) weren’t equal subsequent to 8 weeks of boxing training
program intervention. Post tests presented significant enhancements within all variables. Table 2 signifies the
significant differences, with more constructive values in the post test. Regarding relative improvements between
pre and post tests, there were improvement ratio for the general physical fitness variables (e.g. 30 m sprint test,
5×10m shuttle run test, 30 s sit ups, 10 s push-ups , standing broad jump, sit and reach test) were significantly (p
< 0.05) advanced in post tests than pre tests by 9.47%, 5.82%, 26.09%, 19.13%, 12.62%, and 29.00%
correspondingly. As well as specific physical fitness variables in post tests, (e.g. lead hand punch 30s, rear hand
punch 30s, total punches 30s, total punches in 1m) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than pre tests by 19.39%,
15.27%, 14.64% and 24.40% respectively. Furthermore, TPE variables, (e.g. defensive skills effectiveness,
offensive skills effectiveness, and total TPE) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher relative improvements in post
tests than pre test by 39.13%, 73.68%, and 54.76% respectively.
Table 2. General and specific physical fitness, and TPE of boxing group after 8 weeks.
Parameter Pre: Mean(s) post: Mean(s) Change (95% CL) P-value
General physical fitness
30 m sprint test (s) 4.74 ± 0.16 4.33 ±0.26 -0.40 (0.15 / 0.20) <0.0001
5×10m shuttle run test (s) 11.64±0.46 11.00±0.45 -0.64 -0.73/ -0.57) <0.0001
30 s sit ups (reps) 32.6±2.16 39.8±1.82 7.2 (6.11 / 8.29) <0.0001
10 s push-ups (reps) 17.01±1.77 19.87±1.60 2.87 (2.28 / 3.45) <0.0001
Standing broad jump (cm) 228.67±6.11 255.00±5.67 26.33 (22.49 / 30.17) <0.0001
Sit and reach test (cm) 13.00±1.70 16.77±1.19 3.77 (2.94 / 4.60) <0.0001
Specific physical fitness
Lead hand punch 30s (reps) 59.93±3.63 70.58±2.17 10.65 (9.62 / 11.67) <0.0001
Rear hand punch 30s (reps) 57.60±3.58 65.63±3.73 8.03 (7.47 / 8.59) <0.0001
Total punches 30s (reps) 101.2±3.41 110.6±3.87 9.4 (8.36 / 10.44) <0.0001
Total punches in 1m (reps) 125.73±3.03 148.6±5.45 22.87 (20.94 / 24.79) <0.0001
TPE components
Defensive skills effectiveness (%) 0.23±0.05 0.32±0.08 0.09 (0.06 / 0.13) <0.0001
Offensive skills effectiveness (%) 0.19±0.05 0.33±0.08 0.14 (-0.53 / -0.38) <0.0001
Total TPE (%) 0.42±0.09 0.65±0.14 0.23 (0.09 / 0.12) <0.0001
TPE: technical performance effectiveness. Change; post mean minus pre mean.
Both control and boxing groups weren't equal subsequent to 8 weeks (post finishing their relevant
training program interventions). Boxing group players presented significant enhancements through all variables
than controls. Table 3 represents the significant enhancements, with more positive values in the boxing group.
With reference to relative improvements between the two groups, we found that improvement ratiofor the
general physical fitness variables (e.g. 30 m sprint test, 5×10m shuttle run test, 30 s sit ups, 10 s push-ups ,
standing broad jump, sit and reach test) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in boxing groups than controls
ranged 2.77%, 1.09% , 0.34%, 11.20%, 4.76%, and 19.19% respectively. In addition to specific physical fitness
variables in boxing groups, (e.g. lead hand punch 30s, rear hand punch 30s, total punches 30s, total punches in
1m) weresignificantly (p < 0.05) elevated than controls by 8.13%, 7.63%, 7.71%, and 15.82% respectively.
Moreover, in connection with TPE variables, (e.g. defensive skills effectiveness, offensive skills effectiveness,
and total TPE) there were significantly (p < 0.05) higher relative improvements in boxing groups than controls
by 28.00%, 26.92%, and 27.45% respectively.
Table 3. General and specific physical fitness, and TPE of control and boxing groups after 8 weeks.
Parameter Control: Mean(s) Boxing: Mean(s) Change (95% CL) P-value
General physical fitness
30 m sprint test (s) 4.45±0.26 4.33 ±0.26 -0.12 (0.17/ 0.24) < 0.003
5×10m shuttle run test (s) 11.53±0.41 11.00±0.45 -0.53 (-0.86 / -0.21) < 0.002
30 s sit ups (reps) 36.73±2.58 39.8±1.82 3.07 (1.40 / 4.74) < 0.001
10 s push-ups (reps) 18.07±2.09 19.87±1.60 1.80 (0.41 / 3.19) < 0.013
Standing broad jump (cm) 244.33±8.63 255.00±5.67 10.67 (5.20 / 16.13) < 0.001
Sit and reach test (cm) 14.07±1.62 16.77±1.19 2.70 (1.64 / 3.77) < 0.001
Specific physical fitness
Lead hand punch 30s (reps) 65.65±4.19 70.58±2.17 4.93 (2.43 / 7.42) < 0.001
Rear hand punch 30s (reps) 61.33±3.44 65.63±3.73 4.30 (1.61 / 6.98) < 0.003
Total punches 30s (reps) 105.33±4.65 110.6±3.87 5.27 (2.07 / 8.47) < 0.002
Total punches in 1m (reps) 132.67±5.69 148.6±5.45 15.93 (11.77 / 20.10) < 0.000
TPE components
Defensive skills effectiveness (%) 0.25±0.03 0.32±0.08 0.07 (0.02 / 0.11) < 0.004
Offensive skills effectiveness (%) 0.26±0.03 0.33±0.08 0.07 (0.02 / 0.12) < 0.007
Total TPE (%) 0.51±0.06 0.65±0.14 0.13 (0.05 / 0.22) < 0.003
TPE: technical performance effectiveness. Change; boxing mean minus control mean.
The results of the recent study verified that boxing training program intervention significantly included
developments in general physical fitness (i.e., 30 m sprint test, 5×10m shuttle run test, 30 s sit ups, 10 s push-
ups, standing broad jump, and sit and reach test), specific physical fitness (i.e., lead hand punch in 30 seconds,
rear hand punch in 30 seconds, total punches in 30 seconds, and total punches in 1 minute) as well as
improvements in TPE (defensive skills effectiveness, offensive skills effectiveness, total TPE) when comparing
to pre-tests and controls values. A small number of studies examined physical fitness variables and TPE
components following to boxing training intervention in male boxers whether in Egypt or in the Middle East
region. It was hard to find study inspected the impact of boxing activities by its training characteristics on
physical fitness. The entanglement is that we encountered scarcely references with which we use in comparing
the recent results.
For the general physical fitness (e.g. 30 m sprint test, 5×10m shuttle run test), attained significant
enhancement might be attributed to specific actions in boxing which comprises frequent quick paces and
movements that are distinguished by ability to move quickly (Arseneau, Mekary, & Leger, 2011). Boxing has
particular training programs that comprises intensive and attentive drills which are perfect way to develop speed
(Oliver, 2007). Moreover, we can declare that boxing drills may assist in developing physical fitness, also it can
be utilized in determining athletic form in boxing. Then, using boxing equipment (e.g. boxing bag, double-end
bag, or speed ball) is physically challenging, furthermore it does advanceand achieve the components of physical
In the same way, muscular strength (i.e., 30 s sit ups, 10 s push-ups, and standing broad jump) increased
significantly following the training program. Most likely, adjusts in muscular strength might be clarified by the
reality that boxing training program variables (i.e., volume, intensity and density) mightlead toaffect the nervous
system positively (Patten, Kamen, & Rowland, 2001). Additionally, all body muscles in the performed tests
(upper, trunk, lower body regions) were been developed significantly, and we can illustrate that by the cause of
specificity of boxing training programs, which boxers depend on utilizing all body muscles in punching
techniques and foot works (EL-Ashker, 2011).
The increasing in flexibility (sit and reach test ) subsequent to the boxing training program might be a
consequence of the boxing workouts. To achieve a desired technical and tactical characteristic in boxing, trainers
should stress on enhancing physical fitness components. As boxing drills can be anexcellent way to acquire
victory, it requires flexible muscles (Ouergui et al., 2014). Therefore, boxing workouts might supply procedures
for avoiding injuries by boosting the flexibility of whole body muscles especially the active muscles.
Boxing training program was adequate to persuade growth in specific physical fitness components (i.e., lead
hand punch in 30 seconds: rear hand punch in 30 seconds: total punches in 30 seconds: and total punches in 1
minute). The boxing group’s training included specific combat skills that necessitate particular physical fitness
variables with the intention of enhancing boxers’ technical and tactical performance (EL-Ashker, 2011).This is
compatible with different studies (Liukkonen, 2007; Zhongfan, Kimihiro, & Tooru, 2002), as drills employ
conditional games prepare to imitate different situational features of the real game (e.g. free boxing training)
which are executed in a way that cannot be predicted, where skills are repeatedly altered (e.g. from defense to
attack, and vice versa, from attack to defense), direct to excellent performance. Additional, such boxing training
also improve specific physical fitness components (EL-Ashker, 2011). Additionally, trainer and teammate drills
in boxing is very important to stand great specific conditioning previous to a real opponent (Hatmaker &
Werner, 2004).
Concerning to the constructive involvement of boxing training with TPE components (e.g. defensive
skills effectiveness, offensive skills effectiveness, total TPE), may happened by the distinguished of its numerous
components which are necessary for effectual boxing performance on the ring (e.g. concentration, tempo, timing,
muscular strength, and accuracy) possible linked with the development of TPE.
Repeated established boxing training drills help boxers in selecting the appropriate defensive and offensive
techniques quicker than players who were involving in traditional training programs (El Ashker, 2012).
Consequently, our results are in agreement with previous suggestions (Hlustík, Solodkin, Noll, & Small, 2004;
Krings et al., 2000) that executing technical skills that are >1 degree of freedom, plus possess integration of
sequenced skills (e.g. offensive, defensive, and counterattacks) against opponent attempts, could advance the
organizational tasks of the nerve centersthat control motive competences (Wulf & Shea, 2002) which make the
motor tasks execute in good status. Chronological coordination is a key factor of boxing training requirements of
different actions, and this may lead to improve a player’s performance (Wulf, McNevin, & Shea, 2001)
Boxing necessitates general and specific physical fitness, quick adequate skills, in order to carry
outfighting and maneuvering during the contest rounds. Since the strength of the punches begins from the
angular actions of the foot, leg, hips, and trunk, physical fitness and conditioning are necessaries of boxing
workouts. Boxing trainers should utilize specific physical fitness exercises beside to technical and tactical drills
which include the vital components of effectual contest. Away of boxing as a self defense sport, results propose
that boxing training program appear to be an excellent method which be able to develop physical fitness.
Accordingly, fitness trainers possibly will reflect on suggesting boxing drills to their customers as an
advantageous type of practice to encourage physical fitness as well as rising the flexibility of body muscles
which assist in avoiding injuries.
We would like to appreciate the boxers who participated in the interventions. We also thank El
Mansoura sporting club’ coaches and the researchers of athletic department, Faculty of Sports and Physical
Education, Mansoura University for their assistance.
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... boxing is a relatively safe sport (11,12,16,23). ...
... Forward trunk bending exercises such as sit-ups ( Figure 1) and leg raises ( Figure 2) contract the abdominals, moving the trunk through the sagittal plane, whilst activating the hip flexor muscle group (16,6,11). Often labelled as an abdominal crunch (Figure 1), the variations of this exercise and others that employ forward bending motions of the trunk are heavily utilised in boxing training (16). However, research has shown that sit-ups can have a deleterious effect on the athlete and may impede athletic performance (19,20,24,39). ...
No funding was received for this project 2 BLUF. This investigation into core resistance training, using isometric strengthening and stabilising exercises, such as the plank, that utilised the entirety of the kinetic chain, has positively impacted rear hand punching performance by 24% in professional boxers. 3 Abstract. This study aimed to investigate and identify if there was any impact on rear hand punching performance in professional boxers when trained using specific integrated core exercise modalities. Boxers use ballistic movements for striking performance; utilising the ground to potentiate ballistic force through the lower limbs, transferring through statically contracted hips and trunk before its released dynamically through the upper extremity of the striking hand. The experimental group carried out a six-week program that aimed to improve core stabilisation by using isometric and slowly controlled isotonic strengthening exercises such as the plank, bird bog, banded holds, side twists and pullovers, against a control group which used traditional methods such as sit-up. 20 male professional boxers from a U.K. boxing gym were recruited (24.2 + 2.9 years; 176.7 + 6.2cm; 76.5 + 10kg), Pre-and post-intervention testing included rear hand punch strike power, measured using the PowerKube TM. The experimental group significantly improved (p<0.001; g = 4.41) rear hand punch impact power (17781±1490 to 22014±1336 watts), compared with the control group (17326±1280 to 18152±1160 watts), demonstrating an extremely large effect size and a 24% improvement in power from pre-to post-test. A six-week training intervention using exercise modalities to strengthen and stabilise the core positively impacts punching power, supporting the value of the intervention as a suitable method for enhancing punching power when used with highly trained boxers. When aiming to improve punching power, it is advised that coaches who work with boxers should implement isometric and slowly controlled isotonic strengthening core exercises to improve the postural structure of the athlete, abstaining from forward trunk bending modalities such as the sit-up.
... For Egyptian boxers (22.6 years old), the effects of specific training applied 8 weeks × 3 sessions per week are effective regarding general and specific physical condition. The tested batch increases its performance in short distance sprints and SLJ (255 cm in final tests) [63]. This research also reports much better values on explosive leg strength tests compared to our student groups. ...
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Explosive strength has a decisive role in the rapid execution of movements and in achieving sports performance. The purpose of the study is to identify the differences in the level of explosive force for the upper and lower body, depending on the involvement in curricular physical activities, leisure physical activities or physical efforts in various sports disciplines. The participants are students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport/bachelor's degree: 147 men (age = 20.82 years old). The study was based on a transversal research, with the division of students into 3 distinct investigation groups (as an independent variable), according to sports majors: IS (individual sports), TSG (team sports games) and NA (non-athletes). 7 lower body explosive force evaluation tests and 6 upper body explosive force evaluation tests were applied. The use of ANOVA/Analysis of variance and the comparison on pairs of sports specializations indicate statistically significant differences for most of the tests, between the TSG and NA, respectively IS and NA groups, with the superiority of the athletes. No significant differences are reported between the TSG and IS groups, with 2 exceptions: in the 30s-Plyometric Push-Ups the IS group has significantly better values, respectively in the 30s-lateral hop for the TSG group (p ≤ 0.05). The results of our study are in line with the average performance values provided by other research in the field (although they are weaker than those of elite athletes). The superiority of the individual values of volleyball players and sprinters/Track and field for the power of the lower body, respectively of combat sports practitioners and practitioners of sports games-which use the muscle groups of the trunk and arms in training-for the power of the upper body is confirmed, so the specificity of the effort also influences the explosive force values.
... En Deportes de Combate el desarrollo de ejercicios de Flexibilidad, además de proponerse debido a una costumbre de índole histórica (Chaabene et al., 2019), estaría considerado como un condicionante del rendimiento en la mayoría de sus modalidades (Basar et al., 2014;El-Ashker, 2018;Franchini & Herrera-Valenzuela, 2021;Lenka & Shah, 2019;Sánchez-Sánchez et al., 2014;Saraiva et al., 2014;Schwartz et al., 2015;Slimani et al., 2016;Wongputthichai & Ketchatturat, 2017). ...
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El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar los resultados de la implementación de un programa para el desarrollo de la Flexibilidad en atletas de Boxeo y Muay Thai, sobre la ROM articulares y la producción de Velocidad de los golpes rectos de puño. Se utilizó una metodología cuantitativa con un diseño de investigación preexperimental de corte longitudinal. A partir de la evaluación de la Flexibilidad en 10 atletas de Boxeo y Muay Thai utilizando el método Flexitest, y tras evidenciar los niveles más bajos de esta capacidad en las zonas de tobillo, hombro y muñeca, se desarrolló un programa de entrenamiento de 6 semanas de duración utilizando los métodos dinámico, estático y FNP para el entrenamiento de estas zonas. También se evaluaron las Velocidades pico alcanzadas por los participantes en golpes de puño rectos lanzados al aire. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas al comparar los rangos articulares pre y post programa de entrenamiento de la Flexibilidad en las articulaciones de tobillo y hombro (p=0.006 y p=0.005, respectivamente). Con respecto a la Velocidad no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en ninguno de los gestos evaluados. La fuerza de asociación resultó de baja a nula al correlacionar la Flexibilidad y producción de Velocidad de los gestos. Si bien se mejoró la Flexibilidad de hombros y tobillos, la Velocidad de los gestos de golpeo no se vio modificada y no se pudo considerar una asociación entre ambas variables.
... The implementation of new forms of training and the detailed verification of their effects on the physical capabilities of athletes are widespread in combat sports [25][26][27][28][29]. Through the implementation of experimental training plans, it becomes possible to improve the quality of training, which can, in turn, affect the competitive performance of athletes [30]. ...
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Background: Kickboxing is a combat sport that is complex in technique, tactics, and movement structure, and requires an adequate level of motor skills as a foundation for activities during competitions. General physical fitness, defined as the effect of the externalization of motor skills, is the basis for athletic training regardless of the sport. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of modified training based on the principles of CrossFit on the development of general physical fitness in a group of kickboxers compared to a control group. Methods: The study was experimental in nature and was conducted in a group of 60 kickboxers, divided into experimental and control groups. Participants were selected by purposive sampling, and the criteria were training experience, sports skill level (minimum class 1 athletes), and consent to participate in the experiment. The intervention in the study group involved the introduction of CrossFit-based training into a conventional kickboxing training program. General and special physical fitness of the athletes were diagnosed. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in general fitness in terms of abdominal strength (p < 0.001), pull-ups (p < 0.001), dynamometric measurement of handgrip force (p < 0.001) (kg), clap push-ups (p < 0.001), standing long jump (p < 0.001), shuttle run (p < 0.001), sit-and-reach (p < 0.001), and tapping (p < 0.001). Furthermore, changes in special fitness were also demonstrated for the special kickboxing fitness test (SKFT) (p < 0.02), the total number of punches (p < 0.001), punching speed (p < 0.001), and hip turning speed (p < 0.001). There was also a correlation between characteristics of general fitness and special fitness (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The experimental training program based on the principles of CrossFit training had a positive effect on the general and special kickboxing physical fitness.
... B oxing is a combat sport where athletes wear protective gloves and fight in equal weight categories for a timed contest. 1 Boxing is considered an asymmetric sport because the athletes usually place the stronger hand in the back in order to perform powerful punches, whereas the weaker hand, kept in the front, is used for quicker jabs intended to keep the opponent at bay and break down his defences; thus right-handed boxers tend to place the left foot and hand forward, and the right foot and hand backward: this typical posture is defined "orthodox stance" 2 ( figure 1). This posture is normally maintained for long periods of the boxing training, about 120 minutes of workout at least 3 sessions per week, 3 inducing an asymmetrical muscular activity of the kinetic chains of two hemisoma that is functional to sport results but negative to the development of the locomotor system: this may create persistent postural deformations if performed for long periods of time. 4 in fact, frequency, duration and intensity of the sport activity influence muscle strength, endurance and phenotypic plasticity 5,6 via its relationship with the ossification pro- postural stability can be assessed in the laboratory by stabilometric evaluation using a force platform to measure the ground-reaction force vector and its point of application, known as centre of pressure (COP). ...
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Background: Asymmetrical posture maintained over long training periods may affect phenotypic plasticity, resulting functional to sporting goal but negative to the locomotor system. Aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate these long-term effects in competitive boxers. Methods: Baropodometric analysis was used to assess 20 competitive boxers and 20 non-sportsmen in upright bipedal posture for 5 s and for 51.2 s with open (OE) and closed (CE) eyes. Results: The boxers' group (BOX) showed a larger total foot load (TFL) (p=0.022) on the right foot and a larger rearfoot load (RfL) (P=0.011) on the left foot compared to non-sport controls (CTR). Moreover, a larger forefoot load (FfL) (P=0.001) on the right foot respect to left one was found in the BOX group, with the inversion of the RfL to FfL ratio (P=0.001) between two feet, while no significant differences were found in the CTR group. These findings, associated to a significantly larger center of foot angle (COF) in the BOX group, may indicate an anticlockwise rotation of the anatomical structures above the ankle joint of the right hemisoma respect to the left one, that appears to be consistent with the orthodox stance. Eventually, the BOX group showed a larger centre-of-pressure sway area (COPsa) in the OE condition than what measured in the CE and a significant difference in Romberg Index (BOX< CTR). Conclusions: The results of this study seem to confirm the theory of neuromuscular plasticity imprinted by the repetitive movements and long-lasting postures. Moreover, competitive boxers show an increase of proprioceptive function and a decrease of visual dependence on the postural control.
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The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training program on the relevant fitness components and boxers technical performance who played at least any boxing tournament from inter club level to national level between age of 17 to 21 years of Telangana India. The thirty subjects employed for this study age: 19.20±1.33 years, body height: 170.40±3.50 cm, body weight: 62.20±3.97 kg, BMI: 21.44±1.52 kg/m 2. The resistance training program intervention on orthodox style boxers was carried out three days per week for 8 weeks comprising 24 sessions of 120 minutes each but the control group was participated in regular training. Relevant physical fitness variables were speed, arm strength and leg explosive strength and technical variables were straight punches (anaerobic 30sec.) and combination punches (aerobic type) were investigated pre test and post test. After 8 weeks of resistance training intervention significant differences were found among resistance training boxers. The control group had shown pre-test results even after 8 weeks duration. The coaches would be utilized this training for the enrichment of boxing techniques.Boxing is a combat sport that involves two individuals, known as boxers, who use their fists to throw punches at each other while following a set of rules. There are several types of boxers based on their style, strategy, and physical attributes. An orthodox boxer is a right-handed boxer who employs the standard boxing stance. In the orthodox stance, the boxer's left hand is positioned in front, closer to the opponent, while the right hand is held back closer to the body. The feet are usually shoulder-width apart, with the left foot slightly forward and the right foot positioned back. The orthodox stance is the most common and traditional stances in boxing as most people are right-handed. It is also the opposite stance to the southpaw stance, which is used by left-handed boxers. When an orthodox boxer faces a southpaw boxer, their lead hands are aligned, which can create an interesting dynamic in the ring. It's worth noting that while the orthodox stance is considered the standard, boxers of any handedness can achieve success by adopting their own unique style and stance that suits their strengths and preferences. Boxing performance is dependent upon several variables. These variables can include muscular Strength, Muscular Endurance, Speed, Power, Agility, Skill, Coordination, Knowledge and Instinct. It would therefore seem beneficial to be able to prescribe resistance training activities that were proven successful in eliciting "jab-like' muscular responses. Boxing trainers as a whole believe that resistance training makes for bulkier, slower fighters.
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Sit-Up tests have been involved to measure the abdominal strength and endurance of youth and elite players in training sessions and specific skill tests. This study was aimed at evaluating the fitness level of the muscular strength and endurance of the abdominal and hip-flexor muscles of youth people corresponding to the body segment parameters: height and weight. The test battery and biomechanical model of the dynamic movement of Sit-Up were designed. The 30s Sit-Up test was performed by youth people: n = 1373 male and n = 1160 female. The percentile method was used to distinguish the performance levels. The average numbers of Sit-Up of males and females are 17 (SD = 2.17) and 12 (SD = 1.98), respectively. University students (68), who have already tested their fitness levels (satisfactory level or above) of muscular strength and endurance of abdominal and hip-flexor muscles by the Euro-fit test, were selected to show the validity of the test battery. Nearly 90% of students were at the average level or above relevant to the new Sit-Up test battery. The biomechanical model described the main active muscles' forces (Rectus Femoris: 0-900 N, Psoas 0-300 N, and Iliacus 0-295 N) and total mechanical energy expenditure (132.66 J: 70.72 J, 61.94 J concentric and eccentric movements, respectively; player: mass 67.5 kg and height 1.66 m) for any player. The new '30s Sit-Up test battery' is affective to evaluate reliable fitness levels for muscular strength, endurance of abdominal and hip-flexor muscles of youth. The biomechanical model demonstrates the energy expenditure for anyone (EAvg = 0.317 + 0.002 Cal).
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Aim: the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of kickboxing training on physical fitness. Methods: 30 subjects were randomized into a kickboxing- group (n=15) and control group (n=15). Each group trained approximately 1-hour per day, three-times per a week during five weeks. Musclepower (upper-body: bench-press-test, medicineball- test; lower-body: squat-jump and countermovement- jump-test), flexibility, speed and agility, aerobic (progressive maximal exercise test), anaerobic fitness (Wingate test) and body composition were assessed before and after the training period. Results: the kickboxing group showed significant improvement (p < 0.05) in upper-body muscle power, aerobic power, anaerobic fitness, flexibility, speed and agility after training whereas body composition, squat jump and counter movement jump (height, power and velocity components) did not change for both groups. Conclusion: kickboxing-practice was effective to change many physical variables. Thus, this activity can be useful for enhancing physical fitness, but complementary activities and/or nutritional interventions should be necessary
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The aim of this study was to compare morning and evening time-trial performance, RPE and mood state of trained swimmers, taking into account chronotype, habitual training time-of-day and PERIOD3 (PER3) variable number tandem repeat genotype. Twenty-six swimmers (18 males, age: 32.6 ± 5.7 years) swam 200 m time trials (TT) at 06h30 and 18h30 in a randomised order. There was no difference between morning and evening performance when the swimmers were considered as a single group (06h30: 158.8 ± 22.7 s, 18h30: 158.5 ± 22.0 s, p = 0.611). However, grouping swimmers by chronotype and habitual training time-of-day allowed us to detect significant diurnal variation in performance, such that morning-type swimmers and those who habitually train in the morning were faster in the 06h30 TT (p = 0.036 and p = 0.011, respectively). This was accompanied by lower ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) scores post-warm-up, higher vigour and lower fatigues scores prior to the 06h30 TT in morning-type swimmers or those who trained in the morning. Similarly, neither types and those who trained in the evenings had lower fatigue and higher vigour prior to the 18h30 TT. It appears that both chronotype and habitual training time-of-day need to be considered when assessing diurnal variation in performance. From a practical point of view, athletes and coaches should be aware of the potentially powerful effect of training time on shifting time-of-day variation in performance.
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Balance deteriorates with age, and may eventually lead to falling accidents which may threaten independent living. As Taekwondo contains various highly dynamic movement patterns, Taekwondo practice may sustain or improve balance. Therefore, in 24 middle-aged healthy volunteers (40-71 year) we investigated effects of age-adapted Taekwondo training of 1 h a week during 1 year on various balance parameters, such as: motor orientation ability (primary outcome measure), postural and static balance test, single leg stance, one leg hop test, and a questionnaire. Motor orientation ability significantly increased in favor of the antero-posterior direction with a difference of 0.62° toward anterior compared to pre-training measurement, when participants corrected the tilted platform rather toward the posterior direction; female gender being an independent outcome predictor. On postural balance measurements sway path improved in all 19 participants, with a median of 9.3 mm/s (range 0.71-45.86), and sway area in 15 participants with 4.2 mm(2)/s (range 17.39-1.22). Static balance improved with an average of 5.34 s for the right leg, and with almost 4 s for the left. Median single leg stance duration increased in 17 participants with 5 s (range 1-16), and in 13 participants with 8 s (range 1-18). The average one leg hop test distance increased (not statistically significant) with 9.5 cm. The questionnaire reported a better "ability to maintain balance" in 16. In conclusion, our data suggest that age-adapted Taekwondo training improves various aspects of balance control in healthy people over the age of 40.
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Boxing is a sport that comprises a wide variety of integrated offensive, defensive and counter-attack skills performed in an unpredictable environment. Mastering the variety of complex motor skills (CMS) that are required in a boxing match allows the player to employ the best motor performance in most positions of the actual game. This study aimed to assess the associations between implementing CMS versus simple motor skill (SMS) training and the subsequent changes in physical, technical and technical performance effectiveness (TPE) variables in junior boxers. We employed an experimental design that comprised two groups (each 20 males, mean age = 15.22±0.62 years). For 12 weeks, intervention boxers received CMS training, while controls received traditional SMS training. Physical, technical and TPE variables were measured before and after the training programs. Although the two groups were of similar abilities at baseline, there were statistically significant differences (P<0.05) between the intervention and control boxers in the post measures, to the advantage of the intervention group. In terms of absolute (i.e. differences in) or relative (i.e. ratios of) improvements, the intervention group exhibited more favourable values across the variables, and better performance. Developing CMS of junior boxers could contribute positively to their physical and technical abilities, and enhance their TPE.
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An activity profile of competitive 3 × 2-min novice-level amateur boxing was created based on video footage and postbout blood [La] in 32 male boxers (mean ± SD) age 19.3 ± 1.4 y, body mass 62.6 ± 4.1 kg. Winners landed 18 ± 11 more punches than losers by applying more lead-hand punches in round 1 (34.2 ± 10.9 vs 26.5 ± 9.4), total punches to the head (121.3 ± 10.2 vs 96.0 ± 9.8), and block and counterpunch combinations (2.8 ± 1.1 vs. 0.1 ± 0.2) over all 3 rounds and punching combinations (44.3 ± 6.4 vs 28.8 ± 6.7) in rounds 1 and 3 (all P < .05). In 16 boxers, peak postbout blood [La] was 11.8 ± 1.6 mmol/L irrespective of winning or losing. The results suggest that landing punches requires the ability to maintain a high frequency of attacking movements, in particular the lead-hand straight punch to the head together with punching combinations. Defensive movements must initiate a counterattack. Postbout blood [La] suggests that boxers must be able to tolerate a lactate production rate of 1.8 mmol · L-1 · min-1 and maintain skillful techniques at a sufficient activity rate. Erratum in: Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013
As research to-date has typically considered the technical features of amateur boxing performance with respect to contest outcome only, this study examined the offensive and defensive technical demands with respect to the independent and interactive effects of contest outcome, weight class and ability. Appraising eight offensive and four defensive actions and their corresponding outcomes (successful/unsuccessful), the technical demands of competitive boxing from 92 English amateurs (age: 22.3 ± 3.9 y; body mass: 67.2 ± 13.0 kg) across 11 weight categories (48 – 91+ kg) and two standards of competition (regional and national) were notated using computerized software. Data analysis reinforced that amateur boxing produces high technical loads (e.g. ~ 25 punches and ~ 10 defences per minute) and that performance is influenced significantly by the study’s independent variables. In particular, boxing standard (ability) was positively associated with external load (frequency of offensive and defensive actions), and winning was associated with high offensive and low defensive frequencies, whereas weight class had an inconsistent impact on technical performance. It is recommended that appraisals of performance and approaches to training and competition should take heed of our observations and that future research considers the role of other independent variables, including opposition quality and ‘style’, likely to affect boxing performance.
The aim of this study was to examine the reproducibility of the internal load and performance-based responses to repeated bouts of a three-round amateur boxing simulation protocol (BOXFIT). Twenty-eight amateur boxers completed two familiarisation trials before performing two complete trials of the BOXFIT, separated by 4-7 days. To characterise the internal load, mean (HRmean) and peak (HRpeak) heart rate, breath-by-breath oxygen uptake (V˙O2), aerobic energy expenditure (EEaer), excess carbon dioxide production (CO2excess) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout each round and blood lactate determined post-BOXFIT. Additionally, an indication of the performance-based demands of the BOXFIT was provided by a measure of acceleration of the punches thrown in each round. Analysis revealed there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between repeated trials in any round for all dependent measures. The typical error (coefficient variation %) for all but one marker of internal load (CO2excess) was 1.2 - 16.5% and reflected a consistency that was sufficient for the detection of moderate changes in variables owing to an intervention. The reproducibility of the punch accelerations was high (CV% range = 2.1 - 2.7%). In general, these findings suggest that the internal load and performance-based efforts recorded during the BOXFIT are reproducible and thereby offers practitioners a method by which meaningful changes impacting on performance could be identified.
The effect of 6 months of twice weekly karate training on flexibility, balance, and strength was evaluated in 14 boys who perform karate as beginners (age M = 10.3 ± 1.8) and a group of the same age who had never been involved in martial arts (n = 10; age M = 10.9 ± 1.4). All subjects were pretested and posttested on the following: flexibility of upper extremity (shoulder), hamstrings and quadriceps; strength, including handgrip strength and concentric flexion/extension of quadriceps; and balance, with eyes either open or closed. After 6 months, the tests were evaluated and compared by groups. The results showed the karate group made significant gains on quadriceps flexibility and balance with eyes closed. By improving flexibility, balance, and strength, karate improves three of the basic fitness components that are very important for preventing sport injuries in the growing years.
To verify the usefulness of current recommended level of target exercise heart rate (HR) and of different HR-based methods for calculating target HR in patients with and without beta-blocker treatment. We studied 53 patients not treated with beta-blocker and 159 patients on beta-blocker treatment. All patients underwent a maximal exercise test with gas analysis, and first ventilatory threshold (VT1 or aerobic threshold), second ventilatory threshold (VT2 or anaerobic threshold), time of exercise, maximum load, metabolic parameters, HR at rest (HRrest), HRpeak, HR at VT1 (HRVT1) and at VT2 (HRVT2), and 75, 80, and 85% of HRmax (HR75%, HR80%, HR85%) were calculated. Exercise HR was also determined using the Karvonen formula, applying 60, 70, and 80% of the heart rate reserve (HRR) (HRKarv0.6, HRKarv0.7, and HRKarv0.8). This study included 102 patients on a beta-blocker and 39 not treated with negative cronotropic effect drugs. Maximum load, metabolic parameters, HRrest, HRpeak, HRVT1, and HRVT2 were significantly lower in patients on beta-blocker treatment. The proportion of patients with a HR75%, HR80%, HR85%, HRKarv0.6, HRKarv0.7, and HRKarv0.8 VT2 was very high and depended on whether patients were on beta-blocker treatment. Prescribed exercise intensity should be within VT1 and VT2, so that the efficacy and safety is guaranteed. If determining VT1 and VT2 is not possible, HR-based methods can be used, but with caution. In fact, there will be always a proportion of patients training below VT1 or above VT2. On the other hand, recommendations for patients on a beta-blocker should be different from patients not receiving a beta-blocker. Patients not treated with a beta-blocker should exercise at HRKarv0.7 or at HR85%. In patients on a beta-blocker, we recommend preferentially a target HR of HRKarv0.6 or HR80%.
Martial arts have become increasingly popular in the West, where they are practiced for self-defense, mental discipline, harmony of body and mind, physical fitness, and sport. It is estimated that 2–10 million Americans actively train. The literature pertaining to traditional martial arts training indicates that black belts do not conform to the violent, aggressive stereotypes portrayed in popular martial arts movies. Moreover, martial arts principles, philosophy, and techniques have been successfully applied in a clinical setting to improve the physical well-being of the physically challenged and to modify the attitudes, emotions, and behavior of troubled adults and teenagers. Mental imagery shows promise as a psychological intervention strategy to enhance Karate performance of beginning students. The techniques of Karate are well grounded in physics, and the velocities and tremendous forces and energies generated by skilled practitioners have been quantitated. Studies have also examined the health-related and skill-related fitness of martial artists.