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The genotypes evaluation in a germplasm bank is essential to determine their commercial or usefulness, as potential parents, in a breeding program. We aimed to detect the genetic diversity of 42 tomato genotypes of cherry type, belonging to the germplasm bank of the Federal University of Uberlândia and, also evaluate their behavior. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in randomized block design with 42 treatments and two replications. Ten quantitative traits of agronomic importance were evaluated. The genetic divergence was obtained by multivariate analysis, using the Mahalanobis distance with different clustering methods (UPGMA and Tocher). The hybrids performance was compared by Scott-Knott (p=0.05) and Dunnett’s test (p= 0.05). UPGMA and Tocher grouped the genotypes similarly, representing genetic divergence satisfactorily. The genotypes UFU 29, UFU 21 and UFU 07 were more productive, earlier and also divergent from the pre-commercial treatment (UFU 200), being able to be used as potential parents.
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Hortic. bras., Brasília, v.36, n.2, April - June 2018
Tomato cropping has been
highlighted, over the years, as
one of the most important agricultural
activities in Brazil. In 2012, over 69.000
hectares of tomato were cultivated
in Brazil. Beyond that, only the
seed market reached R$ 124 million
(ABCSEM, 2014). In addition, tomato
cropping has an amazing importance on
social sphere, using, basically, manual
managements and in the feeding sphere,
presenting great nutritional components
(Alvarenga, 2013).
The tomato presents a huge fruit
diversity, which makes it to be classied
in commercial groups: Cherry, Grape,
Santa Cruz, Italian, Round, Saladette
and Industrial (Alvarenga, 2013).
Among these, cherry tomatoes present
small fruits and a sweeter taste in relation
to the other groups. These minitomatoes
are quite new on the supermarkets,
but have one of the greatest potential
for expansion, for presenting dierent
avors and colors and for its practicality
(Maciel et al., 2016). Being the
cultivation meticulous, the cherry
cropping demands a high initial cost
and a skilled labor (Alvarenga, 2013).
Nevertheless, the activity is a good
option for new investors due to its high
added value (Abrahão et al., 2014).
Since the main cherry tomatoes are
produced from hybrid seeds (Maciel
et al., 2016), breeding strategies
consist in exploiting heterosis to detect
important agronomic characteristics,
as productivity, plagues and disease
resistance and precocity. Being the
heterotic effect pronounced, there is
a need of genetic divergence between
parents; the higher the difference
MACIEL, GM; FINZI, RR; CARVALHO, FJ; MARQUEZ, GR; CLEMENTE, AA. 2018. Agronomic performance and genetic dissimilarity among cherry
tomato genotypes. Horticultura Brasileira 36: 167-172.
Agronomic performance and genetic dissimilarity among cherry tomato
Gabriel M Maciel; Rafael R Finzi; Fábio J Carvalho; Guilherme R Marquez; Andressa A Clemente
Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU), Monte Carmelo-MG, Brazil;; rafael; fabiojanoni@;;
The genotypes evaluation in a germplasm bank is essential to
determine their commercial or usefulness, as potential parents, in
a breeding program. We aimed to detect the genetic diversity of
42 tomato genotypes of cherry type, belonging to the germplasm
bank of the Federal University of Uberlândia and, also evaluate
their behavior. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in
randomized block design with 42 treatments and two replications.
Ten quantitative traits of agronomic importance were evaluated. The
genetic divergence was obtained by multivariate analysis, using the
Mahalanobis distance with dierent clustering methods (UPGMA and
Tocher). The hybrids performance was compared by Scott-Knott (p=
0.05) and Dunnett’s test (p= 0.05). UPGMA and Tocher grouped the
genotypes similarly, representing genetic divergence satisfactorily.
The genotypes UFU 29, UFU 21 and UFU 07 were more productive,
earlier and also divergent from the pre-commercial treatment (UFU
200), being able to be used as potential parents.
Keywords: Solanum lycopersicum, variability, grape tomato.
Desempenho agronômico e dissimilaridade genética entre
genótipos de tomate cereja
A avaliação de genótipos em um banco de germoplasma é
essencial para determinar seu potencial comercial ou sua utilidade
como potenciais genitores em um programa de melhoramento. As-
sim, o objetivo do trabalho foi vericar a divergência genética e o
comportamento per se de 42 genótipos de tomate cereja pertencentes
ao banco de germoplasma de tomateiro da Universidade Federal de
Uberlândia. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação no
delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com 42 tratamen-
tos e duas repetições. Foram avaliados dez caracteres quantitativos de
importância agronômica. A divergência genética foi obtida por meio
de análises multivariadas utilizando-se a distância generalizada de
Mahalanobis, empregando-se diferentes métodos de agrupamento
(UPGMA e Tocher). O desempenho dos híbridos foi comparado
pelos testes Scott-Knott (p= 0,05) e Dunnett (p= 0,05). Os métodos
UPGMA e Tocher agruparam os genótipos de forma semelhante,
sendo satisfatórios para representar a divergência genética. Os genó-
tipos UFU 29, UFU 21 e UFU 07 foram mais produtivos, precoces e
também divergentes à testemunha UFU 200, podendo ser utilizados
como possíveis genitores.
Palavras-chave: Solanum lycopersicum, variabilidade, tomate do
tipo grape.
Received on October 24, 2016; accepted on November 14, 2017
168 Hortic. bras., Brasília, v.36, n.2, April - June 2018
between the alleles, greater the heterosis
eect (Borém & Miranda, 2009).
So, the variability between parents
can be estimated using measures of
genetic dissimilarity, highlighting the
generalized distance of Mahalanobis
that considers the residual
variances and covariances existing
between quantitative characters (Cruz
et al., 2012).Tocher and UPGMA
methods are constantly used to check
this divergence on tomato cropping
(Gonçalves et al., 2008; Mattedi et al.,
2014; Araújo et al., 2016).
Due to the market expansion of
cherry tomato seeds and the increasing
search for new hybrids, new studies
are necessary to develop good parents
or genotypes. We aimed to verify the
genetic diversity and behavior of cherry
tomato genotypes and, using that, select
potential parents to foster a future cherry
tomato breeding programs.
The experiment was conducted on
the vegetable’s experimental station
of Federal University of Uberlândia
(UFU), located in Monte Carmelo-
MG (18º42’43”S, 47º29’56”W, 873 m
altitude). Seedlings were produced in
polystyrene trays, with 128 cells, lled
with commercial substrate of coconut
ber, on January 20th. Seedlings were
transplanted, 31 days after sowing,
into ve liter pots, lled with the same
substrate used to produce seedlings.
Each experimental plot consisted of two
pots, arranged in sequence and spaced
0.1 m apart, having three plants per pot,
totalizing 252 plants in the greenhouse,
equivalent to 1.72 plants m-2. The
greenhouse measures 7x21 m and it’s
ceiling 4.0 m. The greenhouse was
covered with transparent polyethylene
lm of 150 micron, additivated against
ultraviolet rays and side curtains of
white and anti-aphid screen.
Genotypes consisted of 41 cherry
tomatoes from germplasm bank of UFU.
These materials are characterized by
grape fruits of indeterminate growth
habit. The pre-commercial genotype
UFU 200 was used as check treatment
due to its good acceptance by producers,
having indeterminate growth habit and
late maturation.
Cultural traits were realized as
soon as needed and according to
recommendation for tomato cropping
on greenhouses (Alvarenga, 2013).
Plants were conducted with only one
stem, using ribbons in order to upright
them. When the plants reached two
meters height, the apical meristems of
them were cut, stopping their growth
and accelerating the ripening of fruits.
During the experiment, pest
and diseases were monitored and,
if necessary, chemical control was
performed. Plants were irrigated daily,
in three or four times, according to
plant’s necessity. After transplant,
between the first and eighth week,
commercial nutrients were provided,
by fertirrigation, in the proportion of
1.0; 1.2; 1.0 of NPK. After the ninth
week, the system was changed to 1.0;
0.7; 2.0 of NPK. During flowering,
a leaf fertilization with calcium and
boron was done, once a week, aiming
to increase the number and size of
owers. Other essential nutrients were
not supplied, due to be already in
acceptable concentrations in the used
substrate. Mature fruits were harvested
weekly, during the period from April
20th to June 08th.
The evaluated agronomic
characteristics were: Average fruit
weight [(g) ratio between total mass
of each plot and number of fruits
harvested in each one]; Productivity
[(kg plant-1) ratio between harvested
fruit weight and number of plants on
each plot]; Number of fruits per plant
(fruits plant-1); Stem diameter [(mm)
measured in the region between the
third and fourth inorescence]; Length
of internode [(cm), measured on the
region between all nodes, starting on
the rst bifurcation and nishing on the
last leaf]; Total soluble solids [(0Brix)
average value of ve fruits that were
harvested in each plant, on the 110th day
after sowing, with the aid of a digital
refractometer (Atago PAL-1 3810)];
Total leaf chlorophyll during owering
and fruiting [(ICC), Falkerdo index of
total chlorophyll, sum of chlorophyll a
with chlorophyll b, measured on a leaf
surface, at 59 and 90 days after sowing,
respectively, 0.02 m away from the edge
and 0.05 m away from the center, with
the aid of a digital chlorophyllometer
(Clorolog, CFL 1030 Falker)]; Fruit
diameter [(mm) ratio between ve fruits
harvested in each plot, on 110 DAS];
Precocity index [(%) ratio between sum
of mass of all harvested fruits, from the
rst two harvests, multiplied by 100].
The experimental design was of
randomized complete block design, with
42 treatments and two replications. Data
were submitted to analyze of variance,
by the F test (p= 0.05). Averages were
compared in two dierent ways: using
Scott-Knott test (p= 0.05) and Dunnett
test (p= 0.05), in order to compare the
performance of genotypes with each
other and, individually with the check
treatment, respectively. After that,
multivariate analyzes were done, aiming
to determinate the genetic dissimilarity
between the genotypes, getting with this,
a dissimilarity matrix produced by the
generalized distance of Mahalanobis
Genetic diversity was represented
by a dendrogram obtained by hierarquic
method of Unweighted Pair-Group
Method Using Arithmetic Averages
(UPGMA) and by Tocher method.
Grouping validation by UPGMA
method was obtained by the coefenetic
coefficient of correlation (CCC),
calculated by the Mantel test (1967). The
relative contribution of the quantitative
characters was calculated according to
Singh criterion (1981). All data were
analysed using software GENES v.
2015.5.0 (Cruz, 2013).
Genotypes diered from each other
(Scott-Knott test, 5% probability) for
total leaf chlorophyll (owering and
fruiting), stem diameter, fruit diameter,
average fruit weight and productivity
(Table 1). The comparison of each
genotype individually to the check
treatment (Dunnett test, 5% probability),
for number of fruits, total soluble solids
and precocity index, also showed
signicant dierence from each other.
On the other hand, for internode length
(average of 9.6 cm) no significant
GM Maciel et al.
169Hortic. bras., Brasília, v.36, n.2, April - June 2018
Table 1. Averages of total chlorophyll content, during owering (TCFL) and fruiting (TCFR), stem diameter (SD), soluble solids content
(SSC), fruit diameter (FD), number of fruits (NF), productivity (P), average fruit weight (AFW) and precocity index (PI), in 42 cherry tomato
genotypes. Monte Carmelo, UFU, 2016.
Genotypes TCFL (ICC) TCFR (ICC) SD (mm) SSC (ºBrix) FD (mm) NF (fruit pl-1) P (g pl-1) AFW (g) PI (%)
UFU 01 48.8 b+ 52.7 a 6.1 d+ 6.3 a 23.3 b 57.0 a+ 551.6 a+ 9.8 c 28.9 a
UFU 02 55.8 b 52.0 a 5.3 e+ 6.9 a 22.6 b 43.4 a 376.5 b 8.6 c 48.7 a+
UFU 03 62.4 a 56.3 a 6.2 d+ 5.7 a 26.7 a 44.9 a 408.8 a 9.1 c 29.4 a
UFU 04 60.7 a 56.4 a 5.3 e+ 6.8 a 25.9 a 34.8 a 366.0 b 10.5 c 34.1 a
UFU 05 57.5 a 54.9 a 6.5 d+ 7.0 a 24.3 b 42.7 a 438.7 a 10.6 c 40.1 a+
UFU 06 55.5 b 53.7 a 6.5 d+ 6.4 a 23.5 b 49.8 a+ 514.2 a+ 10.2 c 32.6 a
UFU 07 55.0 b 48.7 b 6.0 d+ 5.3 a 28.3 a 46.8 a+ 484.4 a+ 11.0 b 42.4 a+
UFU 08 60.9 a 47.4 b 6.7 d+ 5.6 a 27.7 a 30.0 a 302.8 b 10.2 c 53.3 a+
UFU 09 59.7 a 59.8 a 6.0 d+ 5.5 a 24.0 b 51.5 a+ 449.7 a+ 8.7 c 24.0 a
UFU 10 60.5 a 58.6 a 5.8 d+ 6.4 a 24.0 b 51.6 a+ 474.1 a+ 9.2 c 31.0 a
UFU 11 59.1 a 52.3 a 5.5 e+ 5.9 a 23.2 b 33.5 a 284.5 b 8.6 c 53.8 a+
UFU 12 55.0 b 51.6 a 6.1 d+ 5.1 a 29.3 a 32.3 a 436.1 a 13.7 a 42.7 a+
UFU 13 57.3 a 56.0 a 7.4 c+ 6.2 a 25.7 a 48.6 a+ 411.4 a 8.5 c 28.8 a
UFU 14 58.2 a 52.2 a 5.4 e+ 4.8 a 29.5 a 32.9 a 482.9 a+ 14.7 a 33.1 a
UFU 15 59.0 a 50.6 b 6.5 d+ 6.4 a 24.9 b 31.4 a 357.9 b 11.5 b 47.2 a+
UFU 16 58.9 a 51.4 a 5.3 e+ 5.7 a 26.5 a 30.7 a 433.7 a 14.2 a 40.6 a+
UFU 17 55.4 b 55.2 a 5.1 e+ 6.2 a 25.2 b 48.3 a+ 556.9 a+ 11.5 b 39.4 a+
UFU 18 55.8 b 49.2 b 5.0 e+ 5.5 a 26.5 a 36.5 a 427.4 a 11.8 b 43.9 a+
UFU 19 56.4 b 51.9 a 5.1 e+ 5.7 a 27.4 a 34.0 a 393.2 b 11.6 b 39.4 a+
UFU 20 56.4 b 53.2 a 6.7 d+ 5.0 a 27.8 a 38.6 a 304.2 b 8.0 c 27.3 a
UFU 21 51.4 b 46.9 b 5.5 e+ 5.5 a 28.6 a 43.1 a 527.2 a+ 12.3 b 52.5 a+
UFU 22 52.2 b 48.2 b 7.1 c+ 6.2 a 23.5 b 38.7 a 397.4 b 10.4 c 34.9 a
UFU 23 51.8 b 45.5 b 7.0 c+ 6.8 a 25.5 a 37.7 a 383.8 b 10.3 c 30.3 a
UFU 24 53.4 b 55.8 a 8.2 b+ 7.3 a+ 24.2 b 51.7 a+ 416.4 a 8.1 c 18.0 a
UFU 25 50.8 b 48.2 b 6.6 d+ 6.8 a 23.6 b 43.4 a 356.1 b 8.3 c 26.0 a
UFU 26 52.1 b 43.2 b 5.7 e+ 8.3 a+ 22.0 b 49.3 a+ 400.4 b 8.1 c 30.7 a
UFU 27 52.2 b 40.7 b+ 8.3 b+ 6.7 a 24.8 b 43.5 a 326.1 b 7.4 c+ 36.5 a+
UFU 28 60.6 a 56.8 a 6.2 d+ 6.6 a 23.6 b 32.7 a 319.0 b 9.8 c 31.9 a
UFU 29 54.2 b 49.2 b 6.6 d+ 5.9 a 22.9 b 42.5 a 497.3 a+ 11.8 b 43.3 a+
UFU 30 48.4 b+ 53.2 a 6.1 d+ 5.5 a 26.4 a 22.8 a 331.0 b 14.4 a 12.9 a
UFU 31 60.8 a 57.0 a 5.7 e+ 6.1 a 23.5 b 29.5 a 267.9 b 9.0 c 26.8 a
UFU 32 63.0 a 55.3 a 5.4 e+ 6.4 a 23.3 b 35.5 a 313.2 b 8.7 c 30.3 a
UFU 33 60.5 a 55.9 a 5.5 e+ 5.6 a 24.5 b 32.4 a 304.3 b 10.4 c 32.9 a
UFU 34 57.5 a 56.5 a 5.1 e+ 6.0 a 23.4 b 39.2 a 372.3 b 9.4 c 45.4 a+
UFU 35 61.9 a 49.0 b 6.2 d+ 6.8 a 23.6 b 33.3 a 281.5 b 8.5 c 28.2 a
UFU 36 59.8 a 54.7 a 5.1 e+ 5.7 a 24.3 b 41.4 a 339.8 b 8.3 c 32.4 a
UFU 37 56.2 b 58.4 a 6.2 d+ 5.5 a 22.7 b 38.6 a 383.1 b 9.9 c 27.8 a
UFU 38 62.8 a 45.4 b 4.5 e+ 5.8 a 23.1 b 38.5 a 382.9 b 9.9 c 43.4 a+
UFU 39 59.8 a 57.6 a 6.1 d+ 5.8 a 25.4 b 34.6 a 336.2 b 10.4 c 27.8 a
UFU 40 59.8 a 48.9 b 7.1 c+ 6.5 a 26.4 a 44.9 a 358.6 b 7.9 c 27.8 a
UFU 41 53.5 b 50.3 a 6.3 d+ 6.5 a 23.9 b 46.7 a+ 489.1 a+ 10.5 c 48.6 a+
UFU 200 61.0 a 52.3 a 10.3 a 4.9 a 25.6 a 17.8 a 213.7 b 12.2 b 3.5 a
CV(%) 5.69 6.65 7.65 11.94 6.27 21.23 18.44 13.36 29.23
Averages followed by dierent letters, in column, dier from each other by Scott-Knott test, 0.05. +dier from check treatment by the
Dunnett test, 0.05.
Agronomic performance and genetic dissimilarity among cherry tomato genotypes
170 Hortic. bras., Brasília, v.36, n.2, April - June 2018
dierence was detected trough F test
(p= 0.05).
Overall, total leaf chlorophyll during
the flowering and fruiting, varied
from 48.4 to 62.8 ICC and from 40.7
to 59.8 ICC, respectively; the stem
diameter varied from 5.1 to 10.3 mm;
fruit diameter from 22.6 to 29.3 mm;
average fruit weight from 7.4 to 14.7 g
and productivity from 213.7 to 556.9 g
plant-1, an indicative of high diversity
among genotypes.
Among the 41 evaluated genotypes,
ten (UFU 09, UFU 10, UFU 14, UFU
29, UFU 21, UFU 07, UFU 06, UFU
01, UFU 17 and UFU 41) presented
two times productivity of the check
cultivar (Dunnett test). These cultivars
presented a variation of productivity
from 449.7 to 556.9 g plant-1, similar
to the results found by Menezes et al.
(2010), evaluating cherry tomatoes
in the eld. Among the 10 genotypes
that highlighted for productivity, ve
(UFU 21, UFU 29, UFU 17, UFU 41
and UFU 07) were also the earliest,
all presenting more than 39% of total
yield (g plant-1) in the rst and second
harvests, dierent from check treatment,
which got only 3.5% of the total yield
during the rst two harvests. Precocity
and high level of productivity are two
of the main desired characteristics in a
cherry tomato genotype.
Total soluble solids is an important
feature of cherry tomato. The higher
the soluble solids, the sweeter the fruit
avor, being the genotypes with high
0Brix the most chosen by the consumers
(Schwarzer et al., 2013; Maciel et al.,
2015). On this sense, only genotypes
UFU 26 and UFU 24 highlighted,
presenting 41 and 33% more 0Brix,
respectively, than check treatment
(Dunnett, 5% probability) (Table 1).
The other genotypes did not dier for
this characteristic. The genetic potential
can affect soluble solids content of
fresh tomato (Garcia & Barret, 2006),
industrial tomato (Schwarz et al., 2013)
and also of cherry tomatoes (Maciel
et al., 2015), which demonstrates that
the two genotypes that highlighted
for soluble solids have an excellent
It is possible to affirm that the
chlorophyll content on the leaves
predicts, on an indirect form, the
nutritional level of nitrogen in plants,
since 70% of N are in chloroplasts,
participating in the synthesis and
structure of chlorophyll molecules
(Wood et al., 1993). The genotypes UFU
16, UFU 13, UFU 14, UFU 10, UFU
09, UFU 05 and UFU 03 highlighted,
showing high chlorophyll content on
the leaves, during the owering and
fruiting, allied with high productivity
(between 408.8 and 482.9 g plant-1). The
genotypes UFU 39, UFU 36, UFU 34,
UFU 33, UFU 31, UFU 32, UFU 28,
UFU 11 and UFU 04, also showed high
chlorophyll content, but on the other
hand, they presented low productivity
(between 284.5 and 372.3 g plant-1)
(Scott-Knott test, 5% probability). Even
so, the results corroborate with Ferreira
et al. (2006), that also proved a relation
between chlorophyll content and tomato
In addition to comparing individual
performing, the separation of genotypes
into dierent groups, using dissimilarity
measures, helps the breeders to select
good progenitors (Araujo et al., 2016).
The genetic dissimilarity measures by
the generalized distance of Mahalanobis
, of the 42 cherry tomato genotypes,
vary between 2.08 (UFU 18 and UFU
19) and 242.4 (UFU 38 and UFU 200),
an indicative of high genetic diversity.
The formation of groups,
represented by a dendrogram, using the
UPGMA method (Figure 1), showed
a correlation coefficient of 0.85,
signicative for a t test (p<0.01). So, it
is possible to arm that the dendogram
reproduced, in a satisfactory way, the
information contained in the matrix
and, consequently, in the formation of
groups. Grouping separation was done
by delimitation of a cut line of 50%,
established in the place of an abrupt
change on the dendogram ramication
(Cruz et al., 2012). With this cut, the
genotypes formed four distinct groups,
being group I composed of 93% of
the cherry tomato genotypes, group
II formed of the genotype UFU 30,
III of the genotype UFU 27 and the
fourth group was formed by the check
treatment (UFU 200).
Analyzing the group formation by
the method of Tocher, it was possible
to see that it also separates genotypes
into four different groups (Table 2).
According to Gonçalves et al. (2008)
and Araujo et al. (2016), UPGMA
method is ecient on the formation
of groups as well as Tocher method
(Mattedi et al., 2014).
Genotypes UFU 30, UFU 27 and
UFU 200 can be used as progenitors,
due to their divergence in relation to the
others. Genotypes UFU 27 and UFU 200
highlighted for stem diameter, showed
the highest values (8.3 and 10.3 mm,
respectively), a fact that may justify
their separation into dierent groups.
On the other hand, UFU 30 presented
the highest average fruit weight (14.4
g). This hypothesis is conrmed by the
relative contribution of characters (Table
3). Stem diameter was responsible for
the highest relative contribution of
the genotypes divergence, with 31%
of the total variability. Chlorophyll
content on leaves was also relevant
and sum to the values of average fruit
Table 2. Grouping representation obtained by the optimization of Tocher, based on
Mahalanobis distance, estimated from ten characteristics, evaluated on all 42 tomato
genotypes. Monte Carmelo, UFU, 2016.
Groups Genotypes
UFU 18, UFU 19, UFU 17, UFU 16, UFU 05, UFU 39, UFU 06, UFU
10, UFU 36, UFU 09, UFU 03, UFU 04, UFU 28, UFU 32, UFU 34,
UFU 37, UFU 31, UFU 11, UFU 02, UFU 41, UFU 33, UFU 15, UFU
35, UFU 38, UFU 12, UFU 20, UFU 01, UFU 29, UFU 13, UFU 07,
UFU 08, UFU 40, UFU 21, UFU 14, UFU 22, UFU 25, UFU 23, UFU
26, UFU 24
IV UFU 200 (check treatment)
GM Maciel et al.
171Hortic. bras., Brasília, v.36, n.2, April - June 2018
weight, productivity and stem diameter
inuenced 76% of the genetic diversity.
On the other hand, number of fruits
contributed with only 0.1%, being,
therefore, the variable selected for
discarding, according to Singh (1981).
In other tomato groups, the number
of fruits is one of the most important
characters in the contribution of genetic
diversity (Araújo et al., 2016). These
informations help the breeder to choose
which evaluation is important to be done
in a breeding program, reducing time
and eorts.
In order to select good progenitors,
breeders explore commercial and pre-
commercial cultivars, with agronomic
characters of interest. The divergence
of the check treatment (UFU 200),
in relation to others, represents a
possibility and viability of it to be used
in a breeding program of cherry tomato.
Therefore, when crossing genotypes
that have a good agronomic behavior,
as UFU 21, UFU 29 and UFU 07 with
UFU 200, it would be possible to obtain
hybrids with better characteristics, like
soluble solids content, productivity and
precocity and, consequently, with high
commercial potential.
In general, the methods of
multivariate analyzes (UPGMA and
Tocher), that were used to estimated
the genetic dissimilarity, were similar
and satisfactory, being important tools
to nd good progenitors. The univariate
analyzes, by the Scott-Knott test, did
not allow an explicit visualization of
divergent groups, which makes the
association of uni and multivariate
techniques an important strategy in
order to determine genetic variability
between cherry tomato genotypes
(Araújo et al., 2016).
It is possible to arm that genotypes
UFU 41, UFU 29, UFU 21, UFU 17
and UFU 07 are more productive, early
and also genetically divergent from
the commercial access, making them
possible genitors.
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Table 3. Relative contribution of ten agronomic characters, on the genetic diversity of 42
cherry tomato genotypes, according to Singh (1981). Monte Carmelo, UFU, 2016.
Characteristics1S.j S.j (%)
TCFL 4666.82 11.44
TCFR 5598.90 13.73
SD 12469.63 30.58
LI 2275.63 5.58
SSC 1376.62 3.38
FD 3226.28 7.91
NF 54.72 0.13
P4208.96 10.32
AFW 3996.88 9.80
PI 2909.55 7.13
¹TCFL and TCFR= Total chlorophyll during owering and fruiting, respectively; SD= stem
diameter; LI= lenght of internodes; SSC= soluble solids contente; FD= fruit diameter; NF=
number of fruits; P= productivity; AFW= average fruit weight and PI= precocity index.
Figure 1. Dendogram of genetic diversity among 42 cherry tomato genotypes, obtained
by UPGMA hierarquic method; UFU 200= check cultivar; the other numbers indicate the
genotypes. Monte Carmelo, UFU, 2016.
Agronomic performance and genetic dissimilarity among cherry tomato genotypes
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GM Maciel et al.
... Characterizing and analyzing the genetic dissimilarity of populations are essential for distinguishing divergent and promising genotypes (Maciel et al., 2018). Traditionally, multivariate techniques have been used, such as dendrograms, the Tocher grouping method, canonical variables, and principal components to characterize the germplasms of normal tomato plants (Maciel et al., 2018;Alsamir et al., 2019;Peixoto et al., 2020) and dwarf tomato varieties . ...
... Characterizing and analyzing the genetic dissimilarity of populations are essential for distinguishing divergent and promising genotypes (Maciel et al., 2018). Traditionally, multivariate techniques have been used, such as dendrograms, the Tocher grouping method, canonical variables, and principal components to characterize the germplasms of normal tomato plants (Maciel et al., 2018;Alsamir et al., 2019;Peixoto et al., 2020) and dwarf tomato varieties . ...
... Through this method, genetic dissimilarity was found between the BC 1 F 3 populations, parents, and the commercial cultivar by the formation of five groups. This methodology is traditionally used to represent genetic dissimilarity among tomato plant populations in various segments (Maciel et al., 2018;Finzi et al., 2020;Peixoto et al., 2020). ...
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Studies have shown that dwarf plants have the potential for use in obtaining hybrids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic potential and genetic dissimilarity of saladette type dwarf tomato plant populations through the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs). The following traits were analyzed: mean fruit weight, transverse and longitudinal fruit diameter, fruit shape, pulp thickness, locule number, internode length, soluble solids content, and β-carotene, lycopene, and leaf zingiberene contents. A dendrogram obtained by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and Kohonen self-organizing maps (SOM) agreed in the distinction of the BC1F3 populations from the dwarf donor parent. SOM was more consistent in identifying the genetic similarities among the BC1F3 dwarf tomato plant populations and allowed for the determination of weights of each variable in the cluster formation. The UFU SDi 13-1 BC1F3 population was revealed to be a promising option for obtaining saladette type dwarf tomato plant lines.
... Grouping genotypes into 5 clusters indicated geographical diversity and genetic divergence were unrelated. The genotypes could not be grouped into 4-5 clusters which agreed with Aguirre and Cabrera (2012) and Maciel et al., (2018). ...
... Diversity analysis of cherry tomato accessions reported here had some similarity to other results for average fruit weight, fruit shape (Rodríguez et al., 2003); fruit yield, average fruit weight, pericarp thickness (Garzón, 2011); fruit number, yield, fruit firmness, vitamin C, titratable acidity, lycopene contents (Aguirre and Cabrera, 2012); stem diameter, total chlorophyll content of leaf during flowering and fruiting, fruit yield and average fruit weight (Maciel et al., 2018) contributed most to expression of variability from other locations. ...
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Assessment of advance breeding lines of cherry tomato for reproductive, fruit quality and disease severity attributes could provide insight into the underlying biology of the source of desirable alleles for breeding for open field production. The study was undertaken to evaluate 14 newly developed breeding lines from India to utilize useful genes in cherry tomato breeding, and to assess genetic variability and character associationship among 19 quantitative characters to identify important selection indices, and genetic divergence to identify potential donor(s) for breeding cherry tomato especially under open field condition. Genotypes Cherry Round Yellow and 16/ToCVAR-1 appeared the most promising and could commercially be exploited as open field varieties in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, after critical testing. High, genotypic coefficient of variation, heritability coupled with genetic advance, occurred for pericarp thickness, fruit firmness, ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity content, total antioxidant activity of fruit, percent disease index of tomato leaf curl virus (PDI of ToLCV), and fruit yield per plant, which suggests that the characters concerned are conditioned by additive gene action and therefore, these characters would be more reliable for effective selection. The top priority should be given to selection based on fruit per flower cluster, pericarp thickness, fruit firmness, number of flower clusters per plant, fruit weight, and retinal activity equivalent for yield improvement and could be considered while formulating selection indices in the improvement of cherry tomato for open field condition. Geographical diversity was not adequate as an index of genetic diversity in field grown cherry tomatoes. The principal components, titratable acidity content, fruit yield per plant, PDI of ToLCV, and total antioxidant acidity, had eigen values >1 and together accounted for 100% of total variation. Based on multivariate analysis and average values, genotypes 16/ToCVAR-1, 16/ToCVAR-3, 16/ToCVAR-4, 16/ToCVAR-5, 16/ToCVAR- 6, and Cherry Round Yellow were identified as potential donors that could be passed on to breeders not only for ToLCV resistant breeding but also for improvement in yield and better nutritional quality of cherry tomato either through development of hybrids, or isolation of potential lines from segregating generations, suitable for open field culture in tropical and subtropical regions of the world.
... The different clustering patterns obtained from phenotypic data and SSR-based assay in the current study confirmed that the two approaches were distinct and highly variable. Numerous crop species have previously been the subject of disagreements over the relationship between morphological and molecular marker studies [77]. The variable properties of morpho-molecular parameters lead to differences in clustering patterns [59]. ...
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Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crop is well known for its versatility worldwide and recognized as model species used extensively for various genetic studies. This study was carried out to evaluate some indigenous and exotic tomato genotypes for divergence studies using a combined multidisciplinary approach. Regardless of its significant contributions to nutritional and economic status globally, lack of diversity among the cultivated species has been witnessed extensively due to the intensive selection of genotypes with respect to specific traits and severe genetic bottlenecks. Methods and Results As a part of the countermeasure to restore the genetic diversity in tomato, the incorporation of wild varieties, landraces, and traditional varieties in the crop-breeding scheme is highly acknowledged. On these grounds, inter and intra-genetic diversity was assessed among 51 tomato genotypes morphologically, biochemically, and by using DNA-based marker SSR markers. A total of 15 discrete agro-morphological traits and 6 biochemical traits were undertaken in the current study for evaluating the analysis of variance, genetic parameters, and correlation. Morphological clustering divided the genotypes into 2 clusters and the genotype-wise distance matrix was obtained to identify the most diverse genotypes. PCA analysis was conducted to understand the directive relation of traits and the magnitude of variability contributed by them. SSR profiling with 24 primers identified 44 alleles with 1.83 as a mean number of alleles/SSR with an average PIC value of 0.31. Structure analysis revealed two sub-populations (K = 2). The AMOVA indicated that 98% of the total variation was present within the populations. This study presents a roadmap for composing future breeding strategies for integrating desirable traits in novel tomato lines that combine robustness and nutritive value. Conclusion The tomato genotypes were found to be a rich resource of germplasm with respect to genetic variation and needs to be preserved and utilized efficiently in breeding programs to rescue the gene pool wealth. The clustering patterns revealed the distinctiveness and relatedness of the panel under study. A substantial degree of morphological and molecular diversity was attained within and among the genotypes and populations. The efficiency of the SSR marker technique used in the current study can be considered for future breeding programs.
... According to Araújo et al. (2016), the generalized Mahalanobis distance helps identify genetic divergence among genotypes and subsequent selection of promising parents. Discovering promising parents is important for decision making in breeding programs (Maciel et al. 2018). Figueiredo et al. (2017) found that identifying genetic divergence allowed the selection of optimal hybrids for the formation of contrasting lineages. ...
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Plants employ defense strategies to reduce or prevent attacks by phytophagous insects and survive. These strategies can involve chemical constituents that are synthesized to be toxic or repellent to arthropods. The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta, damages tomatoes on all continents. This insect can reduce yield and increase control costs. Genetic breeding can help improve the management of this pest. Therefore, the present study studied the resistance and toxicity of the main chemical constituents of tomato plants to T. absoluta. Bioassays of antixenosis, antibiosis and relative toxicity of chemical constituents were performed. T. absoluta were subjected to concentration–mortality bioassays using 2-tridecanone, p-cymene, α-tomatine and coumarin. Heterosis was examined in three hybrids for resistance to T. absoluta that could be used in plant breeding programs. The 2-tridecanone constituent was the most toxic chemical that most reduced leaf consumption by T. absoluta larvae. Our results showed that these chemical constituents (e.g., 2-tridecanone) could be used as a target for tomato breeding programs and perhaps sprayed to repel insects or applied as a contact insecticide.
... Internode length plays an important role for the improvement of plant architecture in tomato plants [21]. In studies with tomato culture, the distance between the tomato internodes is a parameter that can indicate the potential culture productivity, since it is directly related to yield [22,23]. Several factors are related, such as temperature, genotypes [24] and density [22,25]; it has been show that, in management of pepper cultivation with higher nitrogen doses, through fertigation, caused stem reduction. ...
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It is known that poorly performed fertigation directly impacts on tomato production and biometric components. In addition, consumers are also affected by interrelated characteristics that interfere with the acceptability of the fruit, such as the physicochemical parameters and nutrients in the fruit. Thus, eco-friendly technologies, such as irrigation with ultra-low frequency electromagnetic treated-water, which attenuates the inadequate management of fertigation, are essential to improve marketable fruit yields. Thus, the objective of the present work was to investigate the impact of treated water with very low-frequency electromagnetic resonance fields in physical, chemical and nutritional parameters at different nutrient solution strengths in tomato fruits. In this study, experiments were carried out in randomized blocks and five doses of fertigation were used (1.5; 2.5; 4.0; 5.5; and 7.0 dS m−1), employing two types of water: electromagnetically treated and untreated. It can be seen that the fertigation affected some parameters, mainly the number of fruits with blossom-end rot, fruit size, and weight. Variance analysis (ANOVA) was performed with the subsequent use of the Tukey test. In all statistical tests, a confidence level of 95% was considered. The soluble solids content increased by 28% as a function of the fertigation doses. The electromagnetically treated water reduced the number of fruits with blossom-end rot by 35% (p < 0.05). Overall, electromagnetic water improved the physicochemical quality parameters and the nutritional status of tomato fruits. Thus, this study demonstrated that green technology could leverage tomato fruit production and quality.
... For all treatments, there was a descending pattern for the FCI values (Table 1) over the period of the experiment, though the significance of the differences in FCI at the different dates were not statistically verified. Although such a decrease in chlorophyll content is common for cherry tomatoes, it is also known to be dependent on the level of N-fertilisation and the genotype (Oliveira et al. 2017;Maciel et al. 2018). As the FCI values for a PAB cultivar were not found in the literature, it was not possible to infer about the degree of N deficiency in the present study. ...
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Plant residues are often composted prior to use as organic amendments or fertilisers, but in this study a new approach, referred here to as greenponics, was evaluated, using undecomposed plant biomass as the growing substrate and fertiliser. Cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) cv. Perinha Água Branca, were grown in 8 L pots filled with 600 g of air-dried bahia-grass clippings (Paspalum notatum). Soil (750 g) was placed in the centre of the pot, into which the tomato seedling was transplanted, and on the top (1250 g) to retain the moisture in the grass. At 63 days after transplanting, an additional 300 g of grass clippings were applied to each pot. Three treatments were applied as microbial inoculants to support the mineralisation of nutrients from the grass; a control (tap water) and two types of dairy cattle wastewater, applied raw or after treatment in a constructed wetland system. For each treatment, nine doses of 150 mL of water/wastewater were applied manually during the experiment. The control and the raw wastewater treatment produced 937 and 913 g marketable fruit plant⁻¹, respectively, yields similar to those reported in the literature for organic cultivation of the same cultivar. Application of the treated wastewater resulted in lower yields (811 g plant⁻¹), indicating that the grass clippings did not necessarily require the microbial inoculant to release nutrients for the growth of the tomatoes. Greenponics with grass clippings as the only source of fertiliser could be recommended as a potential alternative for growing cherry tomatoes in pots.
... making it a satisfactory tool to represent the information in the matrix and subsequent group formation. In other studies on tomato crops, the UPGMA method was also efficient at discriminate groups (Araujo et al., 2016;Maciel et al., 2018a;Peixoto et al., 2018). With the 30% cutoff point in the dendrogram, the populations formed three distinct groups. ...
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The use of dwarf lines to obtain mini-tomato hybrids has provided agronomic and economic benefits. In Brazil, round tomatoes predominate over other varieties. The benefits of using a dwarf parent in round tomato hybrids has yet to be explored, making it important to develop dwarf round tomato lines. Backcrossing is the most suitable method to develop these lines. Evaluation and selection of the dwarf populations can improve the development of such lines. Thus, the aim of this study was to select BC1F2 populations of dwarf round tomatoes with agronomic potential and high-quality fruit. The study was conducted at the Vegetable Experimental Station of the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU). A randomized block design was used, with 15 treatments and three replicates. The genetic material analyzed consisted of 12 BC1F2 dwarf tomato populations, plus both parents (recurrent and donor) and a commercial hybrid. The characteristics assessed were: average fruit weight (g), total soluble solids (ºBrix), number of locules (locules per fruit-1), fruit shape, pulp thickness (cm), longitudinal (cm) and transverse fruit diameter (cm), internode length (cm) and plant height (cm). The data were submitted to mean testing, multivariate analyses and a selection index. In general, average fruit weight in the dwarf populations increased significantly after the first backcross, with some fruits exhibiting a similar shape to round tomatoes. Selection of the populations UFU-DTOM7, UFU-DTOM10, UFU-DTOM5, UFUDTOM9, and UFU-DTOM3 resulted in an estimated 6% increase in the number of locules, transverse diameter, TD/LD ratio and average fruit weight. The BC1F2 dwarf populations UFU-DTOM7 and UFU-DTOM10 were the most promising for develop inbred lines with round fruits. Despite the considerable progress achieved in this study, we suggest a second backcross, in order to obtain lines and, posteriorly, hybrids with round fruits and compact plants.
Experiment Findings
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The present investigation was carried out at the Experimental Field, Division of Vegetable Science, SKUAST-K, Shalimar during kharif 2018. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Twenty nine genotypes were evaluated for various quantitative traits viz., plant height, number of primary branches, number of flowers cluster-1 , number of fruits cluster-1 , days to first flowering and yield hectare-1. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes for all the traits studied except number of locules fruit-1. Among the twenty nine genotypes used the highest plant height was found in genotype SK-CT-05 (157.26 cm) while, number of primary branches was found to be highest in SK-CT-06 (31.56). The highest number of flowers cluster-1 and fruits cluster-1 was found in SK-CT-15 i.e., (8.86 and 8.20) respectively. The earliest days to first flowering was recorded in SK-CT-07 (19.40 days). The genotypes viz; SK-CT-27, SK-CT-16 and SK-CT-15 showed higher yield potential of 160.86 q ha-1 , 156.35 q ha-1 and 153.53 q ha-1 which was significantly higher than SK-CT-08 (23.73 q ha-1).
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The success of breeding programs depends on genetic variability. Individuals selected based on a few traits may be a limitation. One alternative is the use of nonparametric indices. However, there is no information on the use of selection indices in melon germplasms. The present study aimed to estimate genetic dissimilarity in a melon germplasm and select potential parent plants for future breeding programs. The genetic material consisted of 37 melon accessions. The traits assessed were fruit diameter and length, diameter and length of the fruit cavity and total soluble solids. Genetic dissimilarity was assessed by multivariate analyses (UPGMA and Tocher). Selection gain estimates were analyzed by comparing the classic Smith-Hazel and sum of ranks indices. Genetic diversity was observed between accessions. The variable that contributed most to genetic dissimilarity was fruit cavity length. Simultaneous selection for the traits assessed based on the sum of ranks index is better suited to melon germplasm assessment. The best accessions for the five variables simultaneously were UFU07, UFU23, UFU09, UFU21, UFU28 and UFU30.
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A vinhaça é subproduto da produção de etanol que possui uma composição rica em nutrientes como o potássio. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as características agronômicas e produtivas de cultivares de tomate cereja sob aplicação de níveis de potássio fornecidos via vinhaça e adubação mineral. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 5x2, sendo 5 níveis de vinhaça: N1 – 100% vinhaça; N2 - 80% vinhaça + 20% da adubação potássica via mineral; N3 - 60% vinhaça + 40% da adubação potássica via mineral; N4 - 40% vinhaça + 60% da adubação potássica via mineral; N5 - 20% vinhaça + 80% da adubação potássica via mineral, e os demais nutrientes foram fornecidos pela vinhaça + adubação mineral e 2 de cultivares de tomate cereja (Carolina e Isla-Pró) com 4 blocos totalizando 40 parcelas. Para análise estatística empregou-se regressão e teste de Tukey a 1 e 5% de significância. A variedade Isla Pró apresentou altura de plantas e diâmetro transversal de frutos de tomate cereja superiores. Já a variedade Carolina foi a que apresentou maior número de flores, cachos e frutos bem como, maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais, independentemente do nível de potássio fornecido via vinhaça. Níveis mais elevados de potássio fornecidos pela vinhaça promoveram maior valor no diâmetro transversal dos frutos e teor de sólidos solúveis totais.
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Tomato is one of the most important crops, the worldwide production in 2012 reached 161.8 million tons. Considering the lack of agronomic information on already available cultivars as well as on the varieties under development by breeding programs for organic systems, the objectives of this work were determine the yield components of 14 tomato cultivars in the organic system, through univariate and multivariate analysis. The experimental design was randomized blocks with six replications and five plants per plot. Evaluations consisted of total, marketable and non-marketable yield and number of marketable fruits per plant, in 2010. We carried out analysis of variance, using test F 5%. The effect of cultivar was fixed and the block effect was random. Then, means were ranked according to Scott-Knott 5%. Differences among cultivars were significant for total yield, number of marketable fruits per plant and marketable yield. The mean for total yield among cultivars was 51 t/ha and for marketable yield was 41 t/ha. Cultivars IAC 1 and Santa Clara were the least dissimilar (0.38). On the other hand, cultivars HTV 0601 and IAC 3 were the most dissimilar (10.63). The score dispersion graph showed two distinct groups. The second group contained cultivars HTV 0601, Granadero, Bari and Netuno, which stood out in the evaluation for the organic production system, presenting the highest total yield, marketable yield and number of marketable fruits per plant. Multivariate analysis was effective in identifying clusters of cultivars.
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A few studies on the influence of the growth habit on the agronomic performance of mini tomato hybrids are available. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the agronomic potential of mini tomatoes with indeterminate versus determinate growth habit. The experimental design was randomized blocks with six treatments (Rosso, Giallo, Verdi, Arancio, Candy and Mascot) and five replications. The seeding was carried out on February 27th, 2012 in polystyrene trays. After 37 days from sowing, seedlings were transplanted into plastic pots of five liters. We evaluated the number of fruits/plant; fruit number/m2; production/plant1 and production/m2. Significant effect was detected among the hybrids through F test (α= 0.05). Hybrids of determinate growth habit (Rosso and Giallo) showed higher agronomic performance compared to hybrids of indeterminate growth habit (Verdi, Arancio, Candy and Mascot). The hybrid Rosso showed the best agronomic potential compared to the evaluated hybrids.
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Existem poucas informações publicadas sobre o efeito da época de colheita no teor de sólidos solúveis - SS (°Brix) de frutos de minitomate. Diante disso, o objetivo do trabalho foi comparar o teor de sólidos solúveis de híbridos de minitomate, portadores do hábito de crescimento determinado versus indeterminado em função da época de colheita. O experimento foi realizado em estufa agrícola, com seis tratamentos: Mascot (hábito de crescimento indeterminado), TSV918 (hábito de crescimento indeterminado), TSV912 (hábito de crescimento indeterminado), TSV678 (hábito de crescimento indeterminado), TSV1278 (hábito de crescimento determinado), TSV910 (hábito de crescimento determinado). Foram realizadas três colheitas em época distintas (90, 120 e 150 dias após o semeio - DAS) formando um fatorial 6 x 3. Durante as duas primeiras épocas de colheita (90 e 120 DAS) obteve-se os melhores teores de SS. Houve diferença significativa para os frutos coletados no ciclo final das plantas (150 DAS). O teor de sólidos solúveis variou durante as colheitas (90, 120 e 150 DAS), sendo inferior na última colheita (150 DAS). O hábito de crescimento influenciou o teor de SS apenas no início da colheita (90 DAS).
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A field experiment was carried out in the Instituto de Ciências Agrárias of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil, during the summer of 2008-2009, to evaluate the productive features of cherry tomato genotypes cultivated under different spacing, in an organic cropping system. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 3×4 factorial scheme with three replications. The experimental plot was made up of four rows (spaced 1.00 m between rows) with thirty two plants each, utilizing the eight central plants for the analysis. The treatments consisted of three genotypes of cherry tomatoes (CH152, CLN1561-A and Carolina) and four spacings between plants (0.40; 0.60; 0.80; 1.00 m). The fruit percentage in the different diameter classes and the commercial fruits yield per plant and hectare were evaluated. The CH152 genotype produced a greater percentage of noncommercial fruit (with diameter less than 20 mm). The greatest percentage of fruit classified with the largest diameters (above 30 mm) was achieved by the CLN1561A genotype. The highest commercial yields of fruit per plant and per area were found in the CLN1561A genotype, pointing it out as a promising genotype for an organic crop in the summer in the north of Minas Gerais.
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Understanding the genetic variability of a species is crucial for the progress of a genetic breeding program and requires characterization and evaluation of germplasm. This study aimed to characterize and evaluate 101 tomato subsamples of the Salad group (fresh market) and two commercial controls, one of the Salad group (cv. Fanny) and another of the Santa Cruz group (cv. Santa Clara). Four experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with three replications and five plants per plot. The joint analysis of variance was performed and characteristics with significant complex interaction between control and experiment were excluded. Subsequently, the multicollinearity diagnostic test was carried out and characteristics that contributed to severe multicollinearity were excluded. The relative importance of each characteristics for genetic divergence was calculated by the Singh’s method (Singh, 1981), and the less important ones were excluded according to Garcia (1998). Results showed large genetic divergence among the subsamples for morphological, agronomic and organoleptic characteristics, indicating potential for genetic improvement. The characteristics total soluble solids, mean number of good fruits per plant, endocarp thickness, mean mass of marketable fruit per plant, total acidity, mean number of unmarketable fruit per plant, internode diameter, internode length, main stem thickness and leaf width contributed little to the genetic divergence between the subsamples and may be excluded in future studies.
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GENES is a software package used for data analysis and processing with different biometric models and is essential in genetic studies applied to plant and animal breeding. It allows parameter estimation to analyze biological phenomena and is fundamental for the decision-making process and predictions of success and viability of selection strategies. The program can be downloaded from the Internet ( or and is available in Portuguese, English and Spanish. Specific literature ( and a set of sample files are also provided, making GENES easy to use. The software is integrated into the programs MS Word, MS Excel and Paint, ensuring simplicity and effectiveness in data import and export of results, figures and data. It is also compatible with the free software R and Matlab, through the supply of useful scripts available for complementary analyses in different areas, including genome wide selection, prediction of breeding values and use of neural networks in genetic improvement.
The study was conducted to evaluate six K:Ca:Mg ratios for production of two cultivars of mini tomato grown in substrate, in a greenhouse, during two growing seasons. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications and twelve treatments using both cultivars of mini tomato (Sweet Million and Sweet Grape) and six K:Ca:Mg ratios (4:3:1, 6:3:1, 6:4.5:1, 2.7:3:1, 2.7:2:1, 4:2:1) in nutrient solutions. In both experiments, nutrient solutions with the highest concentrations of Mg, (75 mg L-1) and the lowest concentrations of Ca, (150 mg L-1) led to the highest concentrations of those nutrients in plant dry matter. The Sweet Million cultivar had higher yield (1.69 kg plant-1 and 1.52 kg plant-1), number of fruits per plant (227 and 236), and water use efficiency (29.1 kg m-3 and 25.3 kg m-3). However, the Sweet Grape cultivar had fruits of higher mean weight (9.0 g and 8.8 g) and macronutrient content in the leaves. In both crop cycles, the different K:Ca:Mg ratios affected only the macronutrient contents of the mini tomato plants grown in substrate, with no effect on yield and water use efficiency. The first crop cycle showed the highest N, K, Ca and S content.