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Critical Contextual Elements in Facilitating and Achieving Success with a Person-Centred Care Intervention to Support Antipsychotic Deprescribing for Older People in Long-Term Care



Antipsychotic and other tranquilising medicines are prescribed to help care staff manages behaviour in one-quarter of older people living in Australian long-term care homes. While these medicines pose significant health risks, particularly for people with dementia, reliance on their use occurs when staff are not educated to respond to resident behaviour using nonpharmacological approaches. The Halting Antipsychotic use in Long-Term care (HALT) single-arm study was undertaken to address this issue with 139 people 60 years and over with behaviours of concern for staff living in 24 care homes. A train-the-trainer approach delivered person-centred care education and support for 22 HALT (nurse) champions and 135 direct care staff, dementia management education for visiting general practitioners (GP) and pharmacists, use of an individualised deprescribing protocol for residents, and awareness-raising for the resident's family. The HALT champions completed open-ended questionnaires and semistructured interviews to identify the contextual elements they considered most critical to facilitating, educating care staff, and achieving success with the study intervention. They reported that person-centred approaches helped care staff to respond proactively to resident behaviours in the absence of antipsychotic medicines; the champions considered that this required strong managerial support, champion empowerment to lead change, reeducation of care staff, and the cooperation of families and GPs.
Research Article
Critical Contextual Elements in Facilitating and
Achieving Success with a Person-Centred Care Intervention to
Support Antipsychotic Deprescribing for
Older People in Long-Term Care
Lynn Chenoweth ,1Tiffany Jessop,2Fleur Harrison,2Monica Cations,2
Janet Cook,1and Henry Brodaty1,2
1Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, UNSW Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
2Dementia Centre for Research Collaboration, School of Psychiatry, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Correspondence should be addressed to Lynn Chenoweth;
Received 13 February 2018; Revised 19 April 2018; Accepted 13 May 2018; Published 8 July 2018
Academic Editor: H.-X. Wang
Copyright ©  Lynn Chenoweth et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
Antipsychotic and other tranquilising medicines are prescribed to help care sta manages behaviour in one-quarter of older
people living in Australian long-term care homes. While these medicines pose signicant health risks, particularly for people with
dementia, reliance on their use occurs when sta are not educated to respond to resident behaviour using nonpharmacological
approaches. e Halting Antipsychotic use in Long-Term care (HALT) single-arm study was undertaken to address this issue with
 people  years and over with behaviours of concern for sta living in  care homes. A train-the-trainer approach delivered
person-centred care education and support for  HALT (nurse) champions and  direct care sta, dementia management
education for visiting general practitioners (GP) and pharmacists, use of an individualised deprescribing protocol for residents,
and awareness-raising for the resident’s family. e HALT champions completed open-ended questionnaires and semistructured
interviews to identify the contextual elements they considered most critical to facilitating, educating care sta,and achieving success
with the study intervention. ey reported that person-centred approaches helped care sta to respond proactively to resident
behaviours in the absence of antipsychotic medicines; the champions considered that this required strong managerial support,
champion empowerment to lead change, reeducation of care sta, and the cooperation of families and GPs.
1. Introduction
aged > years. Currently there is no approved treatment
available to prevent progression or cure dementia. It is
classied in the h edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders [] as a major neurocognitive
disorder, encompassing a range of degenerative conditions
characterised by decline in cognition, impairment in func-
tion, and frequently changes in the person’s behaviour [].
As dementia severity increases, certain behavioural responses
may change (e.g., aggression declines and apathy increases).
include depression, psychosis, aggression, and wandering
from home []. Diminishing capacity and self-care ability,
coupled with increasing psychological responses/behaviours,
make it dicult for families to provide the level of care the
person requires [].
In these circumstances, people with dementia require
supported care services, including long-term care []. One of
the main reasons for the use of long-term care in Australians
with dementia is the presence of aggression, resistance to
care, and extreme agitation, for which antipsychotic and other
tranquilising medicines are prescribed in approximately %
of residents []. According to pharmaceutical guidelines,
antipsychotic medicines pose high risks for people with
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Volume 2018, Article ID 7148515, 12 pages
BioMed Research International
dementia and judicious prescribing and deprescribing are
recommended []. Antipsychotics have been associated with
more rapid cognitive decline [], increased risk for cere-
brovascular adverse events (CVAEs, e.g., stroke and transient
ischemic episodes), metabolic syndrome, delirium, and death
[, ]. In view of this adverse event evidence, and the
limited ecacy evidence [], deprescribing antipsychotics
is recommended for most people with dementia. When
deprescribing is not considered possible because of extreme
behaviour, lower doses of antipsychotics are advised along-
side nonpharmacological approaches [].
continue to be used in long-term care is that the majority of
direct care sta have limited training in dementia care work,
and no qualications in nursing or allied health specialities.
ey oen lack the basic knowledge required for providing
quality dementia care and have limited skills in dementia-
specic communication and behavioural management [].
Without exposure to dementia-specic education, these
direct care sta are likely to attribute psychological causes
to dementia prevalence and the behaviours that they nd
concerning to a dementia diagnosis []. Consequently, while
this sta is charged with providing care and support for
people with dementia, oen with very limited supervision
some to manage coexisting physical, behavioural, and mental
health issues []. Direct care sta may, therefore, struggle
to communicate and engage the person with dementia in
meaningful conversation and leisure activities and may not
know how to prevent and deal with resistance during a care
event [].
As well, without dementia-specic knowledge direct
care sta have less hopeful attitudes towards people with
dementia, do not anticipate meaningful responses from them,
and have low expectations of improvements in the person’s
functional and cognitive ability []. In these circumstances,
sta may disengage from the person psychologically and
socially and can inadvertently reinforce the behaviour they
nd challenging by reacting negatively to the person and/or
the behaviour [, ]. Sta may also fail to support the
person’s positive, prosocial behaviour when they are verbally
address negative sta behaviour by clarifying misconceptions
about cognitive impairment in dementia, give advice on the
dierent reasons and remedies for the person’s behaviour, and
increase stas condence and skills in providing individu-
alised care [].
Dementia education based on a person-centred care
framework [] helps long-term care sta to recognise that
many of the person’s behaviours, such as agitation and
resistance to care, arise from the person’s interactions within
the care context. rough exposure to this educational
focus, sta come to understand that people with dementia,
like themselves, exist in a social, relational context, and
that when sta make genuine attempts to develop positive
and enriching interpersonal relationships with people with
dementia, they can help to reduce the disabling eects of
dementia and promote well-being []. A person-centred
approach to dementia care places considerable value on
understanding the person’s unique identity and personality,
helping the person to feel a sense of self-worth and value
through tailoring services to the individual’s psychosocial
needs, providing options for continued social engagement
and access to meaningful life activities, and including the
person in decisions about their care and daily life experiences
as much as possible. is approach to dementia care is
eective in improving the quality of care, such as bathing
and social and recreation activities [, ], improving well-
being [], reducing various forms of agitation [, ], and
reducing the need for antipsychotic medicines to manage
behaviour [].
reducing, or eliminating, the use of psychotropic medicines
in people with dementia, its application must be interpreted
in the context of the person and their personal characteristics,
collegiate relationships, and the healthcare organisational
circumstances []. e model is best implemented when the
entire system is framed by policies to guide implementation
across the organisation, as well as within supportive medical
and ancillary services []. Leadership at senior and middle
management level is a key factor in eective, system-wide
adoption of the person-centred approach [, ], including
willingness to introduce targeted education, training and
supervision for all direct care, and support and ancillary sta
[]. Despite the evidence for a person-centred approach,
many long-term residents with behavioural issues are still
prescribed antipsychotic medicines [].
In response to the continued reliance on antipsychotic
medicines for people with behaviours that cause diculties
for long-term care sta, we conducted the Halting Antipsy-
chotic use in Long-term care (HALT) study []. e study
implemented a multifaceted intervention, using a train-the-
trainer approach to deliver person-centred dementia care
education and support for HALT (nurse) champions and
direct care sta, dementia management education for visit-
ing general practitioners (GP) and pharmacists, awareness-
raising for the residents family and use of an individualised
deprescribing protocol for participating residents which fol-
lowed Australian guidelines stipulating a dose reduction of
imum dose, withdrawing one antipsychotic at a time, with
risperidone (if prescribed) to be withdrawn last []. Some of
the participating GPs prematurely applied the deprescribing
protocol for  of the residents. e GPs’ adherence to the
deprescribing protocol is the subject of a HALT substudy,
with a manuscript in process. While  (.%) of the
participating residents were initially deprescribed, there was
a cessation or a reduction in dose of antipsychotic use in four
out of ve of  residents remaining at -months follow-
up, without an increase in substitute medicines. e number
of participants on regular antipsychotics over -months
reduced by .% (% CI: .–.) [].
is HALT substudy aimed to identify the champions’
experiences with applying the person-centred care training
when providing leadership to direct care sta in person-
centred dementia care. In this article we focus on the
champions’ use and satisfaction with the training program
resources and recommended techniques, their perceptions
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of the enablers and barriers to person-centred approaches
in practice and whether the person-centred care approach
helped to reduce resident behaviours, and their reections
on how the person-centred care approach adopted had an
inuence on the culture of dementia care.
2. Materials and Methods
e HALT study, including this substudy, was approved by
the university’s research ethics committee (HC) and was
Registry (), with study methods and results
reported according to the COREQ guidelines.
2.1. Setting and Participants. HALT was conducted as a
single-arm longitudinal study in a convenience sample of
 long-term care homes ( private,  charitable, and 
community-based, each with > beds) in the greater Sydney
all but one of the study participants; one resident was able
to provide her own consent. Appointed nurses from each
of the homes recruited  people aged  or older, who
livedinthehomefor month and were taking regular
antipsychotic medicines for  months, of whom  were
eligible. Eligibility was assessed via sta interviews and
le audits. Residents were excluded if terminal illness or
a primary psychotic condition was present, or if they had
extreme behaviour that might be too dicult to manage
in the long-term care setting (score  on the nursing
home version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-NH)
[], domain scores of  for at least two of delusions,
hallucinations, agitation/aggression, anxiety or disinhibition,
and occupational disruptiveness score  for at least two of
these domains). e extreme behaviour exclusion criterion
was informed by contemporaneous Australian Department
of Health rules for severe behaviour supplement [].
e  HALT champions recruited to the study were
volunteer registered nurses from each of the participating
homes who were identied by their managers as having
leadership qualities in educating/training and supervising
direct care sta in person-centred care techniques for par-
ticipating residents. e study’s project coordinator recruited
and consented one or two experienced senior nurses within
each of the  participating care homes to take on the
champion role.
2.2. Study Intervention: Person-Centred Education/Training
and Support. e person-centred education/training and
support component of the multifaceted study intervention
used an evidence-based train-the-trainer approach to deliver
person-centred dementia care education and support [16,
19] for HALT (nurse) champions and direct care sta.
Once consented the champions attended a -day workshop
delivered in groups of - by the study dementia nurse
specialist. Champions were provided with a training manual
and set of dementia resources which outlined practical
strategies for problem-solving issues with individual resident
behaviours. e main learning objectives of the champion
education/training course included educating direct care sta
to value and respect the resident in all interactions; regard
the resident as a complete individual; seek to understand the
experiences and behaviour of the resident from their per-
spective; understand that all resident behaviour is a form of
communication; and make every attempt to create a positive
care and social environment to prevent the development of
agitated behaviour.
Experiential and adult learning techniques were used in
the training program, including role play of person-centred
approaches with champion-identied examples of known
residents with behaviour that was concerning for direct care
sta; trainer demonstration of how these behaviours might be
investigated and approached during role play; group activities
which encouraged expression of feelings through sharing
observations, and engaging with emotions by entering into
the reality of the person with dementia and not simply
trying to distract them; and facilitating shared learning by
assisting the champions to use the dierent learning resources
and techniques in preparation for their role, such as care
planning with reference to residents recruited to the study,
and use of practice memos and mini-tutorials on person-
centred approaches that they planned to use during sta
Along with a range of strategies to facilitate person-
centred care practice with direct care sta, the champi-
ons were provided with helpful resources such as person-
centred care plans which focused on maintaining resident
function, engagement, and well-being; care management
and behaviour prevention/reduction techniques and pro-
tocols; case management and team leadership techniques;
the VIPS[] model of person-centred care; relationship-
building processes; and transition and continuity planning.
e study’s emergency behaviour response protocol (Sup-
plemental File (available here)) included these key person-
centred approaches when investigating, interpreting, and
responding to resident behaviour that sta found extremely
Champion education and supervision of  direct care
sta occurred in consultation with their managers, the
project coordinator, and the dementia nurse specialist, which
continued on a regular basis until follow-up. e dementia
nurse specialist and the project manager provided on-site
and phone support to the champions as they commenced
educating and supervising direct care sta in person-centred
care and behaviour management.
2.3. Measurement and Data Collection. e HALT sub-
study identied the contextual elements that the cham-
pions considered most critical in facilitating, adhering to
ponent of the HALT intervention, and how this change
process impacted on care delivery and outcomes for par-
ticipating residents from the champions’ perspectives. To
obtain these data a questionnaire was completed by HALT
champions before and aer they participated in the educa-
tion/training program, and they were interviewed at study
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e pre/post education/training questionnaire was based
on process evaluation principles and included eight opened-
ended questions on the champions learning needs, expec-
tations, and achievements, including their knowledge of
dementia and dementia care, application of dementia care
skills/strategies, and knowledge and application of person-
centred responses to behaviour in dementia. One additional
item was included in the posteducation course questionnaire
a Likert scale ranging from  ‘did not meet learning needs’ to
 ‘met all learning needs’. Questionnaires were administered
by the research assistants immediately prior to and at the
conclusion of the champions education/training course, and
participant responses were handwritten. Completed ques-
tionnaires were returned to the study research assistants in
sealed envelopes for data entry and analyses.
One-on-one champion interviews were informed by the
coordinator in private rooms within the aged care home,
using a semistructured interview guide. For a small number
of champions who were unable to be interviewed during
working hours, one-on-one interviews were conducted by
telephone. Interview questions included a mix of closed and
open-ended items, and items which asked participants to
give ratings to xed questions using Likert scale responses,
such as ‘none, ‘a little’, ‘some’, ‘a lot’ and ‘substantial’ and
‘very low’, ‘low’, ‘neutral’, ‘high’, and ‘very high’. e  topics
covered included work-related demographics; progress and
details on instituting person-centred approaches in care for
included residents; barriers and enablers with instituting
the person-centred approach; strategies used successfully in
reducing triggers and resident behaviours; impact of person-
centred approaches on resident behaviour; impact of on-site
person-centred education, training, and supervision on care
practices; and factors involved in instituting a person-centred
workplace culture. Champion responses were tape recorded
and key statements were hand-recorded on the survey and
interview forms. Handwritten statements were checked for
accuracy with participants at the end of the survey. Since
the tape recordings were transcribed verbatim, they were not
returned to participants for their review.
2.4. Data Analyses. Questionnaire responses, interview tran-
scripts, and notes recorded by the data collector were sorted
and classied with computer soware, NVivo [], and
were content analysed by experienced qualitative researchers.
ree study team members with expertise in this form of
data analysis independently employed an iterative process to
code these data and identied the core concepts, deriving
key themes from the data as a whole. ematic analysis was
guided by the aprioritopic areas of the champion ques-
tionnaire and semistructured interview questions. Emphasis
was placed on subjective experiences and the meanings that
the champions attached to that experience []. Key themes
were independently analysed by two of study team members
for champion questionnaire and interview responses and
then conrmed and/or corrected by the third team member
[]. Consensus was reached between the three study team
members regarding the categories and themes for each of
the key domains of interest. is approach to data analysis
produced an in-depth interpretation of the dynamic and
subtle interplay of factors occurring at the individual, group,
and organisational level in regard to the implementation
of the study intervention, its potential generalisability, and
optimisation in routine long-term care practice [].
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Results. e substudy results are presented according to
the questions which guided the champion questionnaires and
interviews, concluding with the themes derived from these
3.1.1. Work-Related Demographics. e  champions were
all female registered nurses, with a range of educational
qualications and working at dierent levels of authority.
Educational preparation included hospital-training certi-
cate and/or diploma and/or a bachelor and/or a master
degree in a health discipline. Champion work roles included
senior registered nurse (n=), clinical nurse specialist (n=),
clinical nurse consultant (n=), nurse practitioner (n=),
quality manager (n=), deputy director of nursing (n=),
and care unit manager (n=). Most of the champions had
participated previously in some form of dementia-specic
education within the care home or externally, ranging from
certicate to degree-level courses.
3.1.2. Achievement of Learning Objectives. All  champions
responded that the education/training course had met many
of their learning objectives, particularly on how to use a
person-centred care approach to reduce the incidence and
severity of resident behaviour, techniques in communicating
with residents with dementia and behavioural issues, and
how to change sta ’s reliance on antipsychotic medicines
for resident behaviours they found dicult to manage. ey
considered the course had taught them strategies which
they intended to utilise in practice as a way of facilitating
implementation of person-centred care. e following state-
ment of one champions satisfaction with the education and
support received was similar to sentiments expressed by most
“Sta have received excellent education and feel condent
has been very consultative” (SC).
e most useful strategies included how to interpret
a need from behaviour, procedures for managing complex
change, showing direct care sta how to be therapeutic agents,
how to use practice improvement memos, microtraining and
person-centred care planning, and how to use the VIPS []
model in emulating the person-centred care approach in
practice. e postcourse questionnaire responses indicated
that champions considered there was a need to know more
about psychotropic medicines and how to manage resident
aggression, especially in care delivery. A common response
was the need for dementia specialists or educators to be
available for onsite follow-up support or training for direct
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‘met all learning needs’,  champions gave a rating of ‘’ and
 gave a rating of ‘’.
3.1.3. Progress with Instituting Person-Centred Approaches
in Care. All  champions were positive about the HALT
program before and aer its introduction, and this sentiment
continued at follow-up. As one of the champions reected:
“I think the project has created awareness that anti- psy-
chotic medications are dangerous and not always the answer.
residents who have been successfully de-prescribed. It has
when antipsychotic medications are decreased” (MC)
e champions reported that once they introduced the
strategies they learned through the education/training course
within the care home, the majority of the direct care sta
were enthusiastic about the person-centred care approach
that was troubling for the resident and themselves. Direct
care sta were also curious to see whether person-centred
approaches to behaviour prevention and management were
useful. Most of t he champions found that direct care sta were
willing “ give it a try and see how it goes” (VC).
It was universally agreed that the managers provided
good support for the champions and enabled them to
undertake the level of education, training, and support they
needed to pass on the learning obtained during the educa-
tion/training course. Time was set aside for champions to
work directly with sta. Shared governance with champions
was a feature of the managerial leadership for the project,
evidenced by the initiatives taken by champions to educate
sta in person-centred approaches to care, and in the learning
strategies they used for person-centred responses to resident
behaviour. However,  out of  champions advised that they
undertook a high level of unpaid out-of-hours work to initiate
and continue the education, training support for sta. In a
few cases the managers rostered champions o-duty, but paid
them, to provide sta education/ training and support.
For the most part champions were fully involved in imple-
menting the onsite education/training using many of the
learning resources provided, including person-centred care
and lifestyle plans, mini-tutorial and case conference pro-
tocols, practice memos, role play guidelines, and behaviour
response ow charts. ey took a range of opportunities to
educate, train, and support sta colleagues, including during
shi handover times, in targeted education sessions with care
sta, in regular debrieng sessions to review progress with
targeted sta, and conducted case study reviews with the
whole team, case conferences with the family, nurses and
allied health sta, and supervision of sta in daily practice.
ese sessions ranged from “daily mini learning tutorials
at shi handovers”(MRC),“20 to 30-minute education
sessions with direct care sta up to four times each week
(SBC) and “education sessions of one or more hours once
each week” (SLC), and some champions “gave advice during
case conferences on specic non-pharmacological techniques
suitable for individual residents” (BHC).
e champions attempted to educate, train, and support
as many sta as possible, estimating that they reached
approximately -% of all sta, including sta working on
weekends in some of the homes. Education techniques were
based on the HALT person-centred care training program
folder and resources, supplemented by education provided
by external consultants and via DVDs and other online
resources provided by dementia support and training ser-
vices. All  champions considered that stas level of knowl-
edge and awareness of nonpharmacological management of
resident behaviour improved with the education, training,
and support they received through the HALT intervention.
ey recounted dierent ways that the techniques taught in
ing triggers which individual residents found distressing. One
of the champions explained this process:
tion, pain and thirst, and attended to any issues that seemed
to be a trigger. We also asked the doctor to attend to issues
quickly, such as pain” (SLC).
While the support from the study dementia nurse spe-
cialist and project coordinator was appreciated by champions,
it was generally thought that more onsite and on-going
education was needed for all sta. Two of the champions
requested that “HALT sta explain the concepts to all sta,
on all shis” (BPC), “as some sta need to have simplied a
version of how conform with the care protocol” (SC). Where
the champions were not involved from the beginning of the
project, such as when new champions were enrolled following
the resignation or transfer of a former champion and/or care
unit manager, there was a higher need for onsite education
and support by the study team members. As direct care sta
the champions found it dicult to ensure all new sta were
exposed to the same level of education and support in person-
centred approaches to care as occurred with more stable
sta. It was acknowledged that “continued, on-site education
and training in nonpharmacological management of resident
behaviour” (BHC), with the support of managers, was
essential to continue deprescribing of psychotropic medicines
for current and future residents with dementia.
for additional onsite education of person-centred approaches
for direct care sta from culturally and linguistically diverse
backgrounds (CALD), where more discussion and experi-
ential education for understanding these concepts and their
practical application were required. Where a facility had
a high proportion of CALD families and residents, it was
suggested that translators and written translations would
assist in the implementation and acceptance of the person-
centred approach. is issue was explained by one of the
concept of helping residents to make decisions for themselves
and to express their own personality, then feel condent to
try dierent approaches to meet the resident’s needs, because
all residents are dierent, and they have dierent issues and
respond dierently to triggers that support their well-being
and also ill-being. If the information about the care model
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help” (BPC).
3.1.4. Enablers and Barriers in Adhering to the Person-Centred
Approach to Care. e context of the care environment
tion of person-centred care practices. Champions reported
that their work cultures were developed to value, respect,
the residents. e organisational climate and culture created
by the managers supported the committed vision of a person-
centred approach to behaviour reduction and management
providing the care. e champions spoke of how direct care
sta were encouraged and assisted to put their relationship
with the person before the tasks they needed to undertake.
is was greatly helped by champions working with sta to
plan care and behaviour management in ways that focused
enablers and barriers to making these practice changes are
listed in Table .
3.1.5. Sta Progress in Using Person-Centred Responses to
Resident Behaviours. e  champions considered that the
majority of direct care sta derived deep satisfaction and
meaning from their work and the relationships that they
formed with the residents, particularly aer learning how
dementia aects the resident’s communication and other
abilities. ey advised that most of the direct care sta worked
together to provide a sensitive way of understanding and
responding to each residents needs and unique personality.
vide culturally appropriate solutions in regard to behaviour
management, “because it was based on the unique priorities
and perceptions of the person, their family and their cultural
context” (SLC).
An important change for direct care sta was the incen-
tive for them to minimise, and challenge systems-driven
services that were not in the best interests of the resident.
is was enabled by managerial and champion leadership
in shiing in the organisation’s control over care schedules,
and their role in negotiating schedules and care/treatment
priorities with families and GPs. is leadership created a
of champions sucient time and resources to lead the change
e champions reported seeing improvements in the
quality of care for residents with facilitated learning in prac-
tice. Words used to describe these improvements included
sta ‘being more responsive (SLC), “more respectful
(SBC), “giving care in a timely way”(VC),and‘being more
condent in responding to dicult behaviours”(BHCO).
Knowledge and skill transfer were reported to occur across
the sta group as a whole, with emphasis placed on discussing
behavioural issues and management for dierent residents at
sta meetings, case conferences, and shi handovers. Sta
became more proactive in requesting that residents’ GPs
deprescribe antipsychotics and prescribe regular analgesia
where the sta identied this as a potential, or actual, cause
of agitation and resistance in care. e most commonly stated
improvements arising from the education and training were
sta ’s recognition and removal of behaviour triggers relevant
to the individual resident, and the sta’s identication and
responses to the residents’ unique needs.
direct care “sta needed much more education and training, as
well as role modelling and practice supervision, than others”
try, the sta do not know where to go with this” (BHC). For
these sta the most successful learning came through wit-
nessing successful responses to resident behaviours by their
colleagues and the champion, and by having opportunities
to practice these techniques through role modelling. Once
successes in reducing distressing behaviours were observed
and/or experienced by direct care sta and then discussed
among the team, these sta gained more condence to initiate
new approaches to care.
3.1.6. Strategies Used Successfully to Reduce Triggers for Res-
ident Behaviours. e major strategies that all champions
found useful when helping direct care sta to become
aware of potential triggers for individual residents included
searching out information on the resident’s previous lifestyle
and history from family and client records, discussing the
resident’s unique needs with nursing care and allied health
teams in dedicated meetings and at case conferences, and
spending more time with the resident to learn about their
preferences in care. As one champion noted:
... taking small, well-planned steps (towards change)
helps to convince the sta of how important it is to take notice
of what the resident is trying to tell us” (SBC).
Another champion identied that
.... helping one resident (to be less agitated), helps other
resident to feel settled” (VC).
A frequent example given of the type of change made by
direct care sta included paying attention to the potential for
residents to experience pain, which resulted in “better pain
assessment and an increase in needed analgesia” (BHC).
It was considered by all  champions that regular pain
relief greatly reduced resident distress, even when aggressive
relieving methods were also reported, such as having “the
physiotherapist ensure that the resident had correctly tting
A further strategy reported by  of the champions in
reducing behaviour triggers was allocating time for direct
care to communicate with residents when verbal agitation
was present, and where this appeared to be “associated
with loneliness and boredom” (BLC). As well,  of 
champions reported that they facilitated one-on-one com-
munication responses and individualised care for residents
during periods of extreme agitation and other forms of
distress. ese changed approaches to behaviour reduction
and management helped direct care sta to realise that res-
BioMed Research International
T : Enablers and barriers to implementing person-centred care approaches.
Enablers for the person-centred care approach
Enablers Examples provided by Champions
Management support for
incorporating personalized
care into daily care
...allowing residents to sleep-in and providing them with breakfast
when they awoke and requested it”(SCC)
Management allowing
Champions and sta to try
out new ideas
.... letting the nurses try dierent approaches for some residents....and
discovering what worked, and what was not working”(SLC)
Shared governance in
...input and feedback and discussion with direct care sta on resident
preferences, needs and issues
Clear communication
between managers, nurses,
direct care sta, the
Champions, the resident’s
family and the GPs
...good communication greatly improved the buy-in by all
stakeholders and the capacity for speedy problem solving on issues
regarding resident health and well-being”(AHC)
Barriers to the person-centred care approach
Barriers Examples provided by Champions
Reluctance of residents’
families to agree to
“ was important for Champions to give families and GPs advice on
the person-centred approach to behaviour reduction and management,
to show how this approach was embedded in the approved deprescribing
protocol and to emphasise that the approach was unlikely to cause any
harm to the resident” (MC)
Reluctance of resident’s GP
to deprescribe
...the GPs needed to feel they were making the decision based on
knowledge and evidence”(BHC)
Reluctance of some nurses
to support deprescribing
some RNS would only agree to comply if the doctors allowed it
suer assault from a physically stronger and aggressive resident”(SC)
Negative family attitudes
management of behaviour
a culture of blame seemed prevalent if sta were unable to contain the
resident’s behaviour,”(WDC)
Task-focused care culture .... not having the person-centred approach in the forefront of their
thinking amid all the things they have to do for residents”(BLC)
Time to implement
person-centred behaviour
...(direct care sta) being too busy to really take notice of what was
going on for residents”(WC)
Lag time in reporting of the
study ndings
....(Champions) having insucient feedback on the study’s progress
(MRCO), ...(study ndings) would have helped to inspire the direct
care sta to maintain their interest and commitment to person-centred
approaches to behaviour reduction and management”(BHC)
and/or psychosocial need. Direct care sta were, therefore,
more interested to discuss and collaborate on solutions to
reduce triggers for resident behaviours”(WC).
3.1.7. Perceived Impact of the Person-Centred Approach on Res-
ident Behaviour. Since all  champions facilitated person-
centred care with direct care sta, they recounted numerous
examples of their observed changes to care practices and
the impact these changes had on participating residents. All
champions considered that the person-centred approach was
helpful for the majority of residents, not just those enrolled
participating residents were described in terms of functional
status, overall well-being, and behaviour reduction. Improve-
ments reported included the residents being calmer, more
cooperative, more social, more independent in activities of
living, and less anxious. e champions reported that these
positive changes tended to occur gradually at rst, but “once
the sta became aware of how their care and therapy practices
had an inuence on the resident’s function and well-being,
resident needs” (SLC). With regard to observed improve-
ments in resident function and well-being, the champions
noted that individual residents increased their involvement in
BioMed Research International
communicating and engaging with others in pleasurable
activities, their appetite and sleep time and quality improved,
and the incidence and severity of agitation reduced, such
as “repetitive calling out” (OCC), “screaming” (BPC),
and “resistance to personal care” (RSKC). Some champions
observed that the residents who were responsive to person-
centred care approaches were morealert,wereableto
mobilise more frequently and had less falls” (SBC).
Nevertheless, some resident behaviours and activities of
living were not observed to improve with deprescribing.
Two of the champions noted that these residents were
mostly women with nonaggressive behaviour”(VC)and
with no prior mental illness” (SLC).Where residents had
mild-moderate behavioural issues prior to deprescribing, the
champions observed minimal change in these behaviours.
Two of the champions advised that where deprescribing
produced no changes in resident function, well-being and
agitation, this may have been related to the resident selection,
i.e., “residents with less troubling behaviours”(WC).It
was noted, however, that minimal reductions in behaviour
incidence and severity was likely a positive outcome for
these residents, given the proven iatrogenic adverse eects of
psychotropics in dementia []. As previously identied, two
of the champions reported that a small number of residents
had a return of previous behaviours associated with long-
standing mental illness
3.1.8. Factors Involved in Instituting a Person-Centred Work-
place Culture. Champions recounted many examples of how
their care home managers, champions, and direct care sta
developed a coordinated system of sharing the common
values of person-centred dementia care, while understanding
the value that their unique roles played in caring for residents.
Improved communication systems between  of the 
champions, managers, and direct care sta also helped to
share knowledge about residents, in order to develop greater
awareness of what precipitated and helped to reduce agitation
and other behaviours in residents. e champions recalled
how positive interactions between direct care and therapy
sta, and managers, were key to supporting the personhood
of individual residents; this occurred mainly by developing
empathetic working relationships.
e other important approach to developing a person-
centred culture occurred through the champions working
hard to establish care partnerships, through enabling direct
care sta, residents, and families to have direct involvement in
decision-making in care schedules and treatment regimens.
Champions spoke of how partnerships were formed with
families through sta developing an understanding that each
resident had a unique history and that residents and/or
families were entitled to indicate their preferences in daily
living activities and the way that care was provided. As one
champion found:
“Helping the family to get involved in discussing their
relative’s issues and needs, and what might be causing their
distress, this will help the sta to feel more connected and
By taking this approach, direct care sta learned how to
humanise care practices, how to help residents maintain their
personhood, dignity, and decision-making; and how to indi-
resident and/or their family, because “each person is dierent
and has dierent issues, so dierent approaches are needed to
help them” (BHC). Sta learned to recognise the centrality
of creating an environment for positive relationship-building
between themselves, the resident, the families, and each other
in assisting the resident to be less stressed in day to day living.
Champion recommendations for further development
of a person-centred workplace culture included: “education
and training for all sta in person-centred care approaches,
as well as in how to recognise and reduce behaviour trig-
gers” (OOC); “establishing mechanisms in care sched-
ules/regimens to allow direct care sta to get to know their
residents’ backgrounds, personalities, preferences and needs
(WC); “welcoming and encouraging family involvement
in discussions of residents needs and preferences”(BLC);
providing meaningful daily living activities in ways that create
well-being for the resident” (WHC); “personalizing the care
environment in ways that help the resident to feel safe and
calm” (RKC); “enabling direct care sta to oer exible care
routines without repercussions from other departments such as
catering” (BPC); and “providing managerial leadership for
sta continuity and exibility in care delivery” (WMC).
4. Discussion
is substudy of the HALT trial provided data on the cham-
pion’s experiences of how person-centred training program
helped them to provide the groundwork for a change in
dementia care, their observations of the impact it had on
resident behaviour, and their perceptions of its inuence on
dementia care culture in relation to the underlying mech-
anisms of the care context, management systems, stang
arrangements, and resident issues. While this substudy does
not report on the answers to these questions from the
perspective of the study’s GPs, families, direct care sta,
and care managers, the champions’ insights provide valuable
guidance on how sta leaders can progress needed change,
successful implementation of person-centred care. e main
themes arising from these data focus on organisational and
sta readiness to accept, believe in and embrace practice
change, by instituting a planned change management proce-
dure, empowering champions to drive the change process,
and empowering direct care sta to adopt the change in
care practices. e champion interview ndings indicate
that success with implementation related to four key fac-
tors: behaviour management improvement was considered
a priority for champions and managers; leadership was
in place to support person-centred care across the care
unit; a ‘bottom-up’ change model worked alongside ‘top-
down’ change approach; and the person-centred approach to
behavioural issues was appropriate to the context.
ese ndings contribute to the literature by explain-
ing the discrepancies between the expected and observed
BioMed Research International
outcomes for some residents, help in understanding how the
care context inuenced outcomes, and provide insights to aid
future implementation of person-centred care for residents
with behaviours that are concerning for direct care sta [].
e champions also provided many useful suggestions on the
potential generalisability of the change processes employed
and optimisation of person-centred care in routine long-
term care practice, similar to recommendations arising from
previous person-centred care research [, ].
e positive outcomes reported by the champions were
dependent on their acquisition of detailed knowledge, skills,
condence, and competencies for leading the change process.
It appears that many of the dierent resources and strategies
gained through the training course, such as practice memos,
mini-tutorials, person-centred care plans, and the VIPS []
approach to implementing person-centred care, were helpful
in applying knowledge into practice. As identied in a
previous person-centred care study, the onsite and telephone
follow-up support provided by the project coordinator and
the dementia nurse specialist helped the champions to con-
solidate their learning and to improve their condence in
facilitating learning in practice [].
more dicult to institute required changes in care practices,
despite managerial support and authority delegation, the shi
from knowledge gain to knowledge translation may be related
to the characteristics of the individual. is nding indicates
that one-o education/training courses were insucient to
arm even senior nurses with the knowledge and skills they
needed for initiating and providing leadership in practice
change [, ]. As advised by these champions, additional
onsite mentoring and support by the studys dementia nurse
specialist would have been very helpful in boosting their
condence in applying the strategies gained through the
education/training course.
model in long-term dementia care, managerial leadership
and cooperation, direct care sta understanding, knowledge,
acceptance, and perseverance in applying these approaches,
as well as GP and family acceptance, were considered essential
to implementation success [, ]. At times, champion lead-
ership for the study intervention was an issue for those from a
culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) background who
had diculties with challenging the ambivalence of some of
the residents’ GPs and families with respect to the benet
of deprescribing antipsychotic medicines and replacing such
treatment with person-centred behavioural management
techniques. e authority provided to the champions by
senior management was identied by the champions to be a
key factor in addressing the reluctance of some families and
GPs to accept and support a nonpharmacological approach
to behaviour management. Consequently, the family’s and
GP’s understanding and acceptance of the person-centred
response to resident behaviours were an important fac-
tor in its implementation at the individual resident level.
Enabling the person-centred approach at the organisational
level in this substudy required dedicated education and
skill training for sta who felt insuciently empowered to
question medical decisions [, ]. In these circumstances,
the champions found it useful to engage the services of the
study’s psychogeriatrician to inuence the medical approach
to dementia in long-term care [, ].
e study ndings support the contention that person-
centred improvements in long-term care services are largely
a function of organisational structure, workforce capabili-
ties, organisational climate, communication structures, sta
readiness, and leadership [, , , , ]. One of the
strengths of the HALT study was the high level of organi-
sational support to enable champions and direct care sta
to implement and sustain person-centred care practices.
Examples of how managers supported the change process
included modifying work schedules, resident care priorities
and resident care plans, clear communication procedures
among the work teams, dedicating time for sta education
and supervision in practice, providing dierent practice
opportunities in relation to behaviour management, and
supporting adjusted treatments for participating residents.
As posited by Brooker [], concurrent consultation streams
of activity in knowledge translation need to occur with
development of person-centred responses to behaviour. is
concurrent process required active engagement of all stake-
holders, including resident families, GPs, and direct care
sta, in interpreting and translating the ndings to practice
improvement opportunities []. Such intensive activities
demanded additional work for the champions and a redef-
inition of their work roles and rescheduling of their time.
It also impacted on the job requirements and accountability
of the direct care sta. ese requirements are oen a
challenge with practice change at the organisational level
[, ].
While the study ndings are most informative in report-
ing details on how to introduce and sustain person-centred
approaches to behaviour management in long-term care,
they are limited to the experiences and recommendations
of the study champions who provided onsite leadership
acknowledged limitation is that the champion interviews
were undertaken by the project coordinator, which may have
introduced bias in the champions’ responses. Nevertheless,
these data provide detailed reections on the factors the
champions observed as having inuenced resident outcomes
with a person-centred approach and enhance the HALT
study’s contribution to the nonpharmacological management
of behaviour in dementia [, , , ]. Future studies on how
to best gain acceptance of this approach by resident families
and GPs are recommended. As well, a more comprehensive
view of the associated change practice factors and eects on
resident outcomes from the perspective residents’ families
and GPs, direct care sta, and care managers would have been
informative. While this is one of the substudy’s limitations,
these data are the subject of other HALT substudies and
future publications.
5. Conclusions
ere is strong evidence in the literature to suggest that
person-centred responses can help reduce behaviours in
 BioMed Research International
long-term care residents which care sta nd challenging,
in respect of being able to provide them with personal care
without resistance and in helping the person attain well-
being, despite physical, social, and cognitive limitations [–
]. ese ndings are similar to the experiences of the
HALT champions and are conrmed by the HALT study
results, which showed that at  months follow-up approxi-
mately three-quarters of the HALT study residents remained
deprescribed and showed no changes in behaviour [].
Translating the person-centred knowledge and skills learned
in the champions’ training course required a whole systems
approach to initiate and sustain care practice changes. is
was enabled by strong managerial support for the person-
centred approach to behavioural responses, empowerment
of the champions to drive and facilitate change at the site
level, and understanding, acceptance, and engagement with
the person-centred approach by direct care sta. Adherence
to the HALT deprescribing protocol [] and acceptance
of the person-centred responses to resident to behaviour
also relied on the willing cooperation of residents’ fami-
lies and GPs. eir cooperation provided nurses and care
and care practices to accommodate unique resident needs
and preferences, thereby more readily addressing issues
that triggered behaviours when providing care. Empowering
champions to facilitate onsite sta education and supervision
presented care sta with greater opportunities to reect on
and adjust care practices and communication strategies that
achieved better outcomes for residents. Further research is
now needed to collaborate with key stakeholders on how
best to promote the benets of person-centred care as a
viable alternative to antipsychotic medicines for long-term
care residents.
Data Availability
Some of the data are currently still being analysed for other
studies and will not be available until all articles are published.
analysis, and interpretation of data, in the writing of the
article, or in the decision to submit the manuscript for
Conflicts of Interest
e authors declare that there are no conicts of interest
regarding the publication of this article. Over the last three
years, author Henry Brodaty has been on advisory boards of
or a consultant to Eli Lilly and Nutricia. His department has
received payment to participate in drug trials for Alzheimer’s
Henry Brodaty have been recipients of grants for research
by the National Health and Medical Research Council and
Australian Department of Health and Ageing.
Authors’ Contributions
Lynn Chenoweth contributed to HALT study planning and
design, provided training and supervision to nurse cham-
pions in nonpharmacological prevention and reduction of
BPSD, contributed to data analysis and interpretation, and
led the writing of the manuscript; Tiany Jessop coordinated
the HALT study, contributed to data collection, analysis,
interpretation, and reporting, and contributed to writing the
manuscript; Fleur Harrison and Monica Cations undertook
participant recruitment and data collection, data entry, and
database management and contributed to data interpretation
and writing the manuscript; Janet Cook contributed to data
analysis and writing the manuscript; and Henry Brodaty
led the HALT planning, study design, recruitment, and
interpretation of the data and contributed to writing the
e HALT study was funded by the Australian Department
of Health under the Aged Care Service Improvement and
Healthy Ageing Grant Fund and supported by the Dementia
Centre for Research Collaboration, UNSW Sydney. e
authors acknowledge the contributions of other HALT study
team members, Perminder Sachdev, Brian Draper, Sarah
Hillmer, and Megan Heernan. e authors also thank
the contributions of the HALT study steering committee
members, Jacqui Close, Juanita Westbury, Lee-Fay Low, Aine
Heaney, Marie Alford, Stacy Wake, Janet Mitchel, Millie
Marinkovich, and Jenny Blennerhassett. Linda Nattrass,
Anne-Nicole Casey, Emily Trigge, and Tiany Chau are
acknowledged for their assistance with administration and
data entry.
Supplementary Materials
e HALT emergency behaviour response protocol was used
by the study’s nurses and champions when investigating,
interpreting, and responding to resident behaviour that
sta found extremely challenging, including person-centred
approaches. (Supplementary Materials)
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Supplementary resource (1)

... Ces deux groupes d'initiatives se butent à de nombreux défis liés à l'utilisation et à la pérennisation des interventions de déprescription de médicaments chez les aînés (Dharmarajan et al., 2019;Jessop et al., 2017;Langford et al., 2019). Plusieurs recherches ont identifié les facteurs qui freinent l'implantation de la déprescription, dont les structures organisationnelles rigides (Palagyi et al., 2016), la culture de soins centrée sur la tâche (Palagyi et al., 2016), le manque ou le roulement des ressources humaines (Bjerre et al., 2018;Chenoweth et al., 2018;Palagyi et al., 2016;Turner et al., 2016), le manque de formation des équipes de soins sur les effets secondaires, la gestion et la documentation des médicaments (Palagyi et al., 2016), la croyance que l'usage d'antipsychotiques peut alléger le fardeau des soignants (Bjerre et al., 2018), la peur de contribuer à la détérioration de l'état (Turner et al., 2016) ou du comportement du patient (Bjerre et al., 2018;Chenoweth et al., 2018), les différences de perception entre les professionnels, les patients ou leurs proches (ex. : à l'égard du bien-fondé de la démarche et du rôle de chacun) Jessop et al., 2017;Palagyi et al., 2016;Turner et al., 2016), la volonté d'éviter les conflits (Palagyi et al., 2016;Turner et al., 2016) et le manque de suivi (Palagyi et al., 2016). ...
... Ces deux groupes d'initiatives se butent à de nombreux défis liés à l'utilisation et à la pérennisation des interventions de déprescription de médicaments chez les aînés (Dharmarajan et al., 2019;Jessop et al., 2017;Langford et al., 2019). Plusieurs recherches ont identifié les facteurs qui freinent l'implantation de la déprescription, dont les structures organisationnelles rigides (Palagyi et al., 2016), la culture de soins centrée sur la tâche (Palagyi et al., 2016), le manque ou le roulement des ressources humaines (Bjerre et al., 2018;Chenoweth et al., 2018;Palagyi et al., 2016;Turner et al., 2016), le manque de formation des équipes de soins sur les effets secondaires, la gestion et la documentation des médicaments (Palagyi et al., 2016), la croyance que l'usage d'antipsychotiques peut alléger le fardeau des soignants (Bjerre et al., 2018), la peur de contribuer à la détérioration de l'état (Turner et al., 2016) ou du comportement du patient (Bjerre et al., 2018;Chenoweth et al., 2018), les différences de perception entre les professionnels, les patients ou leurs proches (ex. : à l'égard du bien-fondé de la démarche et du rôle de chacun) Jessop et al., 2017;Palagyi et al., 2016;Turner et al., 2016), la volonté d'éviter les conflits (Palagyi et al., 2016;Turner et al., 2016) et le manque de suivi (Palagyi et al., 2016). ...
... : à l'égard du bien-fondé de la démarche et du rôle de chacun) Jessop et al., 2017;Palagyi et al., 2016;Turner et al., 2016), la volonté d'éviter les conflits (Palagyi et al., 2016;Turner et al., 2016) et le manque de suivi (Palagyi et al., 2016). D'autres recherches ont également identifié les facteurs qui facilitent l'implantation de la déprescription, dont la volonté administrative, le leadership et le soutien politique et logistique des gestionnaires et de la direction Chenoweth et al., 2018;Jessop et al., 2017), la vision interdisciplinaire du changement (Abrahamson, Nazir, & Pressler, 2017;Turner et al., 2016), la combinaison de la déprescription avec une approche centrée sur le patient et ses besoins Jessop et al., 2017), l'implication et la collaboration de toutes les parties prenantes dans les décisions et les changements apportés auprès du patient (Abrahamson et al., 2017;Brodaty et al., 2018;Chenoweth et al., 2018;Palagyi et al., 2016;Turner et al., 2016), l'accessibilité à de l'information, à des preuves empiriques et à des protocoles définis (Abrahamson et al., 2017;Bjerre et al., 2018;Brodaty et al., 2018;Chenoweth et al., 2018;Farrell et al., 2018;Jessop et al., 2017;Palagyi et al., 2016;Turner et al., 2016), la formation du personnel Chenoweth et al., 2018;Farrell et al., 2018), la présence de champions au sein des équipes de soins , la mobilisation des médecins généralistes en synergie avec les autres membres de l'équipe (ex. : infirmier-ère, pharmacien-ne) Palagyi et al., 2016;Turner et al., 2016), la communication de l'information concernant le patient (ex. ...
Résumé Le Québec présente le taux de prescriptions d’antipsychotiques le plus élevé chez les personnes âgées de 65 ans et plus au Canada. La démarche « Optimiser les pratiques, les usages, les soins et les services – antipsychotiques » (OPUS-AP) vise à pallier cet enjeu. Étant donné ses premiers résultats prometteurs, notre étude visait à identifier les déterminants de son succès. Elle repose sur un devis d’étude de cas regroupant une analyse documentaire et 21 entrevues auprès d’acteurs clés impliqués dans l’implantation. Les résultats mettent en lumière cinq déterminants centraux : 1) une démarche intégrée, collaborative et probante; 2) des communications et des réseaux au service de la démarche; 3) un climat d’implantation favorable aux changements; 4) un engagement et une implication des parties prenantes; et 5) une stratégie d’application des connaissances intégrée et appuyée. Des défis et recommandations pour assurer la pérennisation et la mise à l’échelle d’OPUS-AP et inspirer des démarches similaires sont identifiés.
... Both the HALT (Halting Anti-Psychotic use in Long-term care) (Chenoweth et al., 2018) and FITS into Practice (Focussed Interventions Training and Support) (Brooker et al., 2015) programmes trained 'champions' who were allocated specific time in which to train others and work with prescribers. These studies would suggest that it is the context in which training is later implemented that is at least partially determinant of its success, such as measures to encourage application, raising awareness of other staff, or liaising with prescribers. ...
... Crucially for the purposes of this review, these three studies included contextualising, qualitative elements to explore staff experiences of the intervention and its implementation, identifying similar themes (Lyne et al., 2006;Brooker et al., 2015;Latham and Brooker, 2017;Chenoweth et al., 2018): Firstly, the trained staff reported substantial difficulties in securing time for implementation, often relying on their own personal resources to do so. This is not a sustainable model and illuminates a potential deficit within the system which could have more widespread implications for formal educational interventions and their impact. ...
... Training in PCC and other subjects often showed only qualified impact, with success increasing as interventions became more complex and involved aspects other than training. I would suggest that this is because those training-only interventions affected only one aspect of learning (individual staff knowledge) and neglected the mediating impacts of the workplace and more impactful informal learning; often blaming them indirectly for the lack of impact in the short or long term (Aylward et al., 2003;Stolee et al., 2005;Lyne et al., 2006;Chenoweth et al., 2018). The multifactorial interventions introduced training but also affected other factors in the workplace, inadvertently activating the processes of learning to care through expert practitioners, dedicated time for implementation and reflective opportunities (Fossey et al., 2006;Lawrence et al., 2016). ...
The core work of care homes for older people in the UK is increasingly dominated by dementia care. This trend is likely to continue as residential care is often the only option available to meet the needs of many people living with dementia, particularly in the later stages of the condition as a person requires 24-hour care. The day-to-day support provided in residential care is primarily delivered by non-professionally qualified staff, with in-work, competency-based training the key means of developing skills. Current policy, guidance and regulation emphasises the importance of formal training for care workers to improve the quality of care for people living with dementia in care homes. Care home organisations make decisions based on this guidance, and research primarily focusses on the effectiveness of that training and education. Whilst there is evidence that training positively impacts on care practice and quality in some circumstances, broader understandings and investigations of workplace learning indicate that learning to work is not predominantly a formal experience shaped through training, but is instead characterised by informal opportunities linked to everyday events, interactions, and problem- solving in the workplace. These other factors are highly influential in determining the practices workers learn when engaged in their day-to-day work. However, there has been only limited research addressing this alternative view of learning within care work generally, or from the perspectives of care workers in the context of care homes and the needs of people living with dementia. Without an understanding of ‘learning to care' that includes the perspectives of those who live and work in the care home, and accounts for the impact of the care home context, there is a risk that attention and resources will be focussed on measures that may have only modest impact on the quality of care-giving. This thesis addresses this gap by answering the question: how do care workers in care homes learn to care for people living with dementia? The study used focussed and critical ethnography to explore the landscape of learning to care within two care homes. Over a period of 14 months the researcher spent 1-2 days per week engaged in fieldwork. Overall, this produced 45 hours of ethnographic observation (encompassing weekdays, weekends and overnight shifts), 18 hours of observations using a focussed dementia-specific observation tool, and semi-structured interviews with 15 staff members, including 9 care workers. Data were analysed thematically both by hand and using NVivo 11 computer software. The findings from this study showed that care workers experience a multi-level learning process, encompassing three key themes. At the micro-level, workers learn during the day-to-day conduct of their work through a mechanism labelled “what works is what matters” in which they apply, reinforce or reject learning based on whether it is of use in successfully resolving the situations they encounter. Employed within this micro-level process are three components representing the skills, knowledge and experience available to workers: personal resources, resident influences and cultural knowledge. Cultural knowledge consists of macro-level influences generated primarily from a worker’s “interactions with colleagues” and secondarily their “training”. Significantly, this interaction between the micro and macro level enables the organisational culture of the particular care home to strongly influence the care practice learned by workers. Furthermore, this process shows that informal means of learning predominate within the care home, often acting as a mediator on the impact of formalised training and instruction. In particular, the flexible, interpretive and relational work required by person-centred approaches to people living with dementia specifically emphasise these informal means. Following description and discussion of these findings in relation to prevailing theoretical and empirical understandings of person-centred dementia care, recommendations are made for how to reconceptualise approaches to care worker learning in light of the study’s discoveries. A Learning to Care System that maximises the opportunities provided by specified informal learning methods and responds to the influence of care home culture on learning will be better placed to enhance the quality of care practice and the care experiences of people living with dementia in care homes.
... Chenoweth et al. 6 demonstrated that innovations aimed at appropriate antipsychotic use must first and foremost promote the use of non-pharmacological person-centered approaches. These approaches are naturally person-centered because they are based on an in-depth understanding of the resident's personality and life history, which ...
... It is effective at improving the quality of care and the person's well-being, and at reducing the various forms of BPSD. 6 Involving families in decisions about the resident is also an important success factor, because it helps professionals understand and monitor recurrent behavior patterns 6,7 ; it also influences therapeutic decisions, 7 in particular those related to pain management. 6,7 However, a family's attitude can be either a facilitator or a barrier, depending on their level of support of the approach. ...
... It is effective at improving the quality of care and the person's well-being, and at reducing the various forms of BPSD. 6 Involving families in decisions about the resident is also an important success factor, because it helps professionals understand and monitor recurrent behavior patterns 6,7 ; it also influences therapeutic decisions, 7 in particular those related to pain management. 6,7 However, a family's attitude can be either a facilitator or a barrier, depending on their level of support of the approach. ...
Background Antipsychotics are often used for the first-line management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia despite their limited efficacy and the risk of serious adverse drug events, compounded with disregard for guidelines recommending prioritizing non-pharmacological interventions. Some innovative interventions promote the deprescription of antipsychotics in long term care (LTC) settings. Objective The objective of this article is to present the conditions leading to the scale-up of an innovative program on the appropriate use of antipsychotics in LTC centers. Methods The Optimizing Practices, Use, Care and Services-Antipsychotics (OPUS-AP) program is a mixed-method project that aims to improve LTC residents’ care through increased knowledge and competency among staff, resident-centered approaches, nonpharmacologic interventions, and by deprescribing antipsychotics when appropriate. This article consists of a qualitative study focused on exploring the implementation conditions of the OPUS-AP program. This study was carried out in an integrated health area of Québec. It consisted of 46 semi-structured interviews with staff members and managers involved in the implementation of OPUS-AP. The qualitative data analysis was inspired by a realistic evaluation approach, which shed light on the causal chain between context, mechanisms, and perceived effects. Results This study identified certain conditions conducive to scaling up the OPUS-AP program: an integrated, collaborative and evidence-based approach; communications in support of the process; stakeholder engagement at the strategic, tactical and operational levels; an implementation climate conducive to change; and an integrated knowledge translation strategy. Conclusion Despite evidence of clinical efficacy, deprescribing programs require great deal of scaling up efforts. Hence, this study underscores the need to further examine conditions for scaling up medication usage programs in real life contexts.
... It is also relevant that, as with consultation and/or liaison services, the effectiveness of recommendations made by psychiatric in-reach services is dependent on staff within a residential aged care facility to implement them. These facilities are prone to high levels of staff turnover and nursing staff overreliance on sedating medications to manage neuropsychiatric symptoms (Chenoweth et al., 2018). In this context, the neuropsychiatric symptoms themselves may not be the most appropriate outcome in studies examining the effectiveness in these services. ...
Objective: To review studies reporting on the effectiveness of psychiatry service delivery for older people and people with dementia in hospital and residential aged care. Methods: A systematic search of four databases was conducted to obtain peer-reviewed literature reporting original research published since June 2004 evaluating a psychiatry service for older people (aged 60 years and over) or people with dementia in inpatient or residential aged care settings. Results: From the 38 included studies, there was consistent low-to-moderate quality evidence supporting the effectiveness of inpatient older persons' mental health wards (n = 14) on neuropsychiatric symptoms, mood, anxiety and quality of life. Inpatient consultation/liaison old age psychiatry services (n = 9) were not associated with improved depression, quality of life or mortality in high-quality randomised studies. However, low-quality evidence demonstrated improved patient satisfaction with care and reduced carer stress. The highest quality studies demonstrated no effect of psychiatric in-reach services to residential aged care (n = 9) on neuropsychiatric symptoms but a significant reduction in depressive symptoms among people with dementia. There was low-quality evidence that long-stay intermediate care wards (n = 6) were associated with reduced risk for dangerous behavioural incidents and reduced costs compared to residential aged care facilities. There was no effect of these units on neuropsychiatric symptoms or carer stress. Conclusions and implications: The scarcity of high-quality studies examining the effectiveness of old age psychiatry services leaves providers and policy-makers to rely on low-quality evidence when designing services. Future research should consider carefully which outcomes to include, given that staff skill and confidence, length of stay, recommendation uptake, patient- and family-reported experiences, and negative outcomes (i.e. injuries, property damage) are as important as clinical outcomes.
... Changing the culture to support the implementation of palliative care approaches, such as EPAC, in the LTC setting is challenging because as a sector, LTC is arguably under-resourced and impacted by increased staff turnover. [19][20][21] Issues with resourcing and increased staff turnover made it challenging for some of the LTC homes to implement changes, such as EPAC. It was noted that dedicated project management resources, which some teams were able to leverage, improved the chances of successful implementation of the EPAC model. ...
Full-text available
Background: Embedding a Palliative Approach to Care (EPAC) is a model that helps shift the culture in long-term care (LTC) so that residents who could benefit from palliative care are identified early. Healthcare Excellence Canada supported the implementation of EPAC in seven teams from across Canada between August 2018 and September 2019. Objective: To identify effective strategies for supporting the early identification of palliative care needs to improve the quality of life of residents in LTC. Intervention: Training methods on the EPAC model included a combination of face-to-face education (national and regional workshops), online learning (webinars and access to an online platform) and expert coaching. Each team adapted EPAC based on their organisational context and jurisdictional requirements for advance care planning. Measures: Teams tracked their progress by collecting monthly data on the number of residents who died, date of their most recent goals of care (GOCs) conversation, location of death and number of emergency department (ED) transfers in the last 3 months of life. Teams also shared their implementation strategies including successes, barriers and lessons. Results: Implementation of EPAC required leadership support and dedicated time for changing how palliative care is perceived in LTC. Based on 409 resident deaths, 89% (365) had documented GOC conversations; 78% (318) had no transfers to the ED within the last 3 months of life; and 81% (333) died at home. A monthly review of the results showed that teams were having earlier GOC conversations with residents. Teams also reported improvements in the quality of care provided to residents and their families. Conclusion: EPAC was successfully adapted and adopted to the organisational contexts of homes participating in the collaborative.
... Joint decisions presuppose shared decision making, which, according to McCormack and McCance (38), is one of the prerequisites for person-centred care (PCC). Moreover, PCC improves care providers' ability to work proactively (39), which highlights its significance in providing safe care (40,41), particularly of older people (42). ...
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Background Providing safe care is a core competence in healthcare. The concept usually refers to hospitals but, consistent with the increasing importance of integrated care, the provision of safe care needs to be extended to the context of home care, and more research is needed concerning home healthcare providers’ perspectives in this context. Aim The aim of this study was to describe care providers’ perceptions of providing safe care for frail older persons living at home. Method A qualitative methodology was chosen. In total, 30 care providers agreed to participate. Data were collected through five focus group interviews and analysed using a phenomenographic approach. Results Three themes regarding care providers’ perceptions of providing safe care emerged from the data: ‘safe care is created in the encounter and interaction with the older person’, ‘safe care requires responsibility from the caregiver’ and ‘safe care is threatened by insufficient organisational resources’. The findings show that providing safe care is an endeavour that requires a holistic view among the care providers as well as effective collaboration within the team, but insufficient competence or a lack of time can make it difficult to safeguard the psychological and existential needs of older persons. Conclusion Providing safe care in home environments encompasses more than just risk reduction. The findings highlight the importance of establishing and integrating team-based and person-centred care into home care settings. Traditional communication structures for inpatient care also need to be adapted to the cross-disciplinary work in municipalities. Care providers should be given the opportunity to develop and maintain their competences and to prioritise relationship-oriented care.
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Background: Over- and potentially inappropriate prescribing of psychotropic medications is a major public health concern among people with dementia. Objective: Describe the CHemical Restraints avOidance MEthodology (CHROME) criteria and evaluate its effects on psychotropic prescribing and quality of life (QoL). Methods: Observational, prospective, two-wave study conducted in two nursing homes. A multicomponent program to eliminate chemical restraints and attain quality prescription of psychotropic medications was implemented. CHROME's diagnostic criteria comprise constellations of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia under six primary syndromic diagnoses. Since pharmacologic treatment is aimed at only one syndrome, polypharmacy is avoided. Psychotropic prescription, QoL, neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), and other clinical measurements were collected before and one year after the intervention. Results are presented for all residents (n = 171) and for completer subjects (n = 115). Results: Mean age (SD) of the residents was 87.8 (5.7), 78.9% were women, and 68.5% suffered advanced dementia. Psychotropic prescriptions decreased from 1.9 (1.1) to 0.9 (1.0) (p < 0.0005). Substantive reduction in prescribing frequency was observed for antidepressants (76.9% pre-intervention, 33.8% post-intervention) and for atypical neuroleptics (38.8% pre-intervention, 15.1% post-intervention). There was improvement in patient's response to surroundings (p < 0.0005) and total NPS (p < 0.01), but small worsening occurred in social interaction (p < 0.02, completer subjects). Safety measurements remained stable. Conclusion: CHROME criteria appear to optimize psychotropic prescriptions, avoid chemical restraints, and allow external verification of quality prescriptions. Extensive use seems feasible, related to substantial reduction of prescriptions, and of benefit for people with dementia as de-prescriptions are not associated to increased NPS or QoL loss.
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Recent inquiries into residential aged care services, including the 2018–2019 Australian Royal Commission into Aged Care Quality and Safety, have informed revisions to the 2019 Australian Aged Care Quality Standards. Reforms to the Standards include a greater focus on person-centred services, consumer-directed care and authentic participation in decision-making on service provision by residents and their family members. In respect of person-centred services, the revised Standards reflect the four elements of the ‘Valuing, Individualised Care, Personal Perspective, Social Environment’ (or VIPS) framework for quality aged (social) care services in the United Kingdom. This qualitative study investigated whether the quality of services in a convenience sample of seven Australian aged care homes, which claimed to be person-centred, aligned with the four elements and 24 indicators of the VIPS framework. Data were obtained via semi-structured interviews with a volunteer sample of people associated with these seven aged care homes: 12 residents, 15 family members and 18 staff members in various roles. Data were analysed deductively with a priori reference to the 24 VIPS framework indicators, achieving data saturation for four common themes which indicated more person-centredness and ten common themes indicating less person-centredness. Only two of seven homes adhered to the four elements and 24 indicators of the VIPS framework across most service offerings. The remaining five homes offered some aspects of a person-centred service. The study findings provide insight to the factors which support and hamper the implementation of the VIPS-informed indicators of a person-centred aged care service and, therefore, what is needed to help meet person-centred requirements as outlined in the 2019 Australian Aged Care Quality Standards.
Objectives: To develop a staff training intervention for agitation in people with severe dementia, reaching end-of-life, residing in nursing homes (NHs), test feasibility, acceptability, and whether a trial is warranted. Design: Feasibility study with pre- and post-intervention data collection, qualitative interviews, and focus groups. Setting: Three NHs in South East England with dementia units, diverse in terms of size, ownership status, and location. Participants: Residents with a dementia diagnosis or scoring ≥2 on the Noticeable Problems Checklist, rated as "severe" on Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, family carers, and staff (healthcare assistants and nurses). Intervention: Manualized training, delivered by nonclinical psychology graduates focusing on agitation in severe dementia, underpinned by a palliative care framework. Measurements: Main outcomes were feasibility of recruitment, data collection, follow-up, and intervention acceptability. We collected resident, family carer, and staff demographics. Staff provided data on resident's agitation, pain, quality of life, and service receipt. Staff reported their sense of competence in dementia care. Family carers reported on satisfaction with end-of-life care. In qualitative interviews, we explored staff and family carers' views on the intervention. Results: The target three NHs participated: 28 (49%) residents, 53 (74%) staff, and 11 (85%) family carers who were eligible to participate consented. Eight-four percent of staff attended ≥3 sessions, and we achieved 93% follow-up. We were able to complete quantitative interviews. Staff and family carers reported the intervention and delivery were acceptable and helpful. Conclusions: The intervention was feasible and acceptable indicating a larger trial for effectiveness may be warranted.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES To describe the use and deprescribing of benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BZRAs) among nursing home residents (NHRs), to evaluate appropriateness of use and to identify factors associated with BZRA use and deprescribing. DESIGN Posthoc analysis of the Collaborative Approach to Optimize Medication Use for Older People in Nursing Homes (COME‐ON) study, a cluster controlled trial that evaluated the impact of a complex intervention on potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs) in nursing homes (NHs). SETTING A total of 54 NHs in Belgium. PARTICIPANTS A total of 797 NHRs included in the study who had complete medical, clinical, and medication information at baseline and at the end of the study (month 15). MEASUREMENTS Data were recorded by participating healthcare professionals. Reasons why BZRA use was considered as PIPs were assessed using the 2019 American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria® and the Screening Tool of Older Persons’ Prescriptions (STOPP) criteria, version 2. Deprescribing included complete cessation or decreased daily dose. We identified factors at the NHR, prescriber, and NH levels associated with BZRA use and BZRA deprescribing using multivariable binary and multinomial logistic regression, respectively. RESULTS At baseline, 418 (52.4%) NHRs were taking a BZRA. The use of BZRA for longer than 4 weeks, with two or more other central nervous system active drugs, and in patients with delirium, cognitive impairment, falls, or fractures was found in more than 67% of BZRA users. Eight NHR‐related variables and two prescriber‐related variables were associated with regular BZRA use. Deprescribing occurred in 28.1% of BZRA users (32.9% in the intervention group and 22.1% in the control group). In addition to four other factors, dementia (odds ratio [OR] = 2.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.45–3.83]) and intervention group (OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.07–2.87) were associated with deprescribing. CONCLUSION Use of BZRAs was highly prevalent, and reasons to consider it as PIP were frequent. Deprescribing occurred in one‐fourth of NHRs, which is encouraging. Future interventions should focus on specific aspects of PIPs (ie, indication, duration, drug‐drug and drug‐disease interactions) as well as on nondementia patients.
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Objectives: Despite limited efficacy and significant safety concerns, antipsychotic medications are frequently used to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in long-term residential care. This study evaluates the sustained reduction of antipsychotic use for BPSD through a deprescribing intervention and education of health care professionals. Design: Repeated-measures, longitudinal, single-arm study. Setting: Long-term residential care of older adults. Participants: Nursing staff from 23 nursing homes recruited 139 residents taking regular antipsychotic medication for ≥3 months, without primary psychotic illness, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, or severe BPSD. Intervention: An antipsychotic deprescribing protocol was established. Education of general practitioners, pharmacists, and residential care nurses focused on nonpharmacological prevention and management of BPSD. Measurements: The primary outcome was antipsychotic use over 12-month follow-up; secondary outcomes were BPSD (Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, and social withdrawal) and adverse outcomes (falls, hospitalizations, and cognitive decline). Results: The number of older adults on regular antipsychotics over 12 months reduced by 81.7% (95% confidence interval: 72.4-89.0). Withdrawal was not accompanied by drug substitution or a significant increase in pro-re-nata antipsychotic or benzodiazepine administration. There was no change in BPSD or in adverse outcomes. Conclusion: In a selected sample of older adults living in long-term residential care, sustained reduction in regular antipsychotic use is feasible without an increase of BPSD.
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It is almost ten years since the Banerjee 2009 report established that inappropriate prescribing of antipsychotics in the elderly was occurring in the UK and such patients had an 85% increased risk of adverse events and greater mortality. This report was a critical analysis addressing the outcomes of treatment practices for dementia in UK patients and globally, aimed at reducing prescribing of antipsychotic drugs for dementia. Since 2009, many significant studies worldwide (including several more recent large retrospective studies) provide more extensive longitudinal data for the adverse impacts of antipsychotic drugs in dementia. We have used the data in these studies including from over 380,000 dementia patients, with 85,069 prescribed antipsychotic agents as well as from 359,235 non-dementia antipsychotic drug users to provide an up-dated meta-analysis. This is the first meta-analysis to include evidence from general mental health studies showing that antipsychotic drugs precipitate excessive mortality across the spectrum. Prescribing of antipsychotic drugs for dementia or for other mental health care should be avoided and alternative means sought for handling behavioral disorders of such patients.
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Background: The population is ageing in South Korea, increasing the incidence of dementia and delirium. Despite this, registered nurses in South Korea tend to have poor understanding and limited involvement in the assessment of delirium. Aim: To evaluate the effect of an educational programme on acute care nurses' knowledge, attitudes and the potential for family caregiver involvement in care for older adults with cognitive impairment. Methods: A mixed-methods study that included a single group, pre-post design and individual interviews was used. Forty registered nurses were recruited from four medical wards of one regional general hospital in South Korea. A 3-month educational programme on care for older adults with cognitive impairment tailored to the specific learning needs of nurses and guided by adult learning principles was provided to participants. A purposive sample of 12 registered nurses who participated in the quantitative component, and a nominated sample of six family caregivers whose older family members were cared for by participating nurses, joined individual interviews. Results: The educational programme had a positive impact on nurses' knowledge of cognitive impairment and attitudes towards older adults. The qualitative data indicated that the educational programme improved nurses' knowledge of cognitive impairment and their attitudes towards older adults with cognitive impairment. It also increased nurses' initial efforts to involve family caregivers in cognitive impairment care. Conclusion: Educational programmes are an effective means of improving nurses' knowledge and attitudes, but more research is required to explore the impact of such a programme on practice change and patient health-related outcomes including incidence of delirium, length of hospital stay and hospital-acquired complications.
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Background: Well-being and various forms of agitation in people with dementia can be improved in a person-centered long-term care setting. Data obtained during the Person-Centered Dementia Care and Environment (PerCEN) randomized controlled trial shed light on the factors that influenced the adoption and outcomes of person-centered interventions in long-term care from the perspective of study participants. Methods: Data were obtained from PerCEN participants: individual semi-structured interviews with care managers (29), nurses and care staff (70); telephone surveys with family members (73); staff reports of care approaches; and 131 field note entries recorded by the person-centered care and environment facilitators. Data were interpreted inductively using content analysis, code building, theme development, and synthesis of findings. Results: All data sources confirmed that, when adopted, the person-centered model increased the number and variety of opportunities for resident interaction, improved flexibility in care regimens, enhanced staff's attention to resident needs, reduced resident agitation, and improved their well-being. Barriers and enablers for the person-centered model related to leadership, manager, staff and family appreciation of the model, staff's capacity, effective communication and team work among direct care staff, care service flexibility, and staff education on how to focus care on the person's well-being. Conclusions: Successful knowledge translation of the person-centered model starts with managerial leadership and support; it is sustained when staff are educated and assisted to apply the model, and, along with families, come to appreciate the benefits of flexible care services and teamwork in achieving resident well-being. The Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number is ACTRN 12608000095369.
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The number of people with dementia is increasing rapidly worldwide. Commensurate with population ageing, the use of nursing homes in Australia (known as residential aged care facilities) for individuals with dementia is growing. As a terminal condition, dementia is best managed by instituting a palliative approach to care. A good knowledge of dementia, including its progression and management, among staff and families of people living with dementia is essential for clear decision making and the provision of appropriate care. Yet there is limited information regarding relative levels of dementia knowledge. This paper reports the results of a study that assessed dementia knowledge among these two cohorts using the Dementia Knowledge Assessment Tool; the study surveyed 279 staff members and 164 family members of residents with dementia. Dementia knowledge deficits were evident in both cohorts across a range of areas. It is critical that dementia knowledge deficits are identified and addressed in order to support evidence-based dementia care.
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Hospital clinical staff routinely confront challenging behaviors in patients with dementia with limited training in prevention and management. The authors of the current article conducted a survey of staff on a chronic care hospital unit concerning knowledge about dementia, perceived educational needs, and the care environment. The overall mean score for a 27-item knowledge scale was 24.08 (SD = 2.61), reflecting high level of disease knowledge. However, staff indicated a need for more information and skills, specifically for managing behaviors nonpharmacologically (92.3%), enhancing patient safety (89.7%), coping with care challenges (84.2%), and involving patients in activities (81.6%). Although most staff (i.e., nurses [80%] and therapists [86.4%]) believed their care contributed a great deal to patient well-being, approximately 75% reported frustration and being overwhelmed by dementia care. Most reported being hit, bitten, or physically hurt by patients (66.7%), as well as disrespected by families (53.8%). Findings suggest that staff have foundational knowledge but lack the "how-to" or hands-on skills necessary to implement nonpharmacological behavioral management approaches and communicate with families. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, xx(x), xx-xx.].
This excellent text is appropriate for nurses at all levels and specialties who may have contact with older adults and people with dementia. Anyone working with people who have dementia would find this book useful. Person-centred care is an essential facet of care and isn't purely confined to dementia care. The book, at first, could appear to be a very specialised text but the contents have transferable aspects to all care settings and other applicable environments.
Objective: This study evaluated the impact of antipsychotic review, social interaction, and exercise, in conjunction with person-centered care, on antipsychotic use, agitation, and depression in people with dementia living in nursing homes. Method: A cluster-randomized factorial controlled trial with two replications was conducted in people with dementia in 16 U.K. nursing homes. All homes received training in person-centered care. Eight homes were randomly assigned to antipsychotic review, to a social interaction intervention, and to an exercise intervention for 9 months, with most homes assigned to more than one intervention. The primary outcome measures were antipsychotic use, agitation, and depression. Secondary outcome measures were overall neuropsychiatric symptoms and mortality. Results: Antipsychotic review significantly reduced antipsychotic use by 50% (odds ratio 0.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05 to 0.60). Antipsychotic review plus the social interaction intervention significantly reduced mortality (odds ratio 0.26, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.51) compared with the group receiving neither. The group receiving antipsychotic review but not the social intervention showed significantly worse outcome in neuropsychiatric symptoms compared with the group receiving neither (score difference +7.37, 95% CI 1.53 to 13.22). This detrimental impact was mitigated by concurrent delivery of the social intervention (-0.44, CI -4.39 to 3.52). The exercise intervention significantly improved neuropsychiatric symptoms (-3.59, 95% CI -7.08 to -0.09) but not depression (-1.21, CI -4.35 to -1.93). None of the interventions had a significant impact specifically on agitation. Conclusions: While reductions in antipsychotic use can be achieved by using a "real world" intervention, this may not be of benefit to people with dementia in the current climate of more judicious prescribing unless nonpharmacological interventions such as social interaction or exercise are provided in parallel.
To evaluate the effectiveness of a leadership and management program in aged care. Double-blind cluster randomized controlled trial. Twelve residential and community-aged care sites in Australia. All care staff employed for 6 months or longer at the aged care sites were invited to participate in the surveys at 3 time points: baseline (time 1), 9 months from baseline (time 2), and 9 months after completion of time 2 (time 3) from 2011 to 2013. At each time point, at least 500 care staff completed a survey. At baseline (N = 503) the largest age group was 45 to 54 years (37%), and the majority of care staff were born in Australia (70%), spoke English (94%), and had at least completed secondary education (57%). A 12-month Clinical Leadership in Aged Care (CLiAC) program for middle managers, which aimed to further develop their leadership and management skills in creating positive workplace relationships and in enabling person-centered, evidence-based care. The primary outcomes were care staff ratings of the work environment, care quality and safety, and staff turnover rates. Secondary outcomes were care staff's intention to leave their employer and profession, workplace stress, job satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness of implementing the program. Absenteeism was excluded due to difficulty in obtaining reliable data. Managers' self-rated knowledge and skills in leadership and management are not included in this article, which focuses on care staff perceptions only. At 6 months after its completion, the CLiAC program was effective in improving care staff's perception of management support [mean difference 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-1.18; P = .04]. Compared with the control sites, care staff at the intervention sites perceived their managers' leadership styles as more transformational (mean difference 0.30, 95% CI 0.09-0.51; P = .005), transactional (mean difference 0.22, 95% CI 0.05-0.39; P = .01), and less passive avoidant (mean difference 0.30, 95% CI 0.07-0.52; P = .01); and were rated higher on the overall leadership outcomes (mean difference 0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.56; P = .001) as well as individual manager outcomes: extra effort (P = .004), effectiveness (P = .001), and satisfaction (P = .01). There was no evidence that CLiAC was effective in reducing staff turnover, or improving patient care quality and safety. While the CLiAC leadership program had direct impact on the primary process outcomes (management support, leadership actions, behaviors, and effects), this was insufficient to change the systems required to support care service quality and client safety. Nevertheless, the findings send a strong message that leadership and management skills in aged care managers can be nurtured and used to change leadership behaviors at a reasonable cost. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Person-centered care (PCC) for people with dementia is a system of care that is based on the belief that personhood can be maintained despite cognitive impairment. A recently conducted cluster randomized trial (Chenoweth et al., 200910. Chenoweth , L. , King , M. , Jeon , Y. , Brodaty , H. , Stein-Parbury , J. , Norman , R. … and Luscombe , G. 2009. Caring for Aged Dementia Care Resident Study (CADRES) of person-centred care, dementia-care mapping, and usual care in dementia: A cluster-randomised trial. Lancet Neurology, 8: 317–325. [CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]View all references) demonstrated that PCC was effective in reducing agitation in people with dementia who were in residential care. This article provides a detailed overview of the PCC intervention arm of the study and describes the training and procedures used to facilitate implementation of PCC. Training emphasized the impact of the social world on the person with dementia and promoted the skills of interpersonal engagement, especially in relation to feeling expression. Facilitated on-site learning involved care planning that included obtaining a life story of the person with dementia and observing social interactions. The success of the PCC intervention was related to this two-pronged approach, which included support from managers. Implementation of PCC requires a whole-of-system approach, which includes formal and informal learning.