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Research has consistently linked homophobic bullying (e.g., teasing, name-calling, use of slurs) with an array of negative outcomes for children and adolescents. While most of the extant research covers risk factors related to homophobic bullying perpetration and victimization, there is a budding literature surrounding protective factors of these behaviors and their associated consequences. This article reviews 32 studies that focused on protective factors associated with homophobic bullying perpetration and victimization among children and adolescents. The review examines homophobic bullying as it applies to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth and their heterosexual and cisgender peers. Using the social-ecological framework, this paper highlights protections at the individual level (e.g., sexual identity, self-esteem), the family level (e.g., social support at home), the peer level (e.g., positive friendships) and the school level (e.g., school policies against homophobic bullying, positive school climate). With the aim of contributing to the development of the field, directions for future research are also discussed.

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... Sexual violence encompasses multiple forms of gender-based harassment including non-consensual sexual acts (rape), attempted non-consensual sex acts, abusive sexual contact, and non-contact sexual harassment (e.g., threatened sexual violence, exhibitionism, verbal sexual harassment; Basile et al., 2006). Given the severe consequences, previous studies have called for further research to examine protective factors that could be related to a lower incidence of these behaviors among adolescents (Espelage et al., 2019). However, most studies to date examining protective factors of homophobic name-calling or sexual violence perpetration and victimization have failed to include gender and sexual minority individuals. ...
... Although there are also unique correlates and predictors of homophobic name-calling and sexual violence, the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory suggests that these two forms of violence also share common protective factors (Basile et al., 2009). For example, peer and family social support and support from trusted adults at school have each been hypothesized to be associated with both homophobic name-calling and sexual violence perpetration (Basile et al., 2009;Espelage et al., 2019). ...
... Regarding protective factors, a previous meta-analysis showed that social-emotional learning (SEL) programs that target improvement in student-to-student and student-teacher relationships could have an impact on the prevention of homophobic name-calling perpetration (Durlak et al., 2011;Espelage et al., 2019). SEL programs often encourage students to develop healthy, respectful relationships with other students and teachers and motivate the development of empathy and perspective-taking which could have a protective effect against gender-based aggression such as homophobic name-calling perpetration (Espelage et al., 2019). ...
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Homophobic name-calling and sexual violence are prevalent among US high school students and have been associated with a host of negative consequences including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders, especially among sexual and gender minority youth. Although homophobic name-calling and sexual violence are linked to common risk and protective factors, most prior studies have failed to include gender and sexual minority groups. The present study used path analyses to explore the associations between eight protective factors and the outcomes of homophobic name-calling perpetration, homophobic name-calling victimization, sexual violence perpetration, and sexual violence victimization. The sample included LGB (n = 938), transgender (n = 140), and heterosexual (n = 3,744) high school students in Colorado, USA (N = 4,822). Protective factors included: (1) family support; (2) peer support; (3) friendships with trusted adults; (4) participating in healthy activities; (5) helping others; (6) spirituality; (7) access to counseling; and (8) access to medical services. For homophobic name-calling perpetration and victimization, significant negative associations emerged across different groups for the protective factors of family support, peer support, helping others, spirituality, counseling, and medical access. For sexual violence perpetration and victimization, significant negative associations emerged across different groups for the protective factors family support, peer support, and counseling access. Findings suggest that prevention and intervention efforts to address gender-based harassment should focus on building protective, supportive environments across the schools, families, and communities.
... La normalización del bullying homofóbico solo es posible debido a la impunidad, minimización, deshumanización y el silencio de las autoridades políticas, religiosas, comunitarias y educativas (ANTÓNIO; GUERRA; MOLEIRO, 2017;ESPELAGE et al., 2018a;RIVERS, 2011;RODRÍGUEZ-HIDALGO;HURTADO--MELLADO, 2019). La LGBTfobia es una de las discriminaciones que están inscritas en el orden jurídico de diversos países (ILGA, 2019). ...
... El bullying homofóbico es producto de múltiples factores, como el rechazo de la familia, su invisibilización en el sistema educativo y su naturalización en la sociedad. Por esto, es necesario realizar intervenciones psicosociales en estos ámbitos para potenciar los factores de protección a nivel individual, grupal, familiar, educativo y social (ANTÓNIO; GUERRA; MOLEIRO, 2017;ESPELAGE et al., 2018a;NAPPA et al., 2017 Las familias con niñas/os y jóvenes LGBT+ deben adquirir habilidades y competencias educativas, comunicativas y sociales y saber cuestionar su visión sobre lo que es la diversidad (PACE; D'URSO; ZAPPULLA, 2021). Además, tienen que tomar conciencia de su influencia en el desarrollo de la persona LGBT+ para acentuar su función protectora. ...
... Además, tienen que tomar conciencia de su influencia en el desarrollo de la persona LGBT+ para acentuar su función protectora. La familia debe ser una aliada de la diversidad y aceptarlo incondicionalmente (ESPELAGE et al., 2018a). Para ello, los familiares deben adquirir herramientas pedagógicas y educarse en la diversidad. ...
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La experiencia escolar puede desempeñar un papel en el aprendizaje de conceptos que promueven la igualdad y la deconstrucción de los mitos que constituyen un referente normativo en el que se articulan los discursos y prácticas que sostienen las opresiones. Este ensayo, que trata el tema de la violación de los derechos humanos LGBT+ y el impacto de acciones institucionales sobre la salud y el bienestar LGBT+ en el ámbito escolar brasileño, se divide en dos partes: en la primera, se presentarán las políticas educativas contra la LGBTfobia desde la introducción del programa Brasil sem Homofobia. Luego, se analizará el bullying homofóbico como fruto de la vulneración de los derechos LGBT+. Este trabajo advierte que la privación de los derechos LGBT+ afecta a la construcción de su identidad e imagen psicosocial y destaca el valor de coeducar en espacios amables, desde el respeto y la aceptación a la diversidad.
... Consistent with I. H. Meyer, we argue that moving from an individual risk-focused model of LGBTQ youth to one that implicates every individual in schools to challenge heterosexism and negative school climates contributes to advancing the health and well-being of these students without positioning them as a population exclusively defined by their experiences of harm. Espelage et al. (2019) investigated protective factors of homophobic bullying, and social support at the family, friend, and school levels emerged as some of the most significant protective factors against victimization. Among other findings, connectedness to one another and supportive school organizations (Rivers et al., 2018;Russell & Fish, 2016), family and friend support, and an overall more supportive school climate (Kosciw et al., 2020) have all been found to be associated with reduced negative outcomes of victimization and stigmatization, both of which can lead to suicide and depression. ...
... In an extensive review of the literature on homophobic bullying, Espelage et al. (2019) called for future studies to address intersectionality in terms of how these multiple identities are associated with the experiences of homophobic bullying and how protective factors and outcomes vary across these identities. For example, as noted in this review of the literature, outcomes for SGM youth are related, but notable differences exist in how these identities affect the experiences of discrimination. ...
... Homophobic victimization was also associated with a higher risk of suicidal ideation among questioning students, a higher risk of suicide planning among transgender students, and a higher risk of suicide attempts among bisexual students. These findings support the existing literature informed by MST that has found a link between experiences of homophobia and heterosexism at school and negative mental health outcomes, such as depression and suicide, among LGBTQ students (Baams et al., 2015;Espelage et al., 2019;Wang et al., 2018). These findings suggest that a more welcoming school climate for LGBTQ youth is needed to combat the negative mental health outcomes associated with heterosexism and homophobic and transphobic language at school. ...
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Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth experience higher rates of adverse mental health outcomes, most notably suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs). The current study examines risk and protective factors for STBs and depression among 1,078 youth in high schools. We examine these outcomes through an intersectional lens, and we extend the use of the minority stress theory framework by focusing on resilience and protective factors and argue that bias against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) youth should be addressed at the systemic, rather than the individual, level. Our findings suggest that family support is a notable factor protective of depression and suicide-related behavior among LGBTQ youth. Additionally, peer support, help-seeking beliefs, access to medical and counseling services, engaging in healthy activities, spirituality, and having trusted adults are protective factors for some groups. The nuanced findings in this study offer suggestions for school psychologists and professionals to promote healthy and safe school environments. Impact Statement The present study addresses the prevalence of suicide among LGBTQ adolescents and protective factors that may buffer their heightened risk. LGBTQ students are not inherently at risk because of their identities, but because of stigmatization they may face in society. As such, recommendations are provided to guide school psychologists and other professionals to foster a safe and inclusive environment for this population to reduce suicide risk.
... In contrast, the presence of family support for lesbian and gay individuals has been associated with positive well-being and other healthy life outcomes in additional research (Beals, Peplau, and Gable 2009;Espelage et al. 2019), suggesting that close family relationships may work as an important protective factor in the lives of lesbian and gay individuals. In particular, previous studies suggest that family support significantly reduces distress and negative life experiences among gay men and lesbian women (Eisenberg and Resnick 2006;Feinstein et al. 2014;Hill et al. 2017;Margaret, Schrimshaw, and Hunter 2009;McConnell, Birkett, and Mustanski 2016a;Needham and Austin 2010;Padilla, Crisp, and Rew 2010;Shilo, Antebi, and Mor 2015;Shilo and Savaya 2011;Tabaac, Perrin, and Rabinovitch 2016). ...
... Furthermore, family acceptance of gay and lesbian young adults has been related to greater reported self-esteem and better overall general health (Ryan et al. 2009;Shilo and Savaya 2011). Other studies indicate that family support may reduce the risk of sexual identity discrimination and homophobic bullying and victimization (Espelage et al. 2019;Feinstein et al. 2014), though research in this area has been limited. Thus, it is important to continue to investigate the role of family support in the life circumstances of lesbian and gay individuals, particularly their experiences with discrimination, harassment, and victimization. ...
... respectively, see Table 2) among the measures of victimization estimated in this study. Such findings expand upon previous work that has demonstrated the positive impact that family support can have in lesbian women's lives across multiple negative life experiences (Espelage et al. 2019;Feinstein et al. 2014;Jordan and Deluty 1998;Keleher, Wei, and Liao 2010) and help to establish an important addition to NCST by exploring the significance of family support as a potential moderator in the relationships between norm violations and stigma. Table 4ʹs regression models focus on all men and demonstrate that gay identity (compared to heterosexual identity) is strongly related to all forms of sexual identity-based DHV measured here, as somewhat similarly found in Table 3 and in line with past work (FBI 2019;Katz-Wise and Hyde 2012a;Meyer 2015). ...
... Similarly, values and norms that regulate informal social relationships within a school, and the extent to which students share these values and norms with each other, have been found to affect students' behavior and their attitudes towards schoolmates (Foà, Brugman, & Mancini, 2012). Factors related to school climate, such as sense of belonging to the school community and school connectedness, are believed to be protective in the face of general as well as homophobic bullying (Diaz, Kosciw, & Greytak, 2010;Espelage et al., 2019). More in detail, previous research has showed a bidirectional relationship between school climate and bullying behavior, with instances of bullying behavior contributing to the perception of a negative school climate, and a positive school climate, characterized by mutual help and care, positive relationships, feelings of personal commitment, common goals, and shared purposes, reducing the likelihood of school bullying episodes and buffering its harmful effects on victims (Toomey, McGuire, & Russell, 2012). ...
... In th e r ec en t ye ar s, foll owin g t he l es son fr om Bronfenbrenner's (1979) social-ecological model, there has been a growing consensus among researchers in considering HB a multidetermined phenomenon where individual characteristics, contextual factors, and their interaction concur to increase its occurrence (Basile, Espelage, Rivers, McMahon, & Simon, 2009;Espelage et al., 2019). Following the approach suggested by Espelage et al. (2019), in the present paper we aim to investigate the association between HB and a series of individual-and contextual-level factors. ...
... In th e r ec en t ye ar s, foll owin g t he l es son fr om Bronfenbrenner's (1979) social-ecological model, there has been a growing consensus among researchers in considering HB a multidetermined phenomenon where individual characteristics, contextual factors, and their interaction concur to increase its occurrence (Basile, Espelage, Rivers, McMahon, & Simon, 2009;Espelage et al., 2019). Following the approach suggested by Espelage et al. (2019), in the present paper we aim to investigate the association between HB and a series of individual-and contextual-level factors. ...
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IntroductionSchools are among the most homophobic social contexts, where students who do not conform to gender norms are at high risk of stigma and discrimination.Method Using a multilevel approach, the aim of the current was to examine whether adolescents’ engagement in homophobic bullying behavior was associated with personal values and stereotyped victim-blaming attributions at individual level, and perceptions of school as a community and frequency of teachers’ reaction to bullying incidents at classroom level. Data were collected in 2010. The sample consisted of 2718 Italian middle and high school students (53.2% females; mean age = 15.36, SD = .85) from 144 classrooms.ResultsResults showed that self-transcendence values reduced the risk of engaging in homophobic bullying, whereas both self-enhancement values and stereotyped victim-blaming attributions were positively associated with homophobic bullying. At classroom level, only negative perceptions of school as a community had a unique positive contribution on homophobic bullying, over and above other individual and contextual factors. Two cross-level interactions were found, indicating that self-transcendence values had a significant effect in decreasing homophobic bullying in classrooms where teacher support was perceived as low, whereas stereotyped victim-blaming attributions had a significant effect in increasing homophobic bullying in classrooms where teacher support was perceived as high.Conclusion These findings provide further support to the social-ecological perspective as a useful guiding framework for understanding the complexity of factors predicting homophobic bullying.Policy ImplicationsEfforts should be made to develop clear anti-bullying school policies explicitly dealing with the issue of homophobic bullying.
... In Spain, sexual minorities are also at higher risk of suffering bullying [19]. This high prevalence has also been corroborated in recent studies in non-heterosexual youth highlighting the global nature of homophobic bullying [20,21]. ...
... The use of homophobic insults progressively increases from primary to secondary school, an educational stage where there is a high relationship between homophobic bullying and bullying [21,24,26,27], although they are different forms of school peer violence [24]. In relation to sex, the associations between bullying roles and use of homophobic language were different for girls and boys. ...
... Based on previous international research, the consequences of homophobic bullying are similar to those presented by victims who have been the target of bullying behavior [23,29]. Adolescents who are victims are more likely to experience physical and mental health problems, such as high levels of anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, stress, fear, low self-esteem and self-efficacy [14,21,29,30]. However, the impact on victims and aggressors may vary depending on the specific form of bullying experienced [29,31,32]. ...
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Bullying has been traditionally related to a significant reduction in well-being and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of adolescents. This negative impact on HRQoL seems to be modulated by the developed role in bullying (uninvolved, bully, victim or bully-victim). However, no studies have identified if these negative results are the same when other types of bullying, such as homophobic bullying, are evaluated. The main aim of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of different roles of bullying and homophobic bullying and the relationship between these roles in both types of bullying with HRQoL, depression and anxiety levels in a sample of 1723 Spanish adolescents. Although results exhibited lower prevalence of homophobic bullying roles when compared to traditionally bullying in general, in the case of victims, the prevalence was high in the case of homophobic bullying. When differences between roles in HRQoL, depression and anxiety were evaluated, in both types of bullying, uninvolved adolescents showed the best results and bully-victim adolescents the worst. The obtained results suppose an improvement in the understanding of the negative effects of different types of bullying on HRQoL and mental health in adolescents. Future research could advance in this comprehension, analyzing possible differences with other types of bullying, such as cyberbullying.
... The literature on adolescent sexual harassment has supported the idea of relational support being central in adolescent development by revealing that adolescents with stronger relational support from peers, parents, and people in school are less likely to be sexually harassed (Doty, Gower, Rudi, McMorris, & Borowsky, 2017;Espelage et al., 2019;Gruber & Fineran, 2016;Kaltiala-Heino et al., 2016). For instance, in a large-scale study, Doty et al. (2017) showed that being sexually harassed was negatively associated with the quality of connections with both parents and teachers. ...
... We focused on support from people most central to adolescents' relationship systems, namely their parents, teachers, and peers (best friends and classmates) in eighth grade (i.e., at T1). Firstly, and in line with prior studies (Doty et al., 2017;Espelage et al., 2019;Kaltiala-Heino et al., 2016), we found that more relational support at T1 was linked to less sexual harassment victimization at T1 and T2. The friendship protection hypothesis has been used previously as an explanation for the link between friendship support and bullying victimization (Kendrick et al., 2012). ...
... The friendship protection hypothesis has been used previously as an explanation for the link between friendship support and bullying victimization (Kendrick et al., 2012). While adolescents with poor relationships with their social networks (e.g., parents and peers) tend to be vulnerable to harassment from peers (Doty et al., 2017;Espelage et al., 2019;Kaltiala-Heino et al., 2016), high relational support seems to promote resilience and mitigate the likelihood of being victimized by peers. It could be that relational support from family, teachers, and peers gives adolescents feelings of strength and of being protected by others (Sandler, Miller, Short, & Wolchik, 1989), thereby making them less easy targets for victimization. ...
Article
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The links between sexual harassment victimization and aspects of psychopathology are well-established in adolescent research, but whether sexual harassment victimization undermines positive aspects of psychological health and the moderating role of relational support in the link between sexual harassment victimization and psychological ill-health remains unknown. Using a cross-lagged model, we examined: (1) the bidirectional and longitudinal links between sexual harassment victimization and adolescent psychological health (emotional problems and well-being); and (2) the moderating role of relational support from parents, teachers, and peers (best friends and classmates) in the link between sexual harassment victimization and adolescent psychological health. We used two waves of self-reported data (separated by one year) from 676 Swedish adolescents (50% girls; Mage=13.85 years at point of first data collection). Controlling for the effect of gender and SES, the cross-lagged model revealed that sexual harassment predicted emotional problems positively and well-being negatively. Moreover, well-being predicted sexual harassment negatively. Relational support from classmates moderated the link in the direction from sexual harassment victimization to emotional problems. Relational support did not moderate the link to well-being. The findings provide new and important insights into the role of sexual harassment victimization in adolescent psychological adjustment and potential approaches to intervention.
... Over the last two decades, the scientific literature on the prevalence of and outcomes associated with homophobic bullying among adolescents has increased steadily (Espelage et al., 2019). This kind of bullying has been defined as a type of stigma-based bullying (Earnshaw et al., 2018), directed toward students who display behaviors that fall outside the heteronormative framework. ...
... This, coupled with the fact that only about 1% of students across the total sample reported having only experienced homophobic verbal victimization, and that the vast majority were heterosexual students, suggests that isolated cases of homophobic aggression aimed at heterosexual peers may not be part of a bullying pattern, but rather a way of affirming heteronormativity in the group through displays of homophobic behavior. Several empirical studies support this idea, in which homophobic attitudes and behaviors are found to be similar among members of adolescent friendship groups, and will become even more similar when observed over time (Birkett & Espelage, 2015;Espelage et al., 2019;Poteat, 2007Poteat, , 2008. From this perspective, Kowalski (2004) suggests that the level of identity threat posed by homophobic verbal victimization might vary according to the target's actual sexual orientation and gender expression. ...
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Introduction A relationship between homophobic verbal and bullying victimization has been established in the scientific literature, yet its findings remain debated. Similarly, the emotional impact of these phenomena may cross over, although not enough evidence is available to confirm this hypothesis. The study sought to examine this overlap of phenomena as well as their emotional impact, both independently and jointly, in a community-based school sample of adolescents with varying sexual orientations. Methods A total of 2089 Spanish students aged 11 to 18 years (M = 13.68, SD = 1.31) completed self-report measures assessing homophobic verbal and bullying victimization, sexual orientation, and emotional impact during 2017. Results Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents reported greater homophobic verbal and bullying victimization than their non-LGB peers. No differences were found in emotional impact based on sexual orientation or gender. However, differences were found for victimization type, with LGB youth overrepresented in the poly-victim group. A mediation effect of homophobic verbal victimization was observed between bullying victimization and negative emotional impact. Conclusions LGB students more frequently experience more types of victimization than their non-LGB peers. Homophobic victimization amplifies the likely emotional impact of bullying victimization, which should be considered in prevention programs and psychological interventions. Policy Implications These findings highlight the importance of sexual diversity in the study of bullying behavior. It is also identified as a key area when developing prevention programs aimed at eradicating this type of violence from our schools.
... In the context of bias-based bullying victimization, intersectionality can be applied to understand intersections that may be particularly vulnerable to multiple types of biasbased victimization and, therefore, are important to move from margins to center in bullying prevention efforts (Earnshaw et al. 2018;Espelage et al. 2018;Gower et al. 2018b). Intersectionality focuses on macro-level systems of oppression that may also be experienced at the individual level (e.g., interpersonal discrimination and bias-based victimization). ...
... Future research should illuminate the lived experiences of bias-based victimization at these intersections with mixed-methods research on LGBQ youth of color, with disabilities, and who identify as transgender or gender diverse. In turn, this research should inform practice and policy to prevent bias-based bullying by targeting multiple forms of bias (Earnshaw et al. 2018;Espelage et al. 2018). ...
Article
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Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) youth experience more heterosexist bullying victimization than their straight peers, which contributes to mental health disparities. However, LGBQ youth may simultaneously experience other types of bias-based bullying (e.g., racist, cis-sexist, and able-ist bullying). Informed by intersectionality theory, this study describes intersections of LGBQ students’ experiences of multiple forms of bias-based bullying and explores demographic correlates of individual types and typologies of bias-based bullying. This study uses 2016 state-wide survey data from 9th and 11th grade students in Minnesota schools. The analytic sample was limited to students who reported a LGBQ sexual orientation and responded to bullying items (N = 8313). Typology indicators were six items assessing bias-based bullying in the previous 30 days (race, gender, gender expression, sexual orientation, ability, weight). Covariates (age, sexual orientation, assigned sex, gender identity, race, perceived gender presentation, individualized education program (IEP), weight status) also predicted class membership. A latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted, and the three-class model was best fitting, with classes characterized by high levels of all types of bias-based bullying (6.3%), gender expression and sexual orientation bullying (35.2%), and low levels of bias-based bullying (58.4%). LGBQ youth who also identified as transgender or gender diverse, had an IEP, reported perceived nonconforming gender presentation, and youth of color were more likely to belong to the multiple bias-based bullying typology. Future work should leverage an intersectional lens to design multilevel interventions and strategies to prevent bias-based bullying that attend to broader issues of stigma within school systems.
... A previous meta-analysis showed that identifying as a sexual minority is a risk factor for suffering from bullying at school (Moyano and del Mar Sánchez-Fuentes, 2020). Researchers have consistently found that homophobic bullying is linked to negative mental health outcomes (Espelage et al., 2019;Peng et al., 2019). Much of the literature has focused on the experiences of sexual minority adolescents being bullied, while studies on sexual minority adolescents' participation in bullying are scarce. ...
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Aims Compared to their heterosexual peers, youth who identify as lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) tend to suffer higher rates of peer victimisation from bullying. However, studies of LGB adolescents' participation as bullies are scarce. We aimed to examine the possible association of sexual minority identity and the heightened risk of not only being bullied but bullying others as well. We also explored the effect of one's sexual identity on their involvement in bullying through the mediation of coping strategies and mood states. Methods A total of 12 218 students were recruited from 18 secondary schools in China. The demographic information, positive and negative coping strategies, mood state (anxiety, depression and hypomania) and information related to bullying and being bullied were collected. Multinomial regression was used to assess the heightened risk of sexual minority groups in comparison to their heterosexual adolescents' counterparts. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the mediating role of coping strategy and mood state between one's sex, sexual identity and bullying experience. Results Two trends could be observed: (1) LGB groups reported heightened risks of being bullied and bullying others at school than heterosexual peers. However, being a sexual-undeveloped girl seemed to have a protective effect on bullying-related problems. (2) Birth-assigned males were more likely to be bullied as well as bullying others at school when compared to birth-assigned females. SEM analysis revealed that being a sexual minority was directly associated with a higher frequency of being bullied ( B = 0.16, 95% CI [0.10, 0.22], p < 0.001) but not bullying others ( B = 0.02, 95% CI [−0.02, 0.06], p = 0.398) when compared to the heterosexual group. Negative coping, hypomania, anxiety and depression were associated with a higher frequency of being bullied, while positive coping was associated with a lower frequency of being bullied. Moreover, negative coping, hypomania and depression were associated with a higher frequency of bullying others, while positive coping was associated with a reduced likelihood of bullying others. In addition, being bullied and bullying others were significantly correlated in the SEM model. Conclusions This novel research investigated the dynamic nature of the interaction between victim and bullying of LGB school adolescents in China, with a specific exploration of the psychological mechanism behind the pattern of being bullied and bullying others. School-level interventions aimed at teaching positive coping strategies to lower psychological distress are recommended to support sexual minority students.
... Data also suggests that higher perceived peer social support is related to less offline sexual harassment and less distressing sexual harassment (Mitchell et al. 2014). More specific to bias victimization and discrimination, research shows that sexual minority youth with access to social support are less likely to report victimization (Button et al. 2012) and also report less negative impact from victimization (Espelage et al. 2019;Trujillo et al. 2017). ...
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Research has documented that a significant portion of youth are exposed to bias victimization. However, less is known about whether experiencing certain types of bias victimization (e.g., sexual orientation bias) is more or less likely to be related to a more extensive bias victimization history (i.e., experiencing multiple types of bias victimization) and whether exposure to multiple types of bias victimization explains any relationships between specific types of bias victimization and negative outcomes. To address these gaps, the current study explores relationships between exposure to multiple types of bias-motivated victimization, trauma symptomatology and perceived social support. Participants were 854 youth and young adults (60.9% female) from three higher risk communities who completed a survey on personal experiences with bias-related victimization. The average age of participants was 16.6 years; 28.5% of the sample described themselves as Black or African American; 13.4% as Hispanic or Latino (any race); 45.3% as White, and 12.8% as another race. Sixty-nine percent of the sample described their sexual orientation as heterosexual; 8.9% as gay, lesbian, or homosexual; 12.5% as bisexual; and 9.5% as another sexual orientation. Sixty-three percent of participants reported at least one type of bias victimization in their lifetime, and more than one in three youth (38.7%) experienced two or more types of bias victimization in their lifetimes (18.1% two types, 12.1% three types, and 8.5% four or more types). Experiencing multiple types of bias victimization was related to higher trauma symptomatology and less perceived social support. Experiencing multiple types of bias victimization attenuated or eliminated the association between individual types of bias victimization and well-being. The findings contribute to a growing body of research demonstrating the damaging mental health effects of occupying multiple marginalized statuses, and points to the cumulation of bias victimization experiences as an important factor contributing to significant differences in well-being and support among youth and young adults.
... The next article herein, "Understanding Protective Factors for Suicidality and Depression among U.S. Sexual and Gender Minority Adolescents: Implications for School Psychologists," examines risk and protective factors for STB across sexual, gender, and racial identities using an intersectionality lens (Rivas-Koehl et al., 2022). This paper directly addresses the recent calls for applying an intersectional lens to the study of STB and the need for a greater focus on protective factors (Espelage et al., 2019;Johns et al., 2019). Examining data from 1,078 high school students in the U.S., largely identifying as White and Latinx, family support was found to be a robust protective factor of depression and STB among LGBTQ youth. ...
... Cada vez son más numerosos los estudios e investigaciones que ponen especial atención a la justicia social como elemento fundamental para la educación y más concretamente como factor de protección ante situaciones de victimización por cuestiones de orientación sexual, identidad y expresión de género y características sexuales (en adelante SOGIESC, por sus siglas en inglés) en el contexto educativo (Espelage, 2015;Espelage et al., 2018). ...
... Even if many studies investigated the dynamics of HV, research on students involved in HB both as victims and as bullies still appears to be poor. In a recent review on individual predictors for HB, neither sexual orientation nor HV have been encompassed as possible risk factors for HB perpetration (Espelage, Valido et al., 2018). Thus, to our knowledge, the present research is one of the first studies exploring the relationship between HV and HB. ...
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Homophobic bullying is bullying related to sexual orientation and gender identity. This study investigated the moderating role of the dark triad traits (i.e., psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism) in the relationship between being a victim of homophobic bullying and being in turn a perpetrator of homophobic bullying. Participants were 285 adolescents from 16 to 20 years old. Victimization and perpetration of homophobic bullying and the Dark Triad Traits were measured. The moderation effects of dark triad traits were tested using a hierarchical regression analysis. All interaction terms (i.e., victim*psychopathy, victim*narcissism, and victim*Machiavellianism) were significant. Being a victim of homophobic bullying was related to being a perpetrator of homophobic bullying only in the presence of high psychopathy and narcissism. Conversely, high Machiavellianism buffered the relationship between being a victim of homophobic bullying and being a perpetrator of homophobic bullying. Results showed that not all dark triad traits are maladaptive per se. Research and clinical implications are discussed.
... High school administrators should consider implementing policy designed to mitigate homophobic school environments in exchange for hospitable settings in which LGBTQ students can thrive. For example, improvements in social/emotional learning, social support (e.g., inclusive social clubs), and staff bystander behaviors are promising avenues to reduce victimization among LGBTQ youth (Chaudoir et al. 2017;Espelage et al. 2019;Hong and Garbarino 2012). Furthermore, the high prevalence of victimization among LGBTQ youth suggests universities should provide trauma-informed resources for incoming freshmen, in addition to those offered to students who experience SV or IPPV during college. ...
Article
Evidence from the literature suggests that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) people are at greater risk of experiencing sexual victimization (SV) and intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) than their heterosexual and cisgender peers. Although there has been a plethora of recent research investigating the victimization experiences among LGBTQ adults, little research has examined victimization among LGBTQ youth. The current study consists of a preliminary analysis that compares the prevalence rates of SV and IPPV between LGBTQ and non-LGBTQ youth entering college. First-year students at a large Midwestern university were asked to complete an online questionnaire containing comprehensive measures of SV and IPPV. Results suggested that LGBTQ youth (n = 41) experienced higher rates of nearly every type of violent victimization when compared with their non-LGBTQ peers (n = 350). These results support previous research, which suggests LGBTQ people are at increased risk to be sexually and physically victimized. The results also extended the extant literature by utilizing a subsample of LGBTQ youth, among whom there is a particular dearth of research, relative to adults. This research is a step toward understanding the types of victimization experiences encountered by LGBTQ youth and provides descriptive details that may help to inform future research, school policy, and interventions aimed at improving the safety, health, and well-being of the LGBTQ community.
... In line with this, the occurrence of sexual harassment in school can be seen as a result of the interaction between the individual and his or her (school) context. This notion is in line with a small body of literature that suggests that factors which protect against homophobic bullying include a positive school climate [41]. In the described project, we examine the interaction between three layers or levels of the individual and his or her context: the individual level, the classroom level, and the school level. ...
Article
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Background Sexual harassment is a widespread problem with serious consequences for individuals and societies. It is likely that sexual harassment among peers has its main onset during the transition from late childhood to early adolescence, when young people enter puberty. However, there is a lack of systematic research on sexual harassment during this developmental period. Thus, there is very little information about the prevalence of sexual harassment during this important transition, its consequences, and how to effectively intervene against and prevent the problem. The primary objective of the described project, entitled Peer Relations In School from an Ecological perspective (PRISE), is to examine sexual harassment and its developmental correlates during the transition from late childhood to early adolescence. Methods The PRISE study has a longitudinal design over 3 years, in which a cohort of children ( N = 1000) and their main teachers ( N = 40) fill out questionnaires in grades 4, 5, and 6. The questionnaires assess aspects of peer sexual harassment and potential correlates including biological (e.g., pubertal development), psychosocial (e.g., resilience, self-image, peer relations), and contextual (e.g., classroom climate, norms) factors. In addition, we will examine school readiness and policies in relation to sexual harassment and collect register data to assess the number of reports of sexual harassment from the participating schools. Discussion The PRISE study will enable the researchers to answer fundamental, unresolved questions about the development of sexual harassment and thus advance the very limited understanding of sexual harassment during the transition from childhood to adolescence - a central period for physical, sexual, and social development. Due to the sensitive nature of the main research concepts, and the age of the participants, the ethical aspects of the research need particular attention. Ultimately, the hope is that the PRISE study will help researchers, policy makers, and practitioners develop, and implement, knowledge that may help in combating a major, current societal challenge and adverse aspect of young people’s developmental ecologies.
... Cada vez son más numerosos los estudios e investigaciones que ponen especial atención a la justicia social como elemento fundamental para la educación y más concretamente como factor de protección ante situaciones de victimización por cuestiones de orientación sexual, identidad y expresión de género y características sexuales (en adelante SOGIESC, por sus siglas en inglés) en el contexto educativo (Espelage, 2015;Espelage et al., 2018). ...
... Cada vez son más numerosos los estudios e investigaciones que ponen especial atención a la justicia social como elemento fundamental para la educación y más concretamente como factor de protección ante situaciones de victimización por cuestiones de orientación sexual, identidad y expresión de género y características sexuales (en adelante SOGIESC, por sus siglas en inglés) en el contexto educativo (Espelage, 2015;Espelage et al., 2018). ...
Conference Paper
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La discriminación, intolerancia y violencia injustificada por cuestiones de orientación sexual, identidad y expresión de género y características sexuales es un constructo social que se manifiesta en distintos grados y ocurre a distintas escalas o marcos de la sociedad, entre ellas, el contexto educativo. Este fenómeno afecta al desarrollo de aquellas personas pertenecientes a un grupo minoritario, influyendo en su percepción de justicia y su creencia de un mundo justo. Para comprobar estas hipótesis se ha desarrollado una entrevista semiestructurada como herramienta de recogida de información para un análisis cualitativo. La muestra está formada por víctimas de acoso escolar por cuestiones de SOGIESC durante la etapa de educación secundaria. Se analizan las representaciones que tienen las y los participantes sobre la creencia en un mundo justo y sobre sus representaciones acerca de cómo experimentan y abordan situaciones de injusticia en sus vidas. Descriptores: Justicia social; Acoso escolar; Minorías sexuales; Desigualdad social; Agresión. Discrimination, intolerance and unjustified violence on the basis of sexual orientation, gender identity and expression and sexual characteristics is a social construct that manifests itself in varying degrees and occurs at different scales or frameworks in society, including the educational context. This phenomenon affects the development of those belonging to a minority group, influencing their perception of justice and their belief in a just world. To test these hypotheses, a semi-structured interview has been developed as a tool for gathering information for qualitative analysis. The sample is made up of victims of bullying due to SOGIESC issues during the secondary school stage. Participants' representations of belief in a just world and their representations of how they experience and deal with situations of injustice in their lives are analysed.
... Laws that enumerate protected classes or statuses make it explicitly clear that forms of bias-based bullying are prohibited, which is intended to protect vulnerable groups. For example, evidence shows high rates of bullying toward LGBTQ students [26,27], 20 states have anti-bullying laws that enumerate sexual orientation and gender identity as protected classes [1], and evidence shows that LGBTQ students in schools with enumerated policies reported less harassment and more frequent and effective intervention by school personnel [40,41]. ...
Article
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Bullying is a significant school problem. Policies have been developed to reduce bullying, yet little is known about their implementation, which must occur for these policies to have an effect. This study examines associations between the overall implementation of a state anti-bullying policy and implementation of specific components outlined in the policy with two outcomes: bullying among students and teacher protection of students. Data were collected from 588 educators in K-12 schools across North Carolina a year following the enactment of an anti-bullying law in the state. Results show that overall policy implementation fidelity is inversely related to student bullying and positively related to teacher protection. In addition, the implementation of certain policy components (i.e., educator and student knowledge of bullying reporting procedures, training of educators about protected classes from bullying, student knowledge of protected classes, and educators reporting and remediating bullying based on protected classes) is significantly related to the outcomes. Thus, the implementation of certain anti-bullying policy components may be more potent in addressing bullying. Future research should identify constellations of policy strategies that need to be activated in schools to eliminate bullying.
... Structural factors such as oppressive social norms and lack of institutional support for sexual minorities can create unsafe and unsupportive social environments for sexual minorities, and in turn perpetuate cycles of minority stress syndemics at the individual level (Hatzenbuehler, 2014). Therefore, current research on preventing homophobic victimization has taken social ecological approaches to promote respect for diversity and support from authority figures, though these efforts have largely been limited to school settings (Espelage, 2014;Espelage et al., 2018). In order to specifically address homophobia-driven homelessness in students, Tierney and Ward (2017) suggest training school district homeless liaisons-assigned per the McKinney-Vento Homeless Education Assistance Improvement Act of 2001-in LGBTQ sensitivity as well as McKinney-Vento protections of relevant need for this population. ...
Article
Background: Men who have sex with men with histories of homophobic victimization bear heightened risk of unstable housing and methamphetamine use. However, it is unclear whether unstable housing explains the link between homophobic victimization and methamphetamine use in this group. The present study aims to test associations between homophobic victimization, unstable housing, and recent methamphetamine use across 24 months in a cohort of men of color who have sex with men (MoCSM). Methods: Our analysis stems from data of 1342 person-visits from 401 MoCSM participating in an ongoing cohort study. We performed a lagged multilevel negative binominal regression to test the association between past homophobic victimization and recent unstable housing, and a lagged multilevel ordered logistic regression to test the association between past homophobic victimization recent methamphetamine use. We then performed a path analysis to test whether recent unstable housing mediates the association between past homophobic victimization and recent methamphetamine use. Results: Findings showed homophobic victimization associated significantly with increased odds of unstable housing (IRR = 1.70, 95% CI [1.35, 2.14], p < 0.001) and recent methamphetamine use (OR = 1.40, 95% CI [1.15, 1.71], p = 0.001). Mediation analysis indicated that past homophobic victimization was indirectly associated with recent methamphetamine use via unstable housing (OR = 1.06 (95% CI [1.01, 1.11], p = 0.010). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that homophobic victimization and unstable housing should be addressed alongside treatment and prevention of methamphetamine use in MoCSM.
... In addition, despite reporting high rates of bullying and peer victimization, 50 data about gender minority status (eg, transgender, nonbinary) were not collected in these YRBS districts during the years of this study. Although protective factors for homophobic bullying are an important area of research, 51 we were not able to examine these in this study since these data are not collected by the YRBS. ...
Article
Background: Youth with multiple minority identities, such as those who are both sexual minority (eg, lesbian, gay, bisexual) and racial/ethnic minority (eg, Black, Latino) may be at increased risk for bullying and peer victimization. Methods: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance data (2011-2017) were analyzed (N = 114,881; 50.8% girls; mean age = 15.7 years, SD = 0.03). We used chi-square tests and sex-stratified multiple linear regression models to examine sexual identity and racial/ethnic differences and the intersection between sexual identity and race/ethnicity across 3 forms of bullying and peer victimization, co-occurrence of traditional and electronic bullying, and any type of bullying or peer victimization. Results: Sexual minority youth reported higher odds of bullying and peer victimization than heterosexual youth. White youth reported higher odds of bullying than racial/ethnic minority youth. In intersectional analyses, all sexual minority and racial/ethnic minority boys, and bisexual racial/ethnic minority girls were at higher risk for bullying and peer victimization compared to heterosexual peers of the same race/ethnicity. Conclusions: This study of a large diverse sample of youth advances our understanding of vulnerability to bullying and peer victimization among youth with multiple minority identities. This research can inform policy initiatives and interventions to prevent peer victimization of vulnerable youth.
... Protective factors against homophobic bullying, a specific type of bullying that is still understudied, were reviewed by Espelage, Valido, Hatchel, Ingram, Huang, and Torgal (2018). This systematic review included 32 studies, after conducting systematic searches and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. ...
... A systematic review conducted by Espelage et al. (2019) suggested that LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) youth could be at higher risk of cybervictimization as they frequently use technologies for social and peer support that they might not find offline. These authors also pointed out that more research is needed to confirm this. ...
Article
Some studies suggest that sexual and ethnic-cultural minority groups are at high risk of cyberbullying, but almost all of them focused on general cyberbullying without including specific bias-based behaviors. This study analyzed psychometric properties of a bias-based cyberbullying measure, described prevalence rates of bias-based cyberbullying in ethnic-cultural and sexual majority and minority groups, and discovered if social and emotional competencies and technology abuse predicted bias-based cyberbullying. A survey was answered by a representative sample of 2,139 adolescents from Andalusia (Spain). The measure of bias-based cyberbullying was found to have good psychometric properties. Bias-based cyberbullying victimization and being a cyberbully/victim were common among the immigrants and sexual minorities. The majority group and Roma ethnicity showed similar prevalence rates, with more perpetration than the immigrants and sexual minorities. Social and emotional competencies were protective, and technology abuse was a risk factor for bias-based cyberbullying. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
... The results of this study are also in accordance with a developmental trajectory framework (Savin-Williams, 2011) that recognizes the inherent uniqueness of every life and reflects that SGM youth can be similar to other adolescents in their developmental trajectories as they are all subject to similar biopsychosocial influences. Finally, the absence of differences could be explained by the use of a general bullying scale that does not specifically account for bullying based on a person's marginalized group identity, such as homophobic bullying (Espelage et al., 2019) or microagressions based on sexual and/or gender identity (Bostwick & Hequembourg, 2014). ...
Article
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Bullying victimization is prevalent in adolescence and associated with adverse consequences on physical and psychological wellbeing, paricularly in sexual and gender minority youth. However, little is known about its associations with sexual wellbeing and the underlying mechanisms that could explain this association. The present study assessed the associations between bullying victimization and sexual wellbeing (sexual satisfaction, sexual desire/arousal and orgasmic function difficulties, sexual distress) via the mediating role of emotion regulation difficulties, considering potential sexual/gender minority status-based differences. Self-report online surveys were completed by 1036 sexually active (49.7% were girls) high school students (Mage = 14.6 years, SDage = 0.6). Bullying victimization was directly and negatively associated with sexual desire/arousal difficulties and positively with sexual distress. Higher emotion regulation difficulties mediated the associations between higher bullying victimization and higher orgasmic function difficulties, as well as higher bullying victimization and higher sexual distress. No significant association was observed between bullying victimization and sexual satisfaction. No significant differences were observed between heterosexual, cisgender and sexual and gender minority youth in any of the associations. The findings suggest that bullying victimization is associated with adolescents’ sexual wellbeing. The cross-sectional design and small effect sizes support the need for further prospective cohort studies.
... Cada vez son más numerosos los estudios e investigaciones que ponen especial atención a la justicia social como elemento fundamental para la educación y más concretamente como factor de protección ante situaciones de victimización por cuestiones de orientación sexual, identidad y expresión de género y características sexuales (en adelante SOGIESC, por sus siglas en inglés) en el contexto educativo (Espelage, 2015;Espelage et al., 2018). ...
... These researchers surveyed 1480 German adolescents (age 12-17) using a single item to assess cyberhate perpetration and victimization and found that about 21% of the sample admitted to perpetrating cyberbullying, and 12.3% acknowledged committing at least one act of cyberhate. Bias-based cyberaggression towards sexual minority groups has received some scholarly attention (e.g., Espelage et al., 2019;, as has the issue of moral disengagement and cyberbullying (Romera et al., 2021); the association between bias-based cyberaggression and moral disengagement has yet to be explored. ...
Article
Although there is a body of literature that addresses victimization of adolescents based on their membership in stigmatized groups, there is little that focuses on this type of aggression delivered digitally. Furthermore, the extant literature typically focuses on the targets of such aggression, but scant attention has been paid to the aggressors. To address this gap, the current study investigated characteristics of perpetrators of bias-based cyberaggression in a sample of 554 self-reported cyber-aggressors among 1695 12- to15-year-old adolescents in northwestern Mexico. Approximately one-fourth of these cyber-aggressors engaged in bias-based cyberaggression. Demographic characteristics were investigated in an attempt to describe those most at risk for perpetration of bias-based aggression. In addition, the influence of moral disengagement was examined in this unique sample. Results showed that cyber-aggressors who were male and younger were disproportionately represented among those whose cyberaggression was motivated by some type of bias. Bias-based cyberaggression was associated with higher levels of several types of moral disengagement. Possible explanations and implications of the findings are discussed.
... This approach should emphasize eliminating bias-based bullying experiences while boosting psychological assets that help SGMY overcome social threats associated with stigma and prejudice. Fortunately, there is progress in identifying strategies that address both critical elements, many recently cataloged in comprehensive reviews by Espelage et al. (2019) and Earnshaw et al. (2018), and described in a study of SGMYinclusive policies and practices by Day et al., (2019). Here we describe examples of prevention and intervention supports with evidence for reducing bias-based bullying experiences and/or improving psychosocial well-being among SGMY. ...
Article
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Many sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY) experience bias-based bullying (i.e., bullying related to their minoritized social identities) at school. Compared to their straight and cisgender peers, SGMYs also report a disproportionately high prevalence of suicidal thoughts. This study used a sizeable, racially diverse, statewide sample of secondary-aged SGMY and straight/non-transgender peers (n = 74,501) drawn from 381 comprehensive high schools. We explored the moderating role of covitality, a construct representing the co-occurrence of youth psychological strengths, in the relationship between suicidal thoughts and homophobic and gender-based bullying experiences among SGMY. Compared to all other groups, students with two minoritized identities (i.e., both transgender and sexual minority) report the highest rates of bias-based bullying and suicidal thoughts. Mixed-effects logistic regression analyses indicate that, for most SGMY groups, increases in covitality were associated significantly with decreases in the likelihood of suicidal thoughts. However, no significant moderating effects were found, suggesting that the psychological impacts of bias-based bullying are difficult to counteract through the cultivation of psychological strengths alone. We detail the relationship between bias-based bullying and suicidal thoughts as it varies across types of bias-based bullying experiences, levels of covitality and SGMY identities.
Article
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Bias-based aggression at school in the form of homophobic name-calling is quite prevalent among early adolescents. Homophobic name-calling is associated with low academic performance, higher risky sexual behaviors, and substance abuse, among other adverse outcomes. This longitudinal study examined risk and protective factors across multiple domains of the social ecology (individual, peer, family, school and community) and levels of analysis (within- and between-person) associated with homophobic name-calling perpetration and victimization. Students from four middle schools in the U.S. Midwest ( N = 1,655; [Formula: see text] age = 12.75; range = 10–16 years) were surveyed four times (Spring/Fall 2008, Spring/Fall 2009). For homophobic name-calling perpetration, significant risk factors included impulsivity, social dominance, traditional masculinity, family violence, and neighborhood violence; while empathy, peer support, school belonging, and adult support were significant protective factors. For homophobic name-calling victimization, significant risk factors included empathy (between-person), impulsivity, traditional masculinity, family violence, and neighborhood violence, while empathy (within-person), parental monitoring, peer support, school belonging, and adult support were significant protective factors.
Article
Bullying victimization remains to be a public health concern in the United States, especially among sexual and ethnic minority youth. However, few studies have examined how school outcomes might be associated with bullying victimization among heterosexual and sexual minority African American youth and the factors that may attenuate that relationship. To address this gap, this study surveyed 462 heterosexual and 102 sexual minority African American youth residing in southside Chicago neighborhoods, who participated in the Resiliency Project. Study variables included bullying victimization experiences, school outcomes (i.e., school connectedness, and academic grades), and future orientation. Bullying victimization was associated with a significant increase in feeling disconnected from school among both sexual minority and heterosexual adolescents; however, there was no significant association observed between bullying victimization and receiving low grades among either group. No significant moderation of future orientation on the bullying victimization and outcome association was observed among heterosexual adolescents; however, positive future orientation did attenuate the association between bullying victimization and feeling disconnected from school among sexual minority adolescents. Prevention programs that focus on promoting school connectedness need to also consider the role of future orientation for sexual minority youth.
Article
The extant literature on suicide-related thoughts and behaviors (STB) has highlighted increased patterns of risk among specific minoritized populations, including lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning, intersex, two spirit, and queer (LGBTQ+) youth. Compared to their heterosexual and cisgender peers, LGBTQ+ youth are at increased risk for having STB. Identity-specific stressors such as homonegativity and anti-queerness are among the unique factors posited to contribute to this risk and inhibit factors that protect against suicide. The school setting has been a focal point for suicide prevention and intervention and may also play a key role in linking students to care; however, schools also hold the potential to provide supports and experiences that may buffer against risk factors for STB in LGBTQ+ students. This systematic literature review presents findings from 44 studies examining school-related correlates of STB in LGBTQ+ students, informing an ecological approach to suicide prevention for school settings. Findings underscore the importance of school context for preventing STB in LGBTQ+ youth. Approaches that prioritize safety and acceptance of LGBTQ+ youth should span multiple layers of a student's ecology, including district and state level policies and school programs and interventions, such as Gender and Sexuality Alliances and universal bullying prevention programs. Beyond their role as a primary access point for behavioral health services, schools offer a unique opportunity to support suicide prevention by combating minority stressors through promoting positive social relationships and a safe community for LGBTQ+ students.
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Lehrkräften und ihrem Interventionshandeln kann bei der Entstehung von Mobbing eine besondere Rolle zukommen, wobei eine ausreichend ausgeprägte Interventionskompetenz bedeutsam ist. Aus welchen Komponenten diese Interventionskompetenz aber konkret besteht, ist nicht eindeutig geklärt. Aus der Literatur ist ein Modell bekannt, welches vorschlägt, dass sich Interventionskompetenz aus den Bereichen Wissen, Überzeugung, Motivation und Selbstregulation zusammensetzt. Zur Motivation können dabei alle Aspekte gezählt werden, die Intensität und Art eines Verhaltens beschreiben. Dazu gehören die Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung und die Empathie der Lehrkräfte. Auch die Selbstregulation kann unter der international anschlussfähigen Perspektive von Prozessen der Zielauswahl und -verfolgung der Motivation zugeordnet werden. Damit kommt der motivationalen Orientierung eine besondere Bedeutung als nicht-kognitiver Teil der Interventionskompetenz zu. Ausgehend von diesen Annahmen wurde in der vorliegenden Arbeit der Kompetenzbereich der Motivation als Teil der Interventionskompetenz von Lehrkräften bei Mobbing näher untersucht. Dazu wurde ein spezifisches Kompetenzstrukturmodell entwickelt. Mit den Befunden von fünf Publikationen sowie ergänzenden Analysen wurde dieses theoretisch abgeleitete Modell empirisch überprüft. Es wurde untersucht, welche Zusammenhänge zwischen mobbingbezogener Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung, Selbstregulation (operationalisiert durch die zwei Dimensionen Locomotion und Assessment) und Empathie und dem Interventionshandeln von Lehrkräften sowie den Mobbingerfahrungen der Schüler:innen bestehen. Zunächst erfolgte eine systematische Untersuchung des vergleichsweise umfangreichen Forschungsstandes zur Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung von Lehrkräften im Mobbingkontext. Anschließend wurden Daten von 556 Lehrkräften und 2.071 Schüler:innen aus einer 2014 durchgeführten Querschnittstudie in Sachsen analysiert. Das Interventionshandeln der Lehrkräfte wurde dabei auf retrospektiv berichtete Mobbingsituationen bezogen, welche von den Lehrkräften und den Schüler:innen geschildert wurden. Logistische, zum Teil mehrebenenanalytische Regressionsanalysen wurden durchgeführt. Die Befunde zeigten, dass nur die Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung der Lehrkräfte mit einer höheren Interventionswahrscheinlichkeit aus Selbstsicht der Lehrkräfte in Verbindung stand. Schüler:innen, deren Klassenlehrkräfte eine höhere Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung und eine höhere Neigung zu überlegtem, selbstevaluierendem Verhalten (Assessment-Orientierung des Selbstregulation) zeigten, berichteten geringere Mobbingerfahrungen. Schüler:innen, deren Lehrkräfte schnell und weniger überlegt handelten (Locomotion-Orientierung der Selbstregulation), berichteten dagegen von stärkerem Mobbingaufkommen. Als besonders bedeutsam für die Mobbingerfahrungen der Schüler:innen zeigte sich zudem die Sicht der Schüler:innen auf die Interventionswahrscheinlichkeit der Lehrkräfte.
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A growing body of research documents that bullying victimization is associated with delinquent behaviors. There is an increasing need to better illuminate the factors that might moderate this relationship. This study examined whether the motivation to move out of low-resourced neighborhoods and sexual orientation/gender identity moderated the relationship between bullying victimization and delinquent behavior among a sample of 450 heterosexual and 91 non-heterosexual/cisgender African American youths. Measures considered were bullying victimization, delinquent behavior, sexual orientation/gender identity, motivation to move out, and family demographics. Sexual orientation/gender identity was not associated with youth delinquent behavior after controlling for the covariates. Being motivated to move out moderated the association between bullying victimization and delinquent behavior. Sexual orientation/gender identity and being motivated to move out of low-resourced communities jointly contribute to the moderating effect between bullying victimization and delinquency. For non-heterosexual/cisgender youth, bullying victimization is correlated with increased delinquent behavior for those with low motivation to move out of their communities compared with those with an average or higher level of motivation to stay. However, such a moderating effect was not shown for heterosexual youth.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the development of personal relationships in gay men. First, attachment theory—one of the most pre-eminent theories of interpersonal relationships—is outlined in relation to gay men. Second, parental reactions to ‘coming out’ and the impact of these reactions for identity processes are discussed. Third, the development of gay men’s friendships with other gay men, heterosexual women and heterosexual men is outlined. Fourth, the development and maintenance of romantic relationships are discussed with a focus on the factors that can affect relationship satisfaction in gay men. Finally, the social psychological aspects of non-monogamous relationships are discussed. It is argued that attachment style in adulthood constitutes a strategy for protecting identity and that this shapes the development of personal relationships.
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Suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States, yet remarkably little is known regarding risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), relatively few federal grants and scientific publications focus on STBs, and few evidence-based approaches to prevent or treat STBs are available. This “decade in review” article discusses five domains of recent empirical findings that span biological, environmental, and contextual systems and can guide future research in this high priority area: (1) the role of the central nervous system; (2) physiological risk factors, including the peripheral nervous system; (3) proximal acute stress responses; (4) novel behavioral and psychological risk factors; and (5) broader societal factors impacting diverse populations and several additional nascent areas worthy of further investigation.
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To better understand the well-being of transgender and gender-nonconforming (TGNC) adolescents, this study examined the relations among bias-based peer victimization, sexual harassment, parental support, school belonging, sexual violence, and suicidal ideation in a sample of a total of 16,292 high school students from the U.S (TGNC n = 610). Midwest. Students completed self-report measures: 22% of TGNC adolescents reported being forced to take part in sexual activity, and 33% reported being sexually harassed. Tests of the individual parameters revealed four variables that differentiated between those who reported sexual victimization and those who did not. Results indicated that sexual harassment victimization, bias-based peer victimization, problematic drug use, and female sex assigned at birth predicted sexual victimization. Suicidal ideation was predicted by sexual victimization, sexual harassment victimization, bias-based peer victimization, and problematic drug use. Greater parental support and school belonging were associated with less suicidal ideation. Practitioners, teachers, and school administrators should be sure to intervene in instances of transphobic victimization and sexual harassment that occur in their classrooms and schools in order to address adverse outcomes for TGNC adolescents.
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LGBTQ+ people are anywhere from 1.5 to 4 times more likely than heterosexual people to report depression, anxiety, suicidal behaviors, substance abuse, eating disorders, risky sexual behaviors, homelessness, and victimization. Objective The purpose is to describe the development of a mobile application for LGBTQ youth and their family. This article is part of a research program intended to equip LGBTQ+ youth and their families with technological tools to help them foster adaptive strategies in the face of stigma. LGBTQ+ youth face unique stressors both publicly (e.g. victimization) as well as personally (e.g. identity development and "coming out" process). Method We build upon Isabelle Ouellet-Morin's team +Fort: Stronger than Bullying © mobile application designed to reduce victimization among youth. We will create a new app called +Fièr/+Proud, to be designed and piloted in collaboration with LGBTQ+ participants ages 13-25 and their families. Impact Our hope is to bring LGBTQ+ youth together nationally and internationally to explore health promoting coping strategies, learn from custom training modules, share their unique experiences, and help inform parents of the experiences that LGBTQ+ people often face and fight in silence.
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Child maltreatment has serious short and long‐term negative impacts for those experiencing it. Child maltreatment occurring in institutional settings has recently received substantial attention. However, evidence about the effectiveness of interventions that prevent, disclose, respond to, or treat maltreatment that has occurred in these environments is fragmented and can be difficult to access. This evidence and gap map (EGM) collates this research evidence. It was developed as a resource for stakeholders operating in the child health, welfare and protection sectors, including practitioners, organisational leaders, policy developers and researchers, wanting to access high quality evidence on interventions addressing institutional child maltreatment.
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The Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory has indicated that bullying perpetration predicts sexual violence perpetration among males and females over time in middle school, and that homophobic name-calling perpetration moderates that association among males. In this study, the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory was tested across early to late adolescence. Participants included 3549 students from four Midwestern middle schools and six high schools. Surveys were administered across six time points from Spring 2008 to Spring 2013. At baseline, the sample was 32.2% White, 46.2% African American, 5.4% Hispanic, and 10.2% other. The sample was 50.2% female. The findings reveal that late middle school homophobic name-calling perpetration increased the odds of perpetrating sexual violence in high school among early middle school bullying male and female perpetrators, while homophobic name-calling victimization decreased the odds of high school sexual violence perpetration among females. The prevention of bullying and homophobic name-calling in middle school may prevent later sexual violence perpetration.
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Research has demonstrated that cyberbullying has adverse physical and mental health consequences for youths. Unfortunately, most studies have focused on heterosexual and cisgender individuals. The scant available research on sexual minority and gender expansive youth (i.e., LGBTQ) shows that this group is at a higher risk for cyberbullying when compared to their heterosexual counterparts. However, to date no literature review has comprehensively explored the effects of cyberbullying on LGBTQ youth. A systematic review resulted in 27 empirical studies that explore the effects of cyberbullying on LGBTQ youth. Findings revealed that the percentage of cyberbullying among LGBTQ youth ranges between 10.5% and 71.3% across studies. Common negative effects of cyberbullying of LGBTQ youth include psychological and emotional (suicidal ideation and attempt, depression, lower self-esteem), behavioral (physical aggression, body image, isolation), and academic performance (lower GPAs). Recommendations and interventions for students, schools, and parents are discussed.
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Purpose: Homophobic victimization, and specifically name-calling, has been associated with greater psychological distress and alcohol use in adolescents. This longitudinal study examines whether sexual orientation moderates these associations and also differentiates between the effects of name-calling from friends and nonfriends. Methods: Results are based on 1,325 students from three Midwestern high schools who completed in-school surveys in 2012 and 2013. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations among homophobic name-calling victimization and changes in anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use one year later, controlling for other forms of victimization and demographics. Results: Homophobic name-calling victimization by friends was not associated with changes in psychological distress or alcohol use among either students who self-identified as heterosexual or those who self-identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB). In contrast, homophobic name-calling by nonfriends was associated with increased psychological distress over a one-year period among LGB students and increased drinking among heterosexual students. Conclusions: Homophobic name-calling victimization, specifically from nonfriends, can adversely affect adolescent well-being over time and, thus, is important to address in school-based bullying prevention programs. School staff and parents should be aware that both LGB and heterosexual adolescents are targets of homophobic name-calling but may tend to react to this type of victimization in different ways. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which homophobic victimization increases the risk of psychological distress and alcohol use over time.
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This study explored the relationships between the existence of and length of time since implementation of school-based Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) and explicit anti-homophobic bullying policies in secondary schools across British Columbia, Canada, with experiences of anti-gay discrimination, suicidal ideation and attempts among lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB), mostly heterosexual, and exclusively heterosexual students. Analyses of the province-wide random cluster-stratified 2008 B.C. Adolescent Health Survey (n =21,70 8) compared students in schools with GSAs or policies implemented at least 3 years, and less than 3 years, with those in schools without GSAs or anti-homophobia policies, using multinomial logistic regression, separately by gender. LGB students had lower odds of past year discrimination, suicidal thoughts and attempts, mostly when policies and GSAs had been in place for 3+ years; policies had a less consistent effect than GSAs. Heterosexual boys, but not girls, also had lower odds of suicidal ideation and attempts in schools with longer-established anti-homophobic bullying policies and GSAs. Given consistently higher documented risk for suicidal ideation and attempts among LGB and mostly heterosexual adolescents, prevention efforts should be a priority, and school-level interventions, such as GSAs, may be an effective approach to reducing this risk, while also offering prevention benefits for heterosexual boys.
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Being called names such as "gay," "faggot," "lezzie" may be experienced as both harmful or harmless by adolescents, depending on the situation in which the name-calling occurs. The aim of this study was to explore how being called gay-related names by agents with whom the relationship is differentiated by friendship, acquaintance status and perceived likeability is associated with depressive symptoms, and to explore associations between gay-related name-calling, bullying and depressive symptoms. The participants were 921 ninth grade pupils (450 boys) with an age range from 14 to 15 years from 15 schools. The study reveals that the participants' depressive symptoms were more associated with being called gay-related names by someone who did not like them or someone they did not know, than with being called gay-related names by a friend. Being called gay-related names was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, even when controlling for bullying. Boys who were bullied and called gay-related names had even higher levels of depressive symptoms, as indicated by an interaction effect found between being called gay-related names and bullying. Because of the potential harmfulness of gay-related name-calling, anti-bullying programmes should address this topic as a part of their regular anti-bullying strategy.
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The popularity of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) has elicited concern that this is a context for cyberbullying. We used an online survey to examine the prevalence and types of cyberbullying in MMOG play and group differences in bullying behavior. Since most MMOGs are violent and research indicates that electronic mediums have high rates of bullying, we predicted that cyberbullying would be common in MMOG play. The participants (N ¼ 151)—a sample of self-selected MMOG players— frequently reported being cyber-victimized (52%) and engaging in cyberbullying (35%) during MMOG play. Rank was the most common motive for cyberbullying. We found that (a) males perpetrate more cyberbullying in MMOGs than females do; (b) hetero-sexuals perpetrate bullying at higher rates than lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) participants do; (c) female and LGBT participants experienced significantly higher rates of sexually related cyber-victimization; and (d) opponents are bullied more than teammates. Rates of victimization and perpetration overlapped substantially.
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Objective: Using multiinformant, multilevel modeling, this study examines the association between teacher/staff perceptions of school environment and student reports of homophobic name-calling and sexual harassment. Method: Surveys were conducted with 1,447 teachers/staff and 3,616 6th grade students across 36 middle schools in the Midwest. Results: Bivariate associations revealed that when teachers perceive schools as committed to bullying prevention, students reported less homophobic name-calling perpetration, sexual harassment perpetration, and sexual harassment victimization. When adults reported positive staff/student interactions, students endorsed lower levels of homophobic name-calling perpetration and victimization and less sexual harassment perpetration. Higher teacher/staff reported gender equity was correlated with less homophobic name-calling perpetration and victimization and sexual harassment perpetration. In a model with all school environment scales entered together, school commitment to prevent bullying was associated with less sexual harassment perpetration; in addition, higher gender equity and intolerance of sexual harassment at the school level was associated with fewer experiences of homophobic name-calling perpetration and victimization and sexual harassment perpetration. Conclusions: Efforts to address gendered harassment should include support from the school administration and professional development opportunities for all teachers and staff. Adults in the school should create a culture that is intolerant of sexual harassment and supports equality between the girls and boys in the school. (PsycINFO Database Record
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School bullying and delinquent behaviors are persistent and pervasive problems for schools, and have lasting effects for all individuals involved (Copeland et al., JAMA Psychiatry 70:419–426, 2013; Espelage et al., J Res Adolesc 24(2):337–349, 2013a). As a result, policymakers and practitioners have attempted to thwart these ill-effects using school-based interventions. Recent meta-analyses have found, however, that these programs produce only moderate effects (Ttofi and Farrington, J Exp Criminol 7:27–56, 2011). Consequently, it is important to investigate further the reasons for such findings. One promising analysis is to assess the relation between treatment intensity variables and program outcomes. Unfortunately, few treatment intensity variables have been utilized in the school-based prevention literature, and it is often cumbersome to model the relation between treatment intensity and outcomes. The purpose of this project, therefore, is to explicate novel measures of treatment intensity and delineate a relatively new meta-analytic technique to model the relation between the variables and program effects. The context for this project is a large-scale, multi-site, cluster-randomized trial; 36 schools and 3,616 students participated in three waves of data collection. The results indicated that, for the second wave of data collection, stronger treatment effects were found when teachers and program implementers spent a greater amount of time prepping lessons, provided additional financial resources, and received outside consultation and support.
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Bullying perpetration and sexual harassment perpetration among adolescents are major public health issues. However, few studies have addressed the empirical link between being a perpetrator of bullying and subsequent sexual harassment perpetration among early adolescents in the literature. Homophobic teasing has been shown to be common among middle school youth and was tested as a moderator of the link between bullying and sexual harassment perpetration in this 2-year longitudinal study. More specifically, the present study tests the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory, which posits that adolescent bullies who also participate in homophobic name-calling toward peers are more likely to perpetrate sexual harassment over time. Findings from logistical regression analyses (n = 979, 5th-7th graders) reveal an association between bullying in early middle school and sexual harassment in later middle school, and results support the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway model, with homophobic teasing as a moderator, for boys only. Results suggest that to prevent bully perpetration and its later association with sexual harassment perpetration, prevention programs should address the use of homophobic epithets.
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Social network analysis and multilevel modeling were used to examine the formation of homophobic name-calling behavior in adolescents. Specifically, peer group contextual and socialization effects on homophobic name-calling as well as the influence of masculinity attitudes, general bullying perpetration, and victimization were tested. Participants included 493 fifth- through eighth-grade students from two middle schools. Results indicated that peer groups play an important role in the formation of homophobic name-calling. Additionally, students who were victims of homophobic name-calling over time increased their own perpetration of homophobic name-calling. Non-homophobic bullying was also related to homophobic name-calling, but only for male peer groups. And finally, the role of masculinity attitudes was shown to be complex, as peer group masculinity attitudes were significantly predictive of an individual's homophobic perpetration; however, this effect did not remain significant over time. Results suggest that homophobic name-calling during early adolescence is strongly influenced by peers and rooted in gender and masculinity.
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One-hundered and sixty-eight sexual-minority and heterosexual youths aged 15–24 completed questionnaires to assess gender and sexual orientation differences in the percentage of same-gender peers in youths' friendship networks, the gender of their best friends, and their degree of attachment to these friends. Most youths had predominantly same-gender peer networks and same-gender best friends. Notable gender differences emerged among sexual minorities. Female sexual-minority youths reported heightened participation in close same-gender friendships, whereas sexual-minority male youths showed the opposite pattern. Unlike all other groups, male sexual-minority youths had more cross-gender than same-gender friends and were more attached to their best friends than were heterosexual males. They were also less attached to their romantic partners than were heterosexual males. It is suggested that male sexual-minority youths might become highly attached to friends to compensate for low expectations of intimacy with male romantic partners. Cultural factors contributing to these gender differences in sexual-minority youths' experiences are discussed.
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The role of peer harassment in the association between sexual minority status and adolescent risky behavior was examined for 15-year-olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 957). The findings, although exploratory, suggest the importance of gender. For girls, peer harassment was best viewed as a moderator of the link between sexual minority status and increased risky behavior. It intensified an existing association, reflecting the gendered nature of the impact of sexual minority status on the adolescent social context. For boys, peer harassment was primarily a mediator, such that sexual minority status was associated with more risky behavior via elevated harassment, although sexual minority status itself was associated with lower risky behavior overall. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Homophobic teasing is often long-term, systematic, and perpetrated by groups of students (Rivers, 2001); it places targets at risk for greater suicidal ideation, depression, and isolation (Elliot & Kilpatrick, 1994). This study fills a gap in the literature by examining buffering influences of positive parental relations and positive school climate on mental health outcomes for high school students who are questioning their sexual orientation. Participants were 13,921 high school students from a Midwestern U.S. public school district. Students completed a survey consisting of a wide range of questions related to their school experiences (bullying, homophobia, school climate), parental support, mood, and drug-alcohol use. Students were categorized into three groups: (a) youth who identified as heterosexual, (b) youth who questioned their sexual orientation, and (c) youth who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB). As hypothesized, sexual minority youth were more likely to report high levels of depression-suicide feelings and alcohol-marijuana use; students who were questioning their sexual orientation reported more teasing, greater drug use, and more feelings of depression and suicide than either heterosexual or LGB students. Sexually questioning students who experienced homophobic teasing were also more likely than LGB students to use drugs-alcohol and rate their school climate as negative. Finally, positive school climate and parental support protected LGB and questioning students against depression and drug use.
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Bullying, aggression, and peer victimization among adolescents are significant public health concerns. Recent research has demonstrated that bullying and peer victimization sometimes include homophobic epithets directed at heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. It appears that being at the receiving end of homophobic banter generally contributes to worse outcomes among youth. This article highlights methodological issues in conducting research with LGBT youth, and stresses the importance of using theoretically and empirically supported definitions, including youth who are sexually questioning, focusing on multiple social and cultural contexts, and examining how support networks serve as buffering agents with regard to the effect of homophobic bullying on psychological outcomes.
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This article provides an analysis of teachers’ perceptions of and responses to gendered harassment in Canadian secondary schools based on in‐depth interviews with six teachers in one urban school district. Gendered harassment includes any behaviour that polices and reinforces traditional heterosexual gender norms such as (hetero)sexual harassment, homophobic harassment, and harassment for gender non‐conformity. This study shows that educators experience a combination of external and internal influences that act as either barriers or motivators for intervention. Some of the external barriers include: lack of institutional support from administrators; lack of formal education on the issue; inconsistent response from colleagues; fear of parent backlash; and negative community response. By gaining a better understanding of the complex factors that shape how teachers view and respond to gendered harassment, we can work towards more effective solutions to reduce these behaviours in schools.
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This study examined victimization during high school based on sexual orientation of 350 lesbian, gay, or bisexual (lgb) youths aged 21 and younger. Experiences of direct victimization as well as knowledge of other lgb youths' victimization were assessed. Over half reported verbal abuse in high school because of their sexual orientation, and 11% said they had been physically assaulted. Youths who were more open in high school about their sexual orientation and who had a history of more gender atypical behavior were victimized more often. Male youths were targeted significantly more often than females, Youths' current mental health symptoms, especially traumatic stress reactions, were associated with having experienced more verbal abuse in high school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Introduction Traditional (offline) bullying and cyberbullying involvement are associated with severe psychosocial problems. Non-heterosexual (LGBQ) youth are more often victimized by traditional bullying than heterosexual (non-LGBQ) youth, but little research is available on LGBQ youth's cyberbullying victimization and perpetration rates. Moreover, rates may differ by youth's age and gender, and victimization may be higher for sexual forms of cyberbullying. Method A cross-sectional, school-based survey was conducted in Flanders, Belgium among 1037 adolescents aged 12–18 years. Traditional and cyberbullying involvement were measured using validated single items for each type of involvement (victimization, perpetration), and complemented with items on specific types of cyberbullying victimization (by messaging and posts; by sexual images; by personally embarrassing images). Sexual orientation was determined based on sexual attraction. Logistic regression analyses were conducted, corrected for age and gender. Results LGBQ youth were more often victimized by traditional victimization than non-LGBQ youth and more often perpetrator of cyberbullying. No gender differences were found, and no increased rates of traditional bullying perpetration were noted once interaction effects with age and gender were taken into account. A significant interaction effect was found with age for traditional victimization, cyberbullying victimization, and cyberbullying victimization by messaging/posts and by sexual images: these prevalence rates were higher among older LGBQ youth but decreased or remained stable among non-LGBQ youth with age. Conclusion This study highlights the need for tailored prevention and intervention programs specific for LGBQ youth in late adolescence, whereas most current programs are targeted at early adolescence when there is a peak in victimization for the general population.
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Background: A growing body of research has analyzed the potential risks of problematic Facebook use for mental health and well-being. The current meta-analysis is the first to examine the associations between problematic Facebook use, psychological distress (i.e., depression, anxiety, etc.) and well-being (life satisfaction, positive mental health) among adolescents and young adults. Method: A comprehensive search strategy identified relevant studies in PsychInfo, Pubmed, Scopus, ResearchGate, and Google Scholar. Results: The final sample included 23 independent samples with a total of 13,929 participants (60.7% females; Mage= 21.93, range: 16.5-32.4). Results of random effects meta-analysis confirmed a positive correlation between problematic Facebook use and psychological distress (r = .34, 95% CI [.28, .39]). Moderation analysis revealed that effect sizes were larger in older samples. Moreover, a negative correlation between problematic Facebook use and well-being was observed (r = -.22, 95% CI [-.28, -.15]). Limitations: All available studies used a cross-sectional design thus hampering the possibility to establish the direction of the association between problematic Facebook use and psychological distress and well-being. Conclusions: Results are discussed within the extant literature on problematic Facebook use and future research directions are proposed. This research may also inform clinical and prevention interventions on problematic Facebook use.
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Gendered harassment, including sexual harassment and homophobic name-calling, is prevalent in adolescents and is linked to negative outcomes including depression, anxiety, suicidality, substance abuse, and personal distress. However, much of the extant literature is cross-sectional and rarely are perpetrators of these behaviors included in studies of outcomes. Therefore, the current study examined the effects of longitudinal changes in gendered harassment perpetration and victimization on changes in mental health outcomes among a large sample of early adolescents. Given that these behaviors commonly occur in the context of a patriarchal society (males hold power), we also investigated the impact of gender on gendered harassment. Participants included 3,549 students from four Midwestern middle schools (50.4% female, 49% African American, 34% White) at two time points (13 and 17 years old). Results indicated that increases from age 13 to 17 years in sexual harassment perpetration and victimization and homophobic name-calling perpetration and victimization predicted increases in depression symptoms and substance use. Gender did not moderate these pathways. These findings highlight that negative outcomes are associated with changes in gendered harassment among adolescents and emphasize the importance of prevention efforts. Implications for school interventions are discussed.
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Bullying and cyberbullying have been studied extensively. In Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Questioning (LGBQ) students these phenomena seem to be overrepresented so that, although they share some common elements, homophobic bullying and cyberbullying could be considered as specific phenomena. This study analyzed homophobic bullying and cyberbullying, with the participation of 533 Spanish secondary school students aged from 12 to 20 (M = 14.9, SD = 1.7). The results showed that students identified as non-heterosexual experienced a higher level of being targeted with bullying and cyberbullying, declaring almost half of them they had been victimized and more than 20% cybervictimized. Many stated they had suffered both kinds of harassment. In addition, the prevalence of all kinds of bullying was higher among non-heterosexual students. Regression analyses showed that sexual orientation could be considered a risk factor for suffering these aggressions. We discuss results in relation to previous research and look at their practical implications http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/W8gsu8vbmIbCtqCA2x6V/full
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Adolescents’ Internet use is increasingly mobile, private, and unsupervised, which raises concerns given that the Internet increasingly serves as a medium for experiencing victimization. Although it is widely recognized that in-person victimization has a deleterious effect on adolescents’ educational outcomes, the extent to which cyber-victimization has similar effects is less well known. This systematic review and meta-analysis offers a synthesis of the relationship between cyber-victimization and educational outcomes of adolescents aged 12 to 17, including 25 effect sizes from 12 studies drawn from a variety of disciplines. A series of random-effects meta-analyses using robust variance estimation revealed associations between cyber-victimization and higher school attendance problems (r =.20) and academic achievement problems (r =.14). Results did not differ by provided definition, publication status, reporting time frame, gender, race/ethnicity, or average age. Implications for future research are discussed within context of theoretical, critical, and applied discussions.
Chapter
We use a developmental tasks framework to guide the exploration of digital media and the development of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. Since digital contexts are ubiquitous, it is clear that youth use them in the service of developmental tasks such as formation of identity, pursuit of intimacy, and development of sexuality. Research suggests that LGBTQ youth use digital media more often than their peers, likely due to the challenges they face. At the same time, electronic peer-victimization and sexual health are concerns since LGBTQ youth are more likely to be at risk. Drawing on extant research we will show that digital media use is associated with stigma-related stressors and risks while concurrently offering opportunities for healthy development. The chapter concludes with recommendations for future research that should help bolster our understanding of how digital contexts may predict the development and well-being of LGBTQ youth.
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Homophobic bullying is a pervasive issue in U.S. schools. Broadly, two distinct approaches to address bullying include punitive versus supportive practices. Few studies have considered these approaches in the context of school connectedness in relation to homophobic bullying. Drawing from theories of social support and control, we argue that supportive practices should reduce homophobic bullying and promote school connectedness. Further, although punitive practices may deter homophobic bullying, they also compromise school connectedness, except perhaps among students who have been bullied. Supportive practices could be especially important for promoting school connectedness for students who experience homophobic bullying. Using teacher (n = 62,448) and student (n = 337,945) data from 745 high schools that participated in the California School Climate Survey and the California Healthy Kids Survey, our study examines the association between teacher reports of punitive versus supportive practices, and student experiences of homophobic bullying and school connectedness. We also interrogate differential effects of punitive and supportive practices on school connectedness for students who have and have not experienced homophobic bullying. Results indicate that supportive, but not punitive, practices are associated with less homophobic bullying and higher school connectedness. Supportive practices also serve as a protective factor for students who have experienced homophobic bullying. Additionally, students in schools with less supportive practices, and who have not experienced homophobic bullying, report low levels of school connectedness comparable with students who have been bullied. Implications for school policy related to supporting students at risk for being bullied and school disconnectedness are discussed.
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Social-emotional learning programs are increasingly being implemented in U.S. schools to address a wide range of problematic behaviors (e.g., bullying, delinquency) and to promote academic success. The current study examined the direct and indirect impact of the Second Step Middle School Program (Committee for Children, 2008) on bullying, cyberbullying, homophobic name-calling, and sexual harassment perpetration over the course of a 3-year randomized clinical trial. Delinquency was examined as an intervening variable between treatment condition and aggression outcomes. Thirty-six schools in Kansas and Illinois were assigned to either a Second Step condition or a control condition, and 3,651 sixth-grade students completed self-reported surveys at four time points across 3 years. Students in the Second Step condition received a total of 41 lessons across the 3-year study. No direct intervention effects were found for multiple forms of aggression perpetration at the end of 3 years. However, as hypothesized, decreases in self-reported delinquency (intervening variable) over the first 2 years were significantly related to decreases in bullying, cyberbullying, and homophobic name-calling perpetration for Second Step schools across the 3-year study. Indirect effects of the Second Step program on bullying and aggressive behavior were statistically significant through reductions of delinquency.
Chapter
Digital media such as mobile phones, social media, and the Internet are entrenched in adolescents’ lives. Since these tools have become an integral part of adolescents’ interaction and communication with peers, they should be considered a social context in which development unfolds. During adolescence, youth are faced with the key tasks of adjusting to their developing sexualities as well as forming intimate relationships. Recent findings suggest that youth use digital media in the service of these developmental tasks. They utilize information available online as well as peer interactions to cope with and adjust to their changing bodies and sexualities. Adolescents also engage in sexting and other related behaviors, which have been found to afford healthy development while simultaneously imposing considerable risks. They also use digital tools such as social media to maintain friendships, develop romantic relationships, and even pursue interactions with strangers. Findings have shown that digital media can provide youth opportunities in the pursuit of developmental tasks, but they also come with risks. Nonetheless, many scholars believe that the risks are not intrinsic to the digital tools themselves but may relate to individual or contextual factors. The implications of these findings are discussed and questions for future research are identified.