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Background The Government of Ghana launched the Rural LPG (RLP) promotion program in 2013 as part of its efforts to reduce fuelwood consumption. The aim of the RLP is to contribute to Ghana's overarching goal to provide LPG access to 50% of Ghana's population by 2020. The RLP has not announced long-term program objectives. However, in the interim the RLP targeted a cumulative total of 170,000 LPG cookstoves to rural households by the end of 2017. As of November 2017, 149,500 rural households had received the LPG cook stoves. Our case study documents Ghana's experiences to date with LPG scale up. Methods We carried out a desktop review/document analysis of literature on the RLP. Each document was reviewed for information related to the elements of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework as it pertained to LPG promotion and adoption. In-depth interviews were held among key stakeholders in Ghana. Previously collected data from a field evaluation of the RLP was also assessed. Findings Generally, our evaluation suggests that the current form of the RLP is not achieving its stated goal. Our evaluation of the RLP in five rural communities showed that about 58% of households had never refilled their LPG cylinders nine months after the initial delivery of a filled cylinder. Only 8% still used their LPG at 18 months post distribution. Cost and distance to LPG filling stations were the main reasons for low LPG use. Beneficiaries did not exclusively use their LPG even at the initial stages when all of them had LPG in their cylinders. Ghana is currently undergoing transitions in the LPG sector including a change from the current private cylinder ownership model to a cylinder recirculation model for the distribution of LPG. There was no evidence of a well-documented implementation framework for the RLP. Conclusion Fuel cost, poor LPG access, and an inadequate implementation framework hinder the RLP implementation.
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Ghana's rural liqueed petroleum gas program scale up: A case study
Kwaku Poku Asante
, Samuel Afari-Asiedu
, Martha Ali Abdulai
, Maxwell Ayindenaba Dalaba
Daniel Carrión
, Katherine L. Dickinson
, Ali Nuhu Abeka
, Kwesi Sarpong
Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health, P.O Box 200, Kintampo, Ghana
Navrongo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health, P.O Box 114, Navrongo, Ghana
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Columbia University (CU), USA
Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado, USA
Ghana Ministry of Energy, P.O Box SD40, Cantonment, Accra, Ghana
Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, Ghana
abstractarticle info
Article history:
Received 28 February 2018
Revised 2 1 June 201 8
Accepted 25 June 2018
Available online 7 July 2018
Background: The Government of Ghana launched the Rural LPG (RLP) promotion program in 2013 as part of its
efforts to reduce fuelwood consumption. The aim of the RLP is to contribute to Ghana's overarching goal to pro-
vide LPG access to 50% of Ghana's population by 2020. The RLP has not announced long-term program objectives.
However,in the interim the RLP targeteda cumulativetotal of 170,000 LPG cookstoves to rural households by the
end of 2017. As of November 2017, 149,500 rural households had received the LPG cook stoves. Our case study
documents Ghana's experiences to date with LPG scale up.
Methods: We carried out a desktop review/document analysis of literature on the RLP. Each document was
reviewed for information related to the elements of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and
Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework as it pertained to LPG promotion and adoption. In-depth interviews were
held among key stakeholders in Ghana. Previously collected data from a eld evaluation of the RLP was also
Findings: Generally, our evaluation suggests that the current form of the RLP is not achieving its stated goal. Our
evaluation of the RLP in ve ruralcommunities showedthat about 58% of households had never relledtheir LPG
cylinders nine months after the initial delivery of a lled cylinder. Only 8% still used their LPG at 18 months post
distribution. Cost and distance to LPG llingstations were the main reasons for low LPG use. Beneciaries didnot
exclusively use their LPG evenat the initial stages when all of them had LPG in their cylinders. Ghana is currently
undergoingtransitions in the LPG sector including a change from the current private cylinder ownership model
to a cylinder recirculation model for the distributionof LPG. There was no evidence of a well-documented imple-
mentation framework for the RLP.
Conclusion: Fuel cost, poor LPG access, and an inadequate implementation framework hinder the RLP
© 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of International Energy Initiative. This is an open access
article under the CC BY license (
Rural LPG promotion
LPG scale-up
RE-AIM framework
Air pollution from the use of solid fuels for household cooking is a
top priority global risk factor for respiratory, cardio-vascular and ocular
diseases (WHO, 2017). In Ghana, where biomass fuels are the primary
cooking fuels for 70% of households, exposure to household air pollution
is responsible for 16,600 deaths and the loss of 502,000 disability ad-
justed life-years annually (Ghana Statistical Service, 2012, 2014c;
Inkoom & Crentsil, 2015). Biomass fuels also contribute to ambient air
pollution (Fullerton, Bruce, & Gordon, 2008;Ghana Statistical Service,
2014b;WHO, 2011). Thus, there is a need to promote low emission
fuelssuchasLPG(MacCarty, Still, & Ogle, 2010;WHO, 2011).
Ghana is a low middle-income country located in West Africa with a
population of about 28 million as of 2016. About 50% of the population
live in rural areas (Ghana-Web, 2013) where over 90% of households
rely on either rewood or charcoal for cooking. The Gross Domestic
Product (GDP) of Ghana was 42.7 billion US dollars in 2016 with a
GDP growth rate of 3.6% (World-Bank, 2017).
In June 2012, Ghana became the rst country to promulgate a Sus-
tainable Energy for All Action Plan, as called for by the United Nation's
Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL) program (ENERGIA, 2015).
Among other things, the plan emphasized the importance of clean en-
ergy for cooking. Ghana's SEforALL plan also called for LPG cylinder
Energy for Sustainable Development 46 (2018) 94102
Corresponding author.
E-mail address: (K.P. Asante).
0973-0826/© 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of International Energy Initiative. This is an open access article under the CC BY licen se (
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Energy for Sustainable Development
recirculation as a model for the distribution of LPG to accelerate the rate
of uptake of LPG for cooking (Energy-Commission, 2012a).
The objective of this case study is to document Ghana's scale up of
LPG. We focus on the Ghana Ministry of Energy's Rural Liqueed Petro-
leum Gas program, (RLP) a key element of Ghana's plan to expand LPG
access to 50% of Ghana's population by 2020 (Petersson, 2016). We also
assess ongoing efforts to restructure the LPG sector around a cylinder re-
circulation model. This change is still in the planning stage, so its rami-
cations cannot yet be observed.
Ghana is both a producer and importer of LPG. In 2017, about 36% of
Ghana's total LPG supply was produced in Ghana and around 64% was
imported (Energy-Commission, 2017b). To achieve a 50% nationwide
LPG use, Energy Commission of Ghana estimates at least 450,000 t of
LPG will be required by 2020 based on an estimated population of 31
32 million (Energy-Commission, 2017a). LPG is distributed by about
42 LPG marketing companies to about 641 gas relling stations across
the country. These relling stations serve customers who carry their
empty cylinders to the gas relling stations to get them relled
(IMANI, 2017).
Historical background of LPG promotion in Ghana
LPG Promotion program
LPG promotion has a long history in Ghana. The Government of
Ghana, as part of its efforts to reduce deforestation, embarked on an
LPG promotion program in 1989 under the Ministry of Energy
(Morden-Ghana, 2011). The main objective of the program wasto foster
wider use of LPG as a substitute for charcoal and rewood for cooking;
health was not a stated objective (Ahunu, 2015). The LPG promotion
program also sought to improve LPG access via existing LPG distribution
networks nationwide, to increase LPG safety awareness through educa-
tional campaigns, and to promote local manufacturing of LPG cylinders
and accessories (Ahunu, 2015). The LPG promotion program targeted
households, public catering facilities and small-scale food sellers, and
worked to improve access, affordability and availability of LPG (UNDP,
As part of the 1989 LPG promotion strategy, 14.5 kg and 5 kg LPG
cylinders were distributed freely to the public, especially in urban
areas (Acharibasam & Apatinga, 2014). Consumers who requested an
empty cylinder were given one free of cost but were required to pay
for the cost of the gas. In order to consistently supply consumers with
LPG, the Ministry of Energy devised an LPG delivery strategy by pur-
chasing and assigning pick-up trucks to registered private individuals
to retail LPG (Edjekumhene, Atta-Owusu, & Ampong, 2007;Energy-
Commission, 2012b). The trucks operateda door-to-doorLPG delivery
service, mainly in Accra. The door-to-door services involved on-the-
spot relling of LPG cylinders to households from the haulage truck.
However, the practice exposed both the end-users and the retailers to
danger because there were no adequate safety measures in place as
the haulage trucks served people in residential areas. This practice
was therefore banned. (Edjekumhene et al., 2007). The fate of the haul-
age trucks after the ban is undocumented but they are likely to have
been remodeled for other purposes. The LPG promotion program was
extended to schools, hospitals and prisons. The Ministry of Energy
installed free LPG cylinders and equipment for these institutions
(Energy-Commission, 2012b).
To enhance LPG access in rural areas, nancial incentives were pro-
vided through the Unied Petroleum Price Fund scheme to motivate
transporters who traveled to rural locations outside a radius of 200 km
from the LPG production center in the coastal area of Ghana (Ahunu,
2015). In spite of the Unied Petroleum Price Fund scheme, penetration
of LPG in rural areas was not encouraging. Out of the 6% of households
in 2004, and about 9% in 2005 using LPG as their primary source of fuel
for cooking, 70% lived in the largest cities of Ghana-Greater Accra and
Ashanti regions (Kemausuor, Obeng, Brew-Hammond, & Duker, 2011).
Only 3% of households in rural areas used LPG as of 2012 (Ahunu, 2015).
As part of its efforts to sustain LPG use, the Ministry of Energy cre-
ated an LPG fund that was nanced by levies from LPG purchases
(Edjekumhene et al., 2007). The Fund was used to purchase and main-
tain cylinders, LPG tanks and kitchen equipment for Government of
Ghana institutions (schools, hospitals and prisons). It was also used to
nance the local component of the cost of constructingthe Ghana Cylin-
der Manufacturing Company factory in Accra with additional support
from the Government of the Republic of South Korea (Edjekumhene et
al., 2007).
The LPG Levy was removed in 1998, and an LPG subsidy was intro-
duced for domestic users to help households to meet their demand at
an affordable price. However, the purpose of the LPG subsidy was
defeated when taxis and other commercial vehicles switched to LPG
fuel because of the price difference between LPG and other transport
fuels such aspetrol. The use of LPG as fuel for cars increased the demand
leading to frequent shortages of LPG. This caused some households,
schools and other public institutions to revert to the use of charcoal
and rewood for cooking or at least as back-up fuels (Energy-
Commission, 2012a).
The Ghana Cylinder Manufacturing Company Ltd. (GCMC) was
established in 1998 to produce affordable LPG cylinders and accessories
(Edjekumhene et al., 2007;GCMC, 2017). This also served to standard-
ize cylinders, regulators and other LPG accessories (Ahunu, 2015;
GCMC, 2014). Following this, a second cylinder manufacturing plant
Sigma Gas Ghana Ltd. was established in Accra. In 1995, three relling
stations were built in coastal and northern areas of Ghana to improve
LPG access and distribution to various parts of the country
(Acharibasam & Apatinga, 2014). Despite these advances, limited stor-
age and distribution capacity throughout the country, combined with
use of LPG as a vehicle fuel, led to intermittent severe nationwide short-
ages of LPG.
In 2010, theGhana Energy Ministry's Energy Sector Strategy and De-
velopment Plan included a target of 50% LPG access by 2015. This was to
be achieved through the development of LPG infrastructure, the injec-
tion of millions of new cylinders in the market, and pricing incentives
to encourage distributors to expand their operations to rural and de-
prived areas. The following measures were earmarked for implementa-
tion (MoE, 2010):
Speed up the establishment of a natural gas processing plant to pro-
duce LPG from the associated gas to be produced from the Jubilee
Oil and Gas Field. It is estimated that 10,000 barrels (1340 t) a day of
LPG could be produced from the gas from the Jubilee Field;
Re-capitalize GCMC to expand production capacity. The production of
cylinders will focus on relatively small size (4 kg and 6 kg) cylinders
that will be affordable to households in rural communities;
Construct LPG storage and supply infrastructure in all regional and
district capitals in the long term. In the medium term, it is intended
to develop district capital LPG infrastructure.
However, as of 2015, the goal of expanding LPG access to 50% of
Ghana's population had not been achieved. LPG use for 2013, the most
recent year for which we have data, was 22.3% (Energy-Commission,
2016). Of the measures outlined above, only one was implemented:
the establishment of the Ghana National Gas Company to build and op-
erate a Natural Gas Processing Plant in the Western Region (Energy-
Commission, 2012a). The 2012 SEforALL Action Plan postponed the tar-
get of achieving 50% access by ve years, to 2020. In February 2013, all
subsidies on petroleum products, including LPG, were removed to
help the Ghana government restore scal stability after exceeding its
budget by nearly 100% in 2012 (Cooke, Hague, Tiberti, Cockburn, & El
Lahga, 2016;Reuters, 2013). The focus of LPG promotion was turned
to the free distribution of small size cylinders to rural communities
the Rural LPG Program.
95K.P. Asante etal. / Energy for Sustainable Development 46 (2018) 94102
The rural LPG promotion program
The Rural LPG Promotion Program (RLP) the focus of this case
study is an expansion of Ghana's 1989 LPG Promotion Project. The
LPG Promotion Project achieved some success in terms of increase in
tonnage of LPG consumed nationwide from a little over 5000 t per
annum in 1989 to over 50,000 t in 2000 and 178,400 t by 2010. This not-
withstanding, theprogram made littleimpact on the rural areas because
of its focus on urban areas (Energy-Commission, 2012a). The RLP was
launched in November 2013 (ENERGIA, 2015)inGaru-Tempanainthe
Upper East Region of Ghana to contribute to Ghana's overarching goal
to expand LPG access to 50% of Ghana's population by 2020
(Petersson, 2016).Under the RLP there is a heightened effort to promote
LPG in ruralareas where half of Ghanaianslive and where the use of bio-
mass fuel is nearly universal (IMANI, 2017).
The RLP is coordinated by the Ministry of Energy together with
various stakeholders, including the Ghana National Petroleum Au-
thority (NPA), the Energy Commission of Ghana, Bulk Oil Storage
and Transporters Company (BOST), GCMC, and the Ghana National
Fire Service.
According to the Ministry of Energy, selection of districts for RLP
implementation is based on the presence of a local LPG rell station
and district-specic levels of deforestation. Within each district,
RLP coordinators meet with the District Assembly to identify rural
communities for distribution. The Government of Ghana provides
6 kg LPG cylinders, single burner stoves and the rest of the equip-
ment (hose and regulator) free of charge. The LPG cylinders and
stoves are produced by GCMC. In each district, about 2000 to 4000
LPG cylinders and cookstove are expected to be distributed and
households are expected to procure LPG from local vendors within
the districts (Energy-Commission, 2012a).
The selection of LPG beneciary households is a collaboration be-
tween the district assemblies and focal persons within the communities
(district assembly nominated assemblymen, community volunteers, or
opinion leaders in the communities). The focal person in each commu-
nity is tasked by the district assembly to list potential beneciaries who
are interested in LPG use and are able to pay an initial amount of GHC
22.00 (USD 5) for the lling of the LPG cylinder.
The cylinder recirculation model
In October 2017, there was an explosion at an LPG relling station in
the Legon neighborhood of Accra, Ghana. The explosion left seven dead,
and over 130 injured (myjoyonline, 2017;TheGuardian, 2017). After
years of similar incidents, the Ghanaian government decided it was
time to intervene. The Presidentannounced a series of initiatives to im-
prove safety standards for LPG lling stations nationwide, led by the Na-
tional Petroleum Authority (Arthur-Mensah, 2017;Mubarik, 2017). The
primary focus is a shift to cylinder recirculation (Akoloh, 2017;Mubarik,
2017). In practice, this system means that consumers will no longer
own their own cylinders, but instead will purchase LPG in pre-lled cyl-
inders. The LPG cylinder recirculation model, along with planned im-
provements in LPG storage and distribution, has the potential to
increase access to safe and cost-effective LPG use. Instead of a few
hundred small lling stations, the policy will likely result in thou-
sands of retailers served by a small number of industrial-scale lling
stations. The full implementation of the cylinder recirculation policy
was scheduled to start at the beginning of 2018 after the challenges
encountered during the initial stages in 2017. During the sensitiza-
tion, some stakeholders including the LPG marketing companies
and LPG tanker drivers raised concerns that the implementation of
the policy would put them out of business. The draft LPG policy
was then recalled for further consultations with all relevant stake-
holders, especially the LPG marketing companies and LPG tanker
drivers (Akoloh, 2017).
Methods, sources and approach
We reviewed literature on the RLP and on Ghanaian LPG sector poli-
cies, drawing on peer reviewed papers, newspaper accounts, and ofcial
documents from the Government of Ghana and other institutions. In-
depth interviews were held among key informants in Ghana. The
interviewed stakeholders were purposively selected based on their role
in the RLP. The interviewees included 2 personnel from the Ministry of
Energy who are responsible for RLP implementation, 1 from Bulk Oil Stor-
age and Transporters Company, a government owned company that is re-
sponsible for transporting LPG in bulk, and 1 from the Ghana Chamber of
Bulk Oil Distributors, a representative body of Bulk Oil Distribution
Companies. The documents and interviews were analyzed for informa-
tion related to the elements of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Imple-
mentation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework (Glasgow, Vogt, &
Boles, 1999) as it pertained to LPG promotion and adoption.
Previously-collected data from an evaluation of the RLP in ve rural
communities in the Nkoranza North District in the Brong Ahafo Region
of Ghana wasanalyzed (Kintampo Health Reasearch Centre, 2016). This
evaluation used a cross-sectional mixed methods design to evaluate the
RLP between November 2015 and October 2016. Focus Group Discus-
sions (FGD) were conducted among women who were primary cooks
(beneciaries and non-beneciaries of LPG), and male household
heads from beneciary households (Kintampo Health Reasearch
Centre, 2016). The study assessed the use of traditional three stone
re stoves and LPG stoves before and after the delivery of the LPG stoves
among 200 randomly selected primary cooks. Data oncarbon monoxide
(CO) exposure of the primary cooks was collected using Lascar EL-USB-
CO data loggers (Lascar Electronics, London, UK) in the same sample.
Forty eight (48) hour CO exposure levels experienced by primary
cooks were measured in four surveys: before LPG was distributed (base-
line) and after the LPGwas distributed (months three, six and nine post-
distribution). The mean age of the 200 respondents was 39 (standard
deviation 12.5) and over 91.5% of them were agricultural farmers.
Over 60% (61%) of the respondents had large household sizes of be-
tween 5 and 9 household members (Kintampo Health Reasearch
Centre, 2016). Interactions with human subjects were approved by
the Institutional Ethics Committee at Kintampo Health Research Centre
in Ghana and Columbia University's Institutional Review Board in the
Reach refers to the number of people and percentage of the target
population affected by the RLP. It also includes the extent to which the
individuals reached are representative and include those most at risk.
The total number of households in Ghana as at 2010 was 5,467,136
(Ghana Statistical Service, 2012). In 1990, use of LPG for household
cooking was about 1% in the whole country and b1% in rural areas. Ac-
cording to the most recent national data, this has increased to about
22% and 6% in 2014 respectively (Fig. 1).
In 2014, wood (37%), charcoal (33%) and LPG/natural Gas/biogas
(24%) were the most commonly used cooking fuels (Fig. 2). Urban
households were much more likely to use LPG (37% vs 9%) or charcoal
(42% vs 21%) compared to rural households. Overall, 70% of households
use solid fuel for cooking, i.e., charcoal, wood, straw, shrubs, grass and
agricultural crops, and animal dung. A higher proportion of rural house-
holds use wood for cooking compared with urban households (66%
vs13%) (Ghana Statistical Service, 2014b).
Beyond the overarching 50% national target, the rural LPG program
has not made public long-term program objectives. As an interim goal,
RLP targeted a cumulative total of 170,000 LPG cookstoves to rural
households by the end of 2017. As at November 2017, 149,500
(87.6%) rural households had received the LPG cookstoves in 108
96 K.P. Asante etal. / Energy for Sustainable Development 46 (2018) 94102
districts within the period. Only 2000 (14.4%) out of 13,882 households
(Ghana Statistical Service, 2012, 2014a) received LPG cylinders and
cookstoves in the Nkoranza North District where we evaluated the pro-
gram. These numbers are small relative to district populations. The RLP
aims to cover more than the 217 districts of Ghana. Though the popula-
tion reached is rural, beneciaries were selected in part based on their
ability to pay 5 USD for the initial 6 kg LPG ll. This in effect selects
against the poorest members of the beneciary communities.
Effectiveness refers to a measure of effects, including positive, nega-
tive, and unanticipated consequences of the RLP. The current form of
the RLP is not promoting anything close to effective and sustained impact
based on our data on exclusive LPG use from the Nkoranza communities
(Kintampo Health Reasearch Centre, 2016). In a sample of 200 LPG recip-
ientsacrosstheseve communities, all 200 recipients continued to rely
primarily on wood fuels for cooking nine months after LPG distribution.
In the ve communities, the program did not demonstrate an effec-
tive change in personal CO exposures (Fig. 3). We did not evaluate ef-
fects on deforestation or other program objectives, but given the low
rates of LPG use, meaningful impacts are unlikely. Our surveillance in
the ve Nkoranza communities did not reveal any unintended or ad-
verse consequences of the program.
Adoption refers to the number and percentage of people participat-
ing, the extent to which participants are representative of the broader
population, and barriers to adoption. In the RLP, initial adoption is auto-
matic for program participants. In evaluating the subject of adoption
within the RE-AIM framework, however, we interpret adoption to
mean sustained use of LPG.
The RLP is being rolled throughout the country in phases. Early
phases ofthe program include districts that were selectedbased on pov-
erty levels as per the Ghana Living and Livelihood Standards and
Ghana's Energy Commission report on access to LPG and increase deple-
tion of forest (Ghana Statistical Service, 2014c;Kintampo Health
Reasearch Centre, 2016). In the review of data from the 5 Nkoranza
communities, there was the perception of political inuence in the se-
lection of some of the beneciary districts, and that political consider-
ations worsened during the 2016 election year.
The LPG cookstoves were distributed based onpolitical afliation. My el-
der sister is a member of the ruling governments' political party so she
got one. When I asked her, she said it was true, I was told that, even if
I was a party member who does not openly show my party afliation
[]. That is why I did not to get one (FGD, LPG non-beneciary).
Nine months after distribution, 58% of the 200 LPG beneciary
households had never relled their 6 kg LPG cylinders after the initial
2.2 4.1
0.3 0.6 1.5
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025
LPG use for household cooking (%)
Whole country Urban Rural
Fig. 1. Percentage ofpopulation usingLPG for household cooking in Ghanaover time, with
the dotted lineindicating the neededtrajectory for a 50% target(Ghana StatisticalService,
1992, 2000, 2008, 2014c). Note: The historical data (19922014) is primary fuel use as
reported in household surveys. We interpret the 50% target to mean that 50% of
households regularly use LPG.
Fig. 2. Types of primary fuel use for cooking in rural and urban households in Ghana (Source: Ghana Statistical Service, 2014b). Note: Unlike Fig. 1, LPG is combined with natural gas in this gure.
97K.P. Asante etal. / Energy for Sustainable Development 46 (2018) 94102
ll; 24% of had relled once, 10% had relled twice, and about 9% had
relled three or more times. It is also important to note that the LPG
beneciaries did not exclusively use LPG for cooking even at the initial
stage of the evaluation when they had LPG in their cylinders
(Kintampo Health Reasearch Centre, 2016). In follow up surveys in the
Nkoranza communities, only 8% of respondents still used LPG 18
months after distribution of the cylinders. This nding was corroborated
in focus groups, in which participants reported relying on traditional
three stone res and coal pots, and by low reported rell rates (as
discussed above).
Poverty is the root cause of continued use of the traditional three
stone res (Karimu, Mensah, & Adu, 2016). It is therefore interesting
to realize that the LPG subsidy was removed in 2013 when the RLP
was launched. Targeted subsidy might be helpful. Fuel wood in our
study area was almost exclusively gathered rather than purchased.
LPG, in contrast, requires a substantial cash outlay. In rural households
in Ghana, the average monthly expenditure on housing, water and
household energy is about 15 USD (Ghana Statistical Service, 2014c).
The cost of a month's supply of LPG (14.5 kg) is GHC 74.0 (approxi-
mately 16.80USD), and therefore competes keenly with other house-
hold needs. Price volatility is also high (Fig. 4). Currently the price of
6 kg of LPG is about GHC 28.00 (about 6.0 USD) compared to GHC
22.00 (5.00 USD) at the time of our evaluation of the RLP in Nkoranza.
Most of the residents in rural communities are farmers who depend
on seasonal crop yields. The seasonality of the respondent income chal-
lenges adoption and sustained use of LPG.
I also think that money for relling the gas was a hindrance. Mostly the
income we get here is seasonal. When crops are in season, it might be
easy to rell, however when the farm produce is nished that is when
the relling will stop (FGD, LPG non-beneciaries).
In the Nkoranza study communities, RLP participants had to travel
an average of 25 km (range: 2028 km) to rell their cylinders. Along
with cost, the logistics of transporting cylinders to the ling station
was commonly reported as a main barrier to the useof LPG cookstoves.
Focus group participants identied a number of benets from LPG
use as outlined below with examples of quotation from respondents.
Facilitates multi-tasking
Whilst cooking I could be doing other things. I can even wash my farm
attire, eat early and sleep (FGD, LPG non-beneciaries).
Male involvement in cooking
Before the LPG cookstoves I had the perception that cooking is for
women because going to set re to cook as a man means you don't have
a wife. For now, this perception has reduced because of the LPG cook
stove (FGD, men of LPG beneciaries' household).
Business opportunities
In some communities there were no LPG relling station and once LPG
marketing companies gets to know that there are about 2000 cylinders in
circulation in one district then they feel that this is a good way to make
money(Program Ofcer, Energy Ministry).
Fast cooking
Before the gas came, women could spend more than two hours on
cooking. But with the gas, time spent for cooking is reduced drastically be-
cause when you turn on the LPG stove, the re doesn't go down (FGD, men
of LPG beneciaries' household).
Fig. 3. A box plot showing the Log of means of CO exposure from baseline through to
month 9 (Source: Data from Kintampo Health Reasearch Centre, 2016).
Fig. 4. Historical variability in retail LPG prices in Ghana-August 2007-June 2015. Vertical line marks the end of the subsidy (Source: Ghana National Petroleum Agency, 2017a, b;current
prices) (National Petroleum Authority, 2017b).
98 K.P. Asante etal. / Energy for Sustainable Development 46 (2018) 94102
Clean cooking
Whenyoucookonathree-stonere, the cooking utensils will get dark
and makes washing of the utensils difcult. But with the gas stove, the uten-
sils still look clean after cooking they don't get dark (FGD, men of LPG ben-
eciaries' households).
Taste of food
The soup taste differently when you cook with the LPG cookstove be-
cause smoke does not get into it(FGD, men of LPG beneciaries'
Enhanced performance of school children
Instead of studying children have to go and fetch rewood after school
but it is not like that if you are using LPG cookstove (FGD men of LPG ben-
eciaries' household).
Implementation refers to the level of adherence to implementation
principles or guidelines, the extent to which selected elements are im-
plemented, and the cost.
Currently, the RLP does not have a documented implementation
plan for LPG distribution. The National Petroleum Agency is leading
the development of an overarching Ghana LPG policy document
(Akoloh, 2017). When completed, this policy will put forth an imple-
mentation plan for the RLP. While promising, this new policy frame-
work will be hindered by the fact that the RLP had not been
systematically evaluated. To date the RLP has no systematic monitoring
and evaluation component and thus no mechanism for adjusting the
program based on feedback. The Nkoranza eld evaluation described
above comprises the rst effort to assess program performance. The
Ministry of Energy has a research department responsible for monitor-
ing programs but lacks the resources to do so. There is no monitoring
and evaluation framework to guide their activities.
The original aim and structure of the RLP being implemented by the
Ministry of Energy has not changed, though the mode of operation/distri-
bution has altered. At launch, the distribution of the LPG cylinders and
cookstoves to beneciaries in designated districts was initiated with a
durbar (community meeting) to launch the program before distribution.
Currently, the launching is not being done and the distribution is done
by the district assembly (the local political administrative unit). However,
it emerged during our stakeholder interviews that there are challenges
with the current mode of distribution because after the cylinders, cook-
stoves and accessories have been delivered to the district Assembly,
there are perceptions that the local personnel sometimes share it
among their favorites. Consequently, the Ministry of Energy is evaluating
the possibility of returning to the original mode of eld operations and
distribution of LPG by the distribution team from the Ministry.
Maintenance refers to how individuals or interventions continue to
exhibit the desired changes; how changes are maintained; or how
new barriers to use is prevented or mitigated. In the review of the RLP
and interviews, the following potential promoters or barriers to the pro-
grams maintenance were identied.
Lack of spare parts for stoves
We observed that study participants did not have access to spare
parts for stoves and the accompanying hardware. Anecdotally, this
caused a small number of households that were initial enthusiastic
users revert to fuelwood after experiencing minor damage to stove
parts. The lack of spare parts may also pose a safety risk if RLP house-
holds continue to use stoves with faulty parts.
Monitoring and evaluation
The research and statistics directorate of the Ministry of Energy car-
ies out monitoring and evaluation activities periodically to check if the
purpose for which beneciaries were given the stoves is being fullled.
This indicates commitment to ensure the RLP is monitored to meet its
objectives. However, the directorate indicated its willingness to collab-
orate with other research institutions to strengthen its research activi-
ties and in particular to evaluate stove use by beneciaries. The
SEforALL program has a regular newsletter (Energy-Commission,
2017c) that outlines the number of stoves distributed by the program
but does not report on stove use. Theneed for collaboration in monitor-
ing and evaluation was emphasized as below.
It will be great to collaborate with you (Kintampo Health Research
Centre), share experience and support each other in the conduct of re-
search especially in the areas of writing proposals, data management
and analysis and report writing(Respondent, Ministry of Energy).
Diversied sources of LPG supply
LPG supply is produced from diversied sources thus limiting the
risk of monopoly and inadequate fuel supply (MoP, 2016). LPG is pro-
duced by the Ghana Gas Company as a byproduct during the processing
of natural gas to lean gas for electricity generation. LPG is also imported
into the country by private individuals and companies. Currently there
are about 23 LPG importers in Ghana in addition to the Ghana Gas Com-
pany (CBOD, 2017). This diverse set of sources including domestic
production is a core strength of the sector.
Implementation of LPG cylinder recirculation model
In Ghana, discussions on the recirculation model dates back to 2010
(Energy-Commission, 2016) but the urgency to get it into policy for im-
plementation gained momentum in October 2017, after a gas explosion
at a relling station in Accra that led to loss of lives and properties
(Abdul-Hamid, 2017). The Government of Ghana through the NPA is
in the nal stage of stakeholder engagement to implement the LPG Re-
circulation model(or LPG Cylinder Exchange Model). In this model,
consumers will pay an upfront deposit for an initial cylinder and subse-
quently pay for only the LPG (Energy-Commission, 2012a;National
Petroleum Authority, 2017a). This model is likely to improve the safety
of LPG cylinders as LPG retailers will be held to quality standards. The
shift to recirculation is also expected to result in a sharp uptick in the
number of LPG distribution points.
Political will to continue the implementation of RLP
In spite of the change in political party in charge of government in
2017, the current administration appears committed to continue the im-
plementation of the RLP and to streamline it where necessary. This was
clearly captured in the 2018 budget and the Government is developing
new strategies such as implementation of the recirculation model and
commissioning of new cylinder relling stations (Ofori-Attah, 2017).
Risks to sustainability
Inadequate funding for the program
Though the Ghana Government is committed to RLP, there is cur-
rently inadequate funding to support the program.
Government is quite challenged when it comes to funding. The ministry
has the plan to do this on a larger scale but this is all subject to the
99K.P. Asante etal. / Energy for Sustainable Development 46 (2018) 94102
amount of money that ministry of nance has at its disposal for the RLP.
Lobbying to get funds has always been a challenge (Respondent, En-
ergy Ministry).
The LPG compensation margin derived from LPG price build-up is
the only dedicated source of funding for the program. The levy imposed
on LPG is Ghp10/kg (USD 0.02) which translates into an increase in ex-
pump price by 4% (ACEP, 2016). The margin in the LPG price build-up
works against the purpose of access and affordability since it in turn in-
creases the end user price of LPG.
Inadequate LPG relling station
The 50% LPG penetration target for 2020 is unlikely to be achieved
given the limited number of relling stations nationwide especially
the three northern regions of Ghana (Fig. 5), limited supply and
Fig. 5. Location of 641 LPG relling stations in Ghana (based on Ministry of Energy 2017 Data).
100 K.P. Asante et al. / Energyfor Sustainable Development 46 (2018) 94102
distribution infrastructure and the limited total storage capacity and
coverage which constrains distribution and access. Though there has
been increase in the number of relling stations in the three northern
regions of Ghana from 2011 to 2017 they are still inadequate. Within
this period, the number of relling stations has increased from 6, 4, 3
(Mensah, Kemausuor, & Brew-Hammond, 2014) to 13,9 and11 in the
Northern, Upper west and Upper East regions respectively. It is antici-
pated thatthe shift to the cylinder recirculation model may help address
this issue.
Delay in production by the Ghana Cylinder Manufacturing Company
The Ghana Cylinder Manufacturing Company is the only company
manufacturing and supplying LPG cylinders to the RLP. It is sometimes
unable to meet the RLP's demand for LPG cylinders due to delay in the
importation of raw materials for production.
There are delays in receiving raw materials because they are imported
and a lot of bureaucracies are involved to get them to the factory for
production. Consequently, there are production challenges at the Na-
tional level and sometimes the distribution team gets ready but do not
have the cylinders to go for distribution (RLP Programs Ofcer, Energy
Our case study documented Ghana's RLP. Our ndings suggest that
the RLP is not contributing enough to Ghana's overarching goal to ex-
pand LPG access to 50% of Ghana's population by 2020 considering the
low number of LPG cookstoves distributed and the few number of recip-
ients who actually use the LPG stoves.
Recipients of LPG cookstoves are not able to sustain the use of the
LPG because of nancial constraints (Karimu et al., 2016) accentu-
ated by an income seasonality. The beneciary's inability to sustain
the use of LPG is abundantly clear in our data from the ve Nkoranza
communities, where only 8% of RLP beneciaries were still using
their LPG stoves 18 months after delivery and where none of the
study participants reported switching to LPG as a primary fuel. Fi-
nancial constraint was a barrier to sustained use of LPG because ben-
eciaries were mainly farmers who depend on seasonal crop yields
and thus lack regular source of income to support LPG purchases. A
caveat is in order however: these communities may not represent ef-
fectiveness of the RLP nationally. Further evaluation is needed to un-
derstand how adoption and effectiveness vary across the country
especially after the cylinder recirculation model is implemented. Re-
lated to the issue of nancial constraints and LPG pricing is the LPG
compensation margin which is used to fund the RLP. The margin in-
creases the price of LPG.
Effective scaling up of programs requires the systematic use of evi-
dence and it is essential that data from implementation monitoring is
linked to decision making throughout the scaling up process. A key suc-
cess factor for scaling up programs is the importance of establishing
monitoring and evaluation systems (Milat, Bauman, & Redman, 2015).
The Energy Ministry has a Research and statistics department but this
unit lacks the human and infrastructure resources to monitor the pro-
gramme. As part of the general monitoring activities of the ministry's
projects, the unit visits few beneciaries to ask if they are still using
their LPG stoves. These activities are not systematically carried out
based on protocols but rather random administrative checks. The re-
search ndings from the evaluation of the program in Nkoranza will
(Kintampo Health Reasearch Centre, 2016) will be useful in this regard.
Beyond systematic useof evidence and M&E in the program scale up,
the program must revisit the strategies required for LPG scale up in
Ghana spelt out in the 2010 Energy Sector Strategy and Development
Plan (MoE, 2010). One of the strategies was the establishment of a Nat-
ural Gas Processing Plant to produce LPG. Though the Ghana Gas com-
pany was established in 2011, it is yet to produce the estimated 70% of
Ghana's LPG needs. In 2017, about 36% of Ghana's total LPG supply
was produced in Ghana. Effort must be put in place to increase domestic
production to make LPG more accessible. On the issue of supply infra-
structure BOST operates depots that are strategically spread across the
country including Greater Accra (Tema), Volta, Akosombo, Buipe in
the northern region and Bolgatanga in the Upper East region. Though
the long term goal is to construct LPG storage and supply infrastructure
in all regional and district capitals, there is the need to increase the
number of LPG lling stations nationwide, especially the three northern
regions of Ghana.
The Ghana Cylinder Manufacturing Company is the sole manufac-
turer of cylinders for the RLP. GCMC does not have the capacity to pro-
duce enough cylinders and accessories for distribution. It is therefore
important for the Ghana government to fast track the recapitalization
of the Ghana Cylinder Manufacturing company to facilitate production
of LPG cylinders or engage the private sector to participate in the cylin-
der manufacturing (IMANI, 2017). This should be done in an effective
certication and regulatory environment to attract the interest of pri-
vate investors to invest in the industry. The government could also pro-
vide incentives for the importation of cylinders to augment those
produced locally during the recapitalization process. This will support
fast distribution of the LPG cylinders and increase the potential for
adoption. Additionally, the government may need to invest in infra-
structure expansion, particularly investment in cylinders to achieve
Ghana's target LPG use of 50%.
In terms of health benets, we did not nd a signicant relationship
between LPG use and CO exposure, which comes as no surprise given
low usage rates. Continued use of 3-stone res by neighbors who
don't benet from the program may also attenuate the benets of use
even in those households that do completely switch to LPG (Pope,
Bruce, Dherani, Jagoe, & Rehfuess, 2017). Stove stacking may be inevita-
ble, but in our surveys, beneciaries have returned to the exclusive use
of wood fuel mainly because of nancial constraints and the fact that
fuel wood was gathered rather than purchased.
Fuel cost, poor LPG access, and an inadequate implementation
framework hinder the RLP Ghana's overarching goal to expand LPG ac-
cess to 50% of Ghana's population by 2020. This implies that some nan-
cial aid might help. The implementation of the cylinder recirculation
model could ease access to LPG.
The authors are grateful to all respondents and to Kintampo Health
ResearchCentre, Ghana Health Service, Ministry of Energy, National Pe-
troleum Authority, Nkoranza North District, and Columbia University.
We also acknowledgeadvice and input fromthe Global LPG Partnership.
The contents of this report are the sole responsibility of researchers in
Kintampo Health Research Centre and Columbia University and do not
necessarily reect the views of NIH, USAID, the United States Govern-
ment, the NPA or the Ministry of Energy.
This work was supported in part through the Clean Cooking Im-
plementation Science Network (ISN) with funds from the United
States NIH Common Fund program for Global Health. Daniel Carrión
is funded by NIH T32ES023770 and NIH P30 ES009089 helped sup-
port exposure assessment efforts. The Nkoranza eldwork was sup-
ported by The United States Agency for International Development
(USAID) under cooperative agreement no. GHS-A-00-09-00015-00
funded Translating Research into Action, TRAction; the project team
includes prime recipient, University Research Co., LLC (URC), Har-
vard University School of Public Health (HSPH), and sub-recipient
research organizations.
101K.P. Asante et al. / Energy for Sustainable Development 46 (2018) 94102
Conict of interest
The authors declare no conict.
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... Previous evaluation of the RLPGPP in Ghana is scant. Asante et al. [7] used data collected from late 2015 to 2016 from five communities in the Nkoranza North District and revealed that the RLPGPP had not achieved its stated goal in the district. The study showed that more than half of beneficiaries had not once refilled their cylinders in the nine months after they received them, while less than 10% of beneficiaries in those communities were still using LPG about 18 months after the program's implementation in their communities. ...
... The study showed a 23% increase in the likelihood of using LPG as main fuel among beneficiary households. The studies of Asante et al. [7] and Adjei-Mantey et al. [4] on the RLPGPP in different districts show mixed results. As these studies are based on evaluations of specific districts, an assessment of the program using nationwide data is necessary to draw firm conclusions about the program's impact. ...
... Although some studies explore the impact of similar programs in developing and emerging market economies [ 6 , 10 , 14 , 18 , 24 ], there is little evaluation of the policy at the nationwide level. The studies of Asante et al. [7] and Adjei-Mantey et al. [4] on the RLPGPP in different districts show mixed results. As these studies are based on evaluations of specific districts, an assessment of the program using nationwide data is necessary to draw firm conclusions about the program's impact. ...
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Transition to cleaner cooking fuels is a key challenge for sustainable development. This study evaluates the spill�over impact of a program that distributes liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) cylinders and accessories for free on cooking fuel choice and poverty alleviation in Ghana. We construct a district-level dataset based on the Ghana Living Standards Surveys 6 and 7, collected before and after the program implementation, respectively. Using difference-in-differences combined with matching techniques, we find that the program had no significant spill�over impacts on primary household cooking fuel; LPG use did not increase and firewood use did not decrease among rural households in treated districts. However, there is a possible association between the program and poverty reduction in treated districts, and the likely channel is investments in refill stations. The results suggest that the program should refine its implementation strategy to yield substantial effects on cooking fuel choice. In addition, implementing the program with the right infrastructure in place could increase the benefits associated with it.
... Automatic Motivation was particularly linked to LPG (14% of drivers). This was mostly because of taste preferences 26,28,[32][33][34][35] , such as food perceived to taste generally unpleasant on LPG 29 or specific dishes tasting better on traditional stoves, such as beans 36,37 and rotis 38,39 . Concern about general safety issues was common for LPG 32,33,[40][41][42] and was exacerbated by poor-quality equipment, such as rusting cylinders 34 . ...
... Financial constraints were most substantial for LPG, specifically the price of fuel being too high (AFF_1) and income constraints (AFF_2), which were often interrelated. Root causes of income constraints included absence of regular sources of income 43,44 , seasonal income fluctuations 37 and households rationing LPG because they could not afford to buy more fuel 33,37,39,45,46 . The travel cost of purchasing fuel was also a frequent barrier for LPG (SUP_4), specifically the high financial cost of transportation to fetch refills 41,43,47,48 or the distance and therefore effort requirement 36,40,42,46,49,50 . ...
... Financial constraints were most substantial for LPG, specifically the price of fuel being too high (AFF_1) and income constraints (AFF_2), which were often interrelated. Root causes of income constraints included absence of regular sources of income 43,44 , seasonal income fluctuations 37 and households rationing LPG because they could not afford to buy more fuel 33,37,39,45,46 . The travel cost of purchasing fuel was also a frequent barrier for LPG (SUP_4), specifically the high financial cost of transportation to fetch refills 41,43,47,48 or the distance and therefore effort requirement 36,40,42,46,49,50 . ...
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Globally, 2.8 billion people cook with biomass fuels, resulting in devastating health and environmental consequences. Efforts to transition households to cooking with clean fuels are hampered by ‘fuel stacking’, the reliance on multiple fuels and stoves. Consequently, there have been few interventions that have realized the full potential of clean cooking. Here we conduct a structured literature review (N = 100) to identify drivers of fuel stacking and specify them according to a psychological model of behaviour, the Capability–Opportunity–Motivation (COM-B) model. We create a taxonomy of stacking and find that the Physical Opportunity domain accounted for 82% of drivers. Our results have important implications for intervention design as they suggest improving opportunity is the most effective pathway to adoption of cleaner fuels. The findings are used to derive recommendations about how policymakers and practitioners can proactively address drivers of stacking to foster adoption of clean cooking stoves and fuels. Realizing the full potential of clean cooking transitions requires an understanding of fuel stacking in which multiple fuels and stoves are used. Towards this end, Perros et al. analyse the literature on clean cooking interventions through a behavioural model and identify underlying drivers of stacking.
... Most energy policies and programs implemented to boost the usage of clean fuels and technologies for cooking in SSA have failed or have been ineffective because of partisan politics and poor planning and implementation, which are symptoms of weak governance. For instance, evidence suggests that under Ghana's Rural Liquefied Petroleum Gas Program (RLP) in 2013, LPG cookstoves were distributed based on political affiliation (Asante et al., 2018). ...
There is a global effort toward reducing or eliminating dirty fuels and technologies for cooking due to their severe health, environmental and economic implications. Reducing dirty energy usage requires an effective transition toward clean fuels and technologies for cooking. Effective governance and financial systems are needed to hasten the transition toward clean fuels and technologies for cooking. However, not much is known empirically about the role of access to credit and governance in the transition towards clean cooking technologies, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This study, therefore, utilizes the two-step-dynamic system generalized method of moment estimator to investigate the effect of access to credit and governance on the adoption of clean cooking technologies in SSA. The findings indicate that access to credit and governance variables do not facilitate clean cooking technologies usage. The conditional analysis also reveals that the governance variables moderate the effect of access to credit to impede the adoption of clean fuels and technologies for cooking. The findings indicate that economic growth, education, and rural population drive the adoption of clean cooking technologies. Sensitivity checks show that the effect of access to credit and governance on clean fuels and cooking technologies usage differs among income and regional groups within SSA. We, therefore, argue that better financial and governance systems are required to hasten the transition toward clean fuels and technologies for cooking in SSA.
... The implication is that any policy that targets clean cooking is more likely to have a greater impact in femaleheaded households than in male-headed ones given equal levels of education. For example, studies have shown that Ghana's recent clean cooking intervention, the Rural LPG Promotion Program has not yielded significant impacts on fuel choices (Adjei-Mantey & Takeuchi, 2019;Asante et al., 2018). Accordingly, it is expected that targeting FHHs for interventions such as this will likely lead to significant impacts. ...
Cooking, an important household activity is often done using heavy polluting fuels by a majority of households in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA). In this study, we examine how the choice of cooking fuel affects women empowerment using nationwide household level data from Ghana. We examine whether fuel choices could lead to women’s social and economic empowerment. By employing the Survey-based Women Empowerment Index (SWPER) and Principal Component Analysis to construct comprehensive indices of women empowerment, we find that using clean cooking fuel has significant positive associations with women empowerment across all domains and could consequently help reduce inequality to the advantage of women. Other socioeconomic factors such as household size and wealth were found to significantly determine women empowerment status. Both clean cooking fuel use and the reduction of social and economic inequalities are important targets to be met under the Sustainable Development Goals.
... Unlike the other LPG Promotion programs, the CRM is a diverse means of distributing the LPG product to anyone at any place. As stated in the words of K.P. Asante et al (2018), "instead of a few hundred small filling stations, the policy will likely result in thousands of retailers served by a small number of industrial-scale filling stations." In 2014, an evaluation by Global LPG Partnership (GLPGP) of LPG demand in the Greater Accra Region in Ghana showed that 83% of the recipients of the investigation, with low LPG patronage, prioritized the closeness to LPG refilling plant as a solution to their low LPG patronage (GLPG, 2014). ...
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The pursuit for cheap, productive and environmentally friendly energy resources has advanced over the years. This has resulted in an increment in the demands and needs for energy which testifies to the direct impact energy has on the economic growth of a country. In 1990, the Government of Ghana established the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Promotion Program to encourage the citizens to switch from wood fuel to LPG as an initiative to deal with the domestic cooking energy crises. The program received good feedbacks from the citizens; however, due to the numerous issues it posed, the program was ceased. In spite of the failure of the LPG Promotion Program, there was a massive progress in LPG usage in urban areas. This led to the Rural LPG Promotion Program (RLP), an initiative launched by the government in 2013, to improve access in the rural areas. There has been improvement in the RLP; however, fuel cost and an inadequate implementation structure hinder the program's success. In view of the above, this paper seeks to identify and examine the opportunities and the challenges the LPG Cylinder Recirculation model, a program yet to be launched, brings to the promotion of LPG in the nation. Some opportunities identified include; reduction in the health and environmental problems associated with LPG service stations operations, less cost on citizens to repair damage or leakage in cylinders, reduction in explosions at LPG service stations and job creation. However, some challenges identified include; lack of enough cylinders for the program and negative effect on the businesses ofthe LPG marketing companies and LPG tanker drivers. It is therefore recommended that for the LPG Cylinder Recirculation Model to achieve its objective, the Ghana Cylinder Manufacturing Company (GCMC) should be renovated for production to increase the quantity of cylinders and even repair damaged ones and talks should be held between government and the LPG marketing companies on how best the LPG marketing companies can be involved in the policy. Much work will be required to make this upcoming program productive and sustainable.
... 11 In the past, efforts to minimize the prevalence of HAP in Ghana have included the implementation of extensive LPG distribution and adoption initiatives. 12 Despite this, adoption rates are low, and just 22% of Ghanaian families cook with LPG. 10 In developing nations like Ghana, where clean cooking is primarily limited to LPG, there are considerable barriers to the adoption and exclusive use of clean cooking fuels and technologies, despite the fact that the diversity of clean cooking fuels and technology has increased. ...
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Background: 76% of the population in Ghana uses solid fuels as their primary source of cooking energy, including 41.3% firewood and 31.5% charcoal. Consequently, household air pollution (HAP) continues to be the leading risk factor for the majority of illness burden in the country. In the past, aggressive LPG distribution and adoption schemes have been implemented to reduce HAP in Ghana. Nevertheless, just 22% of Ghanaian households utilize LPG for cooking. Aims. The purpose of this study was to determine the viability and acceptability of four clean fuels among rural households in central Ghana, both separately and in combination. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to conduct this study. The Kintampo Health Demographic Surveillance System was used to randomly pick ten homes who exclusively utilized biomass fuel. For each family (n = 10), we gave four stove and fuel combinations that were both clean. The stoves were utilized for two weeks, and free fuel was supplied. After each two-week trial period, interviews were conducted to gauge stove acceptance, with an emphasis on finding the specific energy requirements that each stove satisfied. Conclusions. LPG and ethanol stoves were the most popular among rural families, according to our data. In comparison to Mimi Moto and electric induction stoves, the two stoves were favoured because they were easier to use and clean, cooked faster, were deemed safer, and enabled a variety of cooking styles. Participants’ stove preferences appear to be primarily influenced by two domains: 1) realizing the benefits of clean stove technology and 2) overcoming early anxiety of clean stove use, particularly LPG.
... Certainly, Ghana is one of the West African countries with high per capita fuelwood demand (Anang et al., 2011), with the annual per capita fuelwood consumption gauged to reach 25.0 million cubic metres by the year 2020 (Torell et al., 2015). As a result, the country has been ranked as having the highest rate of forest depletion in West Africa (Amoah et al., 2015), in that about 90% of households in Ghana rely on fuelwood and charcoal as a renewable source of bioenergy (Asante et al., 2018). ...
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Fuelwood continues to be the leading energy source for rural and urban dwellers, creating competition between domestic and commercial fuelwood users in Ghana. This competition has carved a market niche for people to engage in the fuelwood trade as a source of livelihood. The study aimed to describe the marketing outlets of fuelwood, determine the most efficient fuelwood marketing outlets, and examine the factors influencing the choice of fuelwood marketing outlets in the Dormaa Municipality of Ghana. Primary data was collected using a structured questionnaire administered to a sample of 200 fuelwood harvesters drawn from eight communities that harvest fuelwood for sale using the multistage sampling method. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logit regression were used in analysing the data. The study revealed that open forest is the main source of fuelwood for trade. Further, selling fuelwood directly to the end-users (outlet I) is the most efficient marketing outlet among the four marketing outlets identified in the study. The significant variables influencing the choice of fuelwood marketing outlets were level of education, processing of fuelwood before sales, cost of transporting fuelwood, the quantity of fuelwood harvested weekly, and the nature of the road. These findings provide immense guidance to fuelwood market actors in terms of market outlet selection decisions and the need for rural infrastructure improvement. It is recommended that fuelwood traders should endeavour to own the splitting and cutting tools to minimise processing costs and maximise profit since splitting and cutting costs constitute the highest marketing cost. The marketing of fuelwood should be formalised by the Forest Service Division (FSD) in collaboration with the Municipal Assembly and encouraged to establish woodlots for fuelwood. This will forestall any future invasion of the forest reserves for fuelwood for marketing.
... For instance, in Ghana, the latest national survey, Ghana Living Standards Survey VII, shows that about three-quarters (74.64 per cent) of households still use biomass cooking fuels as their primary choice. Recent research further points out that the policy to promote LPG usage in rural areas has no suggestive effect in shifting 1 from biomass fuels to LPG use in some areas (Asante et al., 2018;Adjei-Mantey and Takeuchi, 2019). Empirical studies in India also suggest that the use of biomass cooking fuels persists despite the program to subsidize cleaner cooking fuel use (Malakar et al., 2018;Gupta et al., 2019). ...
Cleaner cooking is an important policy objective in the bid to achieve sustainable development. Despite efforts to encourage cleaner cooking fuel use, biomass fuel is still widely used in many developing countries. This study investigates the role of behavioral factors, particularly risk aversion, in the choice of cooking fuels in Ghana. In addition, we investigate how the improvement of supply infrastructure and services mitigates the impact of risk preferences in fuel choices. By employing data from the recent round of the Ghana Living Standards Survey, we find that risk-averse households are less likely to choose liquified petroleum gas as their cooking fuel. However, the effect is mitigated for households located in districts with more supply infrastructure. Additional analyses reveal the influence of risk and time preferences in other household behavior.
Background: Existing efforts to promote cleaner fuels have not achieved exclusive use. We investigated whether receiving 12 months of free liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and behavioral support could motivate continued purchase and use. Methods: The Cardiopulmonary outcomes and Household Air Pollution (CHAP) trial enrolled 180 women. Half were randomly assigned to an intervention group, which included free LPG delivered in months 1-12 followed by a post-intervention period in which they no longer received free fuel (months 13-24). For the purposes of comparison, we also include months 1-12 of data from control participants. We tracked stove use with temperature monitors, surveys, and observations, and conducted in-depth interviews with 19 participants from the intervention group at the end of their post-intervention period. Results: Participants from the intervention group used their LPG stove for 85.4 % of monitored days and 63.2 % of cooking minutes during the post-intervention months (13-24) when they were not receiving free fuel from the trial. They used a traditional stove (fogón) on 45.1 % of days post-intervention, which is significantly lower than fogón use by control participants during the intervention period (72.2 % of days). In months 13-24 post-intervention, participants from the intervention group purchased on average 12.3 kg and spent 34.1 soles (10.3 USD) per month on LPG. Continued LPG use was higher among participants who said they could afford two tanks of LPG per month, did not cook for animals, and removed their traditional stove. Women described that becoming accustomed to LPG, support and training from the project, consistent LPG supply, choice between LPG providers, and access to delivery services facilitated sustained LPG use. However, high cost was a major barrier to exclusive use. Conclusion: A 12-month period of intensive LPG support achieved a high level of sustained LPG use post-intervention, but other strategies are needed to sustain exclusive use.
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Ghana adopted LPG policy intervention as a recipe for dealing with the domestic cooking energy crises. Since the 1990s, Ghana has made several efforts to promote the usage of LPG as a domestic source of energy with the intention of curbing the problems posed by fuelwood and charcoal production to the vegetation in the country. Drawing from only secondary sources of data for the paper, it has been realized that, there has been an increase rather in demand for fuelwood and charcoal. The aim of this paper is to examine the policy and the way forward especially now that Ghana may be extracting her own natural gas.
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To maximise the impact of public health research, research interventions found to be effective in improving health need to be scaled up and delivered on a population-wide basis. Theoretical frameworks and approaches are useful for describing and understanding how effective interventions are scaled up from small trials into broader policy and practice and can be used as a tool to facilitate effective scale-up. The purpose of this literature review was to synthesise evidence on scaling up public health interventions into population-wide policy and practice, with a focus on the defining and describing frameworks, processes and methods of scaling up public health initiatives. The review involved keyword searches of electronic databases including MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EBM Reviews and Google Scholar between August and December 2013. Keywords included 'scaling up' and 'scalability', while the search terms 'intervention research', 'translational research', 'research dissemination', 'health promotion' and 'public health' were used to focus the search on public health approaches. Studies included in the review were published in English from January 1990 to December 2013 and described processes, theories or frameworks associated with scaling up public health and health promotion interventions. There is a growing body of literature describing frameworks for scaling health interventions, with the review identifying eight frameworks, the majority of which have an explicit focus on scaling up health action in low and middle income country contexts. Key success factors for scaling up included the importance of establishing monitoring and evaluation systems, costing and economic modelling of intervention approaches, active engagement of a range of implementers and the target community, tailoring the scaled-up approach to the local context, the use of participatory approaches, the systematic use of evidence, infrastructure to support implementation, strong leadership and champions, political will, well defined scale-up strategy and strong advocacy. Effective scaling up requires the systematic use of evidence, and it is essential that data from implementation monitoring is linked to decision making throughout the scaling up process. Conceptual frameworks can assist both policy makers and researchers to determine the type of research that is most useful at different stages of scaling up processes.
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The study simulates the welfare implications of the fuel subsidy reform carried out in early 2013 and the required scaling up of cash transfers to mitigate the impact of the subsidy removal on poor households in Ghana. Approximately 78 per cent of fuel subsidies benefited the wealthiest group, with less than 3 per cent reaching the poorest quintiles. We find that the removal of the fuel subsidies, by causing an increase in prices, results in a negative impact on household welfare. The negative effect is worst for the poorest group who experience reduction in their total consumption of 2.1 per cent. The simulation estimates that the poverty rate rises by 1.5 percentage points leading to an additional 395,180 individuals being pushed into poverty.
he aim of this paper is to identify the factors that influence the probability of adopting LPG as the main cooking fuel in Ghana using household level data gleaned from last two nationwide household surveys (GLSS 5 & GLSS 6). Using a flexible semi-parametric specification, the following were uncovered. First, we find socioeconomic and demographic factors such as income, education, access to urban infrastructure, and location of household, as key drivers of households’ choice of LPG as main cooking energy source. Again the influences of these factors are stable across time, and with a strong price effect. The evidence shows that urban households with better socioeconomic and demographic factors are likely to adopt LPG as the main cooking fuel relative to households in rural areas and also urban households with poor socioeconomic and demographic factors. Finally, we observe that the imposition of fully parametric structure (functional form) prior to estimation on factors such as age of household head, income, and household size as done in the literature is inappropriate, at least in the case of Ghana and tend to bias the marginal effects. There is strong evidence of variations in the response rate of LPG adoption over the domains of income, household size, and the age of the household head. The results suggest a policy dichotomy between rural and urban dwellers for it to be effective
Background 2.8 billion people cook with solid fuels, resulting in almost 3 million premature deaths from household air pollution (HAP). To date, no systematic assessment of impacts on HAP of ‘improved’ stove and clean fuel interventions has been conducted. Objective This systematic review synthesizes evidence for changes in kitchen and personal PM2.5 and carbon monoxide (CO) following introduction of ‘improved’ solid fuel stoves and cleaner fuels in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Methods Searches of published and unpublished literature were conducted through databases and specialist websites. Eligible studies reported mean (24 or 48 h) small particulate matter (majority PM2.5) and/or CO. Eligible interventions were solid fuel stoves (with/without chimneys, advanced combustion), clean fuels (liquefied petroleum gas, biogas, ethanol, electricity, solar) and mixed. Data extraction and quality appraisal were undertaken using standardized forms, and publication bias assessed. Baseline and post-intervention values and percentage changes were tabulated and weighted averages calculated. Meta-analyses of absolute changes in PM and CO were conducted. Results Most of the 42 included studies (112 estimates) addressed solid fuel stoves. Large reductions in pooled kitchen PM2.5 (ranging from 41% (29–50%) for advanced combustion stoves to 83% (64–94%) for ethanol stoves), and CO (ranging from 39% (11–55%) for solid fuel stoves without chimneys to 82% (75–95%) for ethanol stoves. Reductions in personal exposure of 55% (19–87%) and 52% (− 7–69%) for PM2.5 and CO respectively, were observed for solid fuel stoves with chimneys. For the majority of interventions, post-intervention kitchen PM2.5 levels remained well above WHO air quality guideline (AQG) limit values, although most met the AQG limit value for CO. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses did not substantially alter findings; publication bias was evident for chimney stove interventions but this was restricted to before-and-after studies. Conclusions In everyday use in LMIC, neither ‘improved’ solid fuel stoves nor clean fuels (probably due to neighbourhood contamination) achieve PM2.5 concentrations close to 24-hour AQG limit values. Household energy policy should prioritise community-wide use of clean fuels.
Providing access to modern energy services for development is a daunting task which requires rigorous planning based on robust information. Energy access indicators enable measurement and monitoring of the progress of energy access expansion efforts, thus informing corrective efforts and efforts worth replicating. This paper reviews what has been proposed to constitute energy access and energy access indicators. The paper further reviews briefly the different types of energy access indicators and analyses access to modern energy in Ghana as measured using the energy access indicators employed in Ghana. The paper concludes that Ghana has achieved commendable access to modern energy services compared to her sub-Saharan peers but recommends further efforts to achieve the set targets of universal access to electricity by 2020 and 50% access to LPG by 2020. The paper finally recommends further work on the different types of indicators which are relevant for tracking energy access progress but are not currently employed in the country.
Improved cooking stove projects in the developing world have the potential to reduce deforestation, improve health, and slow climate change. To meet these requirements, stoves must be carefully designed through thorough testing and verification of performance. The systematic investigation of the heat transfer and combustion efficiency of stove design in the laboratory sheds light on what technologies work best and helps to ensure that stoves being disseminated are truly a significant improvement over traditional cooking methods.