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On an Anomalous Piece of Scientology Ephemera: The Booklet Scientology and the Bible

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On an Anomalous Piece of Scientology Ephemera: The Booklet Scientology and the Bible. The article scrutinizes the booklet Scientology and the Bible (1967), reconstructing the historical circumstances of its publication as well as analysing its potential for interreligious dialogue.
Temenos Vol. 53 No. 1 (2017), 113–42© The Finnish Society for the Study of Religion
On an Anomalous Piece of Scientology Ephemera:
The Booklet Scientology and the Bible1
STEFANO BIGLIARDI
Al Akhawayn University
Abstract
The article scrutinises the booklet Scientology and the Bible (1967),
reconstructing the historical circumstances of its publication as well
as analysing its potential for interreligious dialogue.
Keywords: Scientology; Scientology and Christianity; Scientology and
the Bible
The teachings on which Scientology is based are contained in a wealth
of publications directly produced, or strictly supervised, by its founder
  
with remarkable creativity and productivity. While Scientology is coming
under increasing scrutiny by NRM scholars, who try not only to study Sci-
entology from a sociological perspective but also to scrutinise its theories

detail, revealing conceptual shifts over time as well as analogies between

-
 
other than the founder, which currently have second-class status and are


change or variation. An especially intriguing case is the booklet Scientology
and the Bible, which dates from 1967. This small publication appeared during a
       
   -
formants. As always, fellow scholars Donald Westbrook and Bernard Doherty provided me
with precious materials, contacts, and insights for which I am most thankful. Bernard inspired
Scientology and the Bible ‘a fascinating piece of Scientology

 
generous support from FIIRD in Geneva. I dedicate this article to the students and colleagues


STEFANO BIGLIARDI
114
particularly problematic time for Scientology and is credited to seven authors
or compilers, one of whom is reported to have died in the year prior to its
publication. The booklet addresses the analogies between Scientology and

The analogies between Scientology and other religions, as well as Scientol-
-

aspiration to be recognised not only as a religion in its own right but also as a

Scientology and the Bible

knowledge and of God. The second discusses the question of whether Scientol-


   
Scientology
and the Bible by focusing on its structure, declared sources, and concepts. The
-
tion provided by several informants. In the eighth I try to reconstruct, in the
Si im Leben, i.e. its role at the time
of its publication and the possible reasons that prompted its production. The
conclusions contain some hypotheses as to why the booklet is no longer in use,

Some observations should be added about what prompted me to write the
present essay and the method followed in the investigations that provided
the material for the seventh section, which is instrumental for the conclusions
Scientology and the Bible while conducting a simple


booklet was (and still is) mentioned and displayed in several discussion groups
with disparaging tones. It struck me as intriguing by virtue of three elements:
the enigmatic cover illustration, its multiple authorship, and its subject. I soon
realised that precise and reliable data about its production and circulation were




the derogatory remarks. I decided to produce the academic paper I would
Scientology and the Bible, i.e. an
 115

circulated, but also assessing its content: how was the booklet structured, and
was it well-argued, clear, and convincing? What could be guessed about the


decided to put derogatory comments within brackets and to read the booklet
with an open mind, i.e. by charitably assuming it had been the result of a



on the accounts of informants. A special problem emerged as to potential

members and members (and obviously in this case, they had to be selected

character of Scientology, any response to scholarly queries, including those



well as the very initiative of writing it, and so on. Scientologists interested


fact that (as I realised at an early stage) the booklet never became a central
2 It should also be remarked

-
enced in the present essay, all fall under the (broad) category of authors hostile to Scientology,



  


caveats considered, these works still constitute a useful starting point



a work is generally hostile does not necessarily mean it is not well-researched. Atack (who
is also a former, long-serving Scientologist) especially supports his claims with a system of

facts they recall) is also dis-


STEFANO BIGLIARDI
116
that secrecy plays an important role in Scientology (which is, as we will see,

has undergone a process of détente only in relatively recent times, and that
a single member, although eager to interact with a researcher, might at the
same time be afraid of being reproached by higher-ranking members for
having disclosed too much information.
The variables involved are subtle and numerous. To this we should add
general and commonsensical caveats-
curately recall events that occurred half a century ago. Well aware of these
challenges, I decided to consult with representatives of both groups in order
to strike a balance, given that they had served in the movement for long
   






I formulated my question as neutrally as possible: ‘Do you happen to
recall any information concerning the production and circulation of the
1967 booklet Scientology and the Bible

informants to add their opinion, which eventually happened. I decided to

at face value, i.e. not to challenge them on any factual points or opinion
(unless they stated blatant contradictions or inaccuracies, which was never
the case). In the case of the Australian informant I did not insist on get-

information than the informant was willing to share. For all these reasons
all such information is provided in the form of a direct quotation from my
3 This Scientologist also preferred to remain anonymous, a
lead to critical discussion and presentation, not to their rejection altogether. It is also highly
disputable that academic reconstructions are completely free of any bias or self-censorship,


authors in the present essay. I have principally mentioned passages from such monographs
       
any case passages in which such authors are clearly trying to be as objective as possible (e.g.
when Miller criticises the Anderson Report). I also complement such reference with mention


the sources concerning Scientology (especially the Sea Org) and of their respective biases see
also Melton 2001 no. 60.

to all who are interested.
 117
wish I respected.4 In the light of all such choices and provisos, it is my hope
that my readers will still appreciate the information concerning a booklet

will be able to form their own opinion both as to the circumstances of its
production and its content.
Dianetics, Scientology, and the concepts of soul and God

 
after the Second World War, and which he organised into a method called
Dianetics       



Dianetics claims that the human mind is impaired by engrams, mnemonic

divided into two parts. The passive one, where engrams are accumulated,
is called reactive, and is opposed to the active, or analytical
16). Through a procedure called auditing
performed with the help of a device called an E-Meter (Electropsychom-


-


 
  -

      
generally) as inhumane and abusive, and they have since remained a
      
-
ing, inventing, and implementing their own variants of Dianetics (Wallis

being the incorporation of three new organisations in December 1953 in
        

in general) are used, especially in the evaluative sections, is entirely mine.
STEFANO BIGLIARDI




movement as a religion.
Where doctrine is concerned the birth of Scientology (according to



thetan-




are absorbed in a grand narrative whose details are gradually revealed
to Scientologists according to their advancement on the path of improve-
  -

the advancement through auditing are elaborated in great detail together
with hierarchies, auditing procedures, and prices. Before an individual

pre-clear. A liberated individual is described as clear
Operating Thetan or OT, and is

-

thus became entangled in their own creations). Scientology also contains
tone levels

Another relevant theory concerns the eight dynamics or dimensions
of survival
and aspire to continue their lives, the eighth being the Supreme Being or

webpage answers the question of whether Scientology has a concept of
  




        
 119
concerning God that it imposes on its members. As with all its tenets, Sci-

knowledge of God is presented as a supreme achievement on the Bridge:
Accordingly, only when the Seventh Dynamic (spiritual) is reached in
its entirety will one discover and come to a full understanding of the

(Scientology 2015a).
Dianetics, Scientology, and religion
Some remarks should be added regarding the shift from Dianetics to Sci-
entology, and the current relationship between the two sets of doctrines.
-



-
ogy relationship and transition. From a historical perspective the Dianetics
-
subjects, the


       
and techniques of Dianetics appear in the OT levels. Wallis writes that the
developments in the ideology and organisation

-


and other innovators of theory and practice (Wallis 1976, 77).
-
new (and specic, as opposed to independent, practice)
identity can be considered as two sides of the same coin. Their interaction
is open to discussion, and ultimately depends on a judgement of the sincer-

lives could well stem from his genuine conviction of having made a major

STEFANO BIGLIARDI
120

5
-
tal inevitably leads to the important (and enduring) question of whether

-


recognise Scientology as a religion or takes for granted that the answer is


this sense, even by its standards, Scientology is a religion, but a special one.

   
recalls in detail both the reasons advanced by the advocates of the position,

religious turn, and the reasons Scientology should be considered a religion.

states why Scientology is ultimately a religion sui generis, and he proves able
  


  
‘led him quickly into metaphysics and speculation about areas beyond the


Thus Scientology has found itself in the middle. […] In developing an orga-

church, but one that looks unfamiliar to those used to churches and temples
which house other more well-known religious groups […]. Believers and crit-

-
bard] sold his rights to Dianetics to Don Purcell [a business man who initially supported him],

 

  
-

 121



their nuances. Such questions must be touched on here, although of course
via me-
dia, although I am aware that this approach will probably disappoint both

conceptual and organisational shifts are strictly intertwined. In the absence
-
duced new teachings in a purely instrumental and opportunistic vein, the

we are discussing the relationship (and analogies) between Scientology and

 does contain a theory
including concepts (such as God and spirit), narratives
development and destiny), and prescriptions (such as the behaviour to be
embraced in this life) that is shared with, or analogous to, religions in general

and his followers to advance these concepts, narratives, and prescriptions.
    
perspective rather than to guess the reasons for their emergence.
Christian signs and Christ narratives
     
        
ones. Scientology adopted among its symbols a cross, currently to be seen
on major buildings, that shows eight arms. These arms are said to symbol-
ise the above-mentioned eight dynamics. Auditors began wearing white,


-
bard also established ceremonies, such as Sunday services, weddings, and
funerals that, analogously to similar ceremonies in other religions, mark

 

-
STEFANO BIGLIARDI
122

of an impression of familiarity.
Over time, and with the emergence of interfaith concerns on a global
scale, Scientology strove to present itself as one religious interlocutor


 

spiritual leaders have been hanged, reviled, misinterpreted, badly quoted,
have not been at all comprehended, but nevertheless, they are the hands
   


wisdom, of information, generation to generation. It was handed along
geographical routes and one of those geographical routes was the Middle
East. And one of the people who handed it on was a man named Moses.

-
    
   






-

reached the level of Operating Thetan VIII testify that they were assigned
inter alia, he referred to


to be. In addition to being a lover of young boys and men, he was given to
uncontrollable bursts of temper and hatred (…). It is historic fact and yet
man still clings to the ideal, so deep and insidious is the biologic implanting
(reported in Ortega 2014).
 123


thetans in ancestral times with deceiving images or false memories, includ-
  
A Piece of Blue Sky: ‘In

-

The Anderson Report 
          
-
Certainty Magazine, Vol. 5,

-


 The Ability   
Bare-Faced Messiah



The Class VIIICourse


   
or something, but since that time they have used it and it became what is

man on the cross is shown as Everyman. So of course each person seeing a

sic
for that, one is the Roman Empire was prone to crucify people, so a person



     L.
Ron Hubbard, Messiah or Madman?

STEFANO BIGLIARDI
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


In the light of these last observations one can consider Scientology as

-


   
necessarily whet the blades of those who maintain that Scientology is not
-
ibility and observations concerning doctrinal analogies invariably emerge
   lato sensu), in which diplomacy must be favoured

-
Apollo lecture). Indeed, when two religious messages confront each

  
        
often eagerly underscored in interreligious dialogue both by Muslims and

and his supremely symbolic and theologically central death on the cross
– statements that present a major theological challenge to interreligious


Scientology jargon
In listing the factors that determine the survival of a new religious move-
ment, Rodney Stark states that it should bear enough resemblances to



clearly detected in the language of Scientology. On the one hand, cultural
continuity is mainly represented by the above-mentioned terminology and
    
   
that create a special, dense Scientology jargon. They can be newly created

 125
 -
amples among thousands.
-
tology studies: the insistence and focus on terminology and on its correct

which reads:
In reading this book, be very certain you never go past a word you do not
fully understand. The only reason a person gives up a study or becomes
confused or unable to learn is because he or she has gone past a word that
was not understood.
The confusion or inability to grasp or learn comes AFTER a word the per-

unusual words you have to look up. Some commonly used words can often


fact in the whole subject of study. Every subject you have taken up and

Therefore, in studying this book be very, very certain you never go past a
word you do not fully understand. If the material becomes confusing or





passages and illustrated in detail, which is an important element of Scien-

Hubbard and Scientology, 1965–7
Scientology and the Bible was published in 1967. No period in the history of
    
years prior to it were surely not.
         -
      
STEFANO BIGLIARDI
126

  

-


rivalled those of major corporations. Of the 300 to 400 crew members, some

    

This was the start of several years of prosperity for the movement. We
read in Messiah or Madman       


  

the authorities. In the Australian State of Victoria a Board of Inquiry was
established in response to a Member of Parliament who had sought a ban
on Scientology. The result was the above-mentioned Anderson Report. In
the words of Russell Miller:
In October 1965, the Australian Board of Inquiry into Scientology published

heard evidence from 151 witnesses and then savagely condemned every

to guess at what was to follow:
‘There are some features of Scientology which are so ludicrous that there
may be a tendency to regard Scientology as silly and its practitioners as
harmless cranks. To do so would be gravely to misunderstand the tenor of

   



-
mination to undermine Scientology, Anderson completely ignored the fact
that thousands of decent, honest, well-meaning people around the world

 127

6


ecstatic crowd of Scientologists who cheered noisily when he announced his

The Report seriously questioned his sanity, describing him as delusional,


even beginning the hearings, and making several unpleasant comments

    

therefore ungrateful. Despite this, he stated, he would continue ‘helping


-



    -

In December 1965 the Australian State of Victoria passed the Psychological
Practices Act, outlawing Scientology. On 7th February 1966 Lord Balniel MP,





    -




     



-


STEFANO BIGLIARDI



-
tion was to protect the organisation, gathering information about agencies
and individuals who might constitute a threat to the church. It was headed



Scientologist who started auditing after an operation for his stomach can-

          








Zimbabwe), where Prime Minister Ian Smith and his cabinet had issued a








     


   


received an enthusiastic welcome. The Rhodesian enterprise resulted in a

-

formulated a new and secret plan. In September 1966 he formally stepped
 129

organised to survive without him. On 12th August 1967 he launched the Sea



-

The Sea Org initially comprised four ships: the Diana, the Athena, the
Apollo, and the Excalibur   

Apollo).

by former members as characterised by blatant disrespect for basic human
rights, with onerous chores and food deprivation for Scientologists deemed
guilty of various failures.
Based on land, the Sea Org remains a core, upper-level institution of

‘work long hours and live communally with housing, meals, uniforms,




Scientology and the Bible
Scientology and the Bible
contain the customary Glossary of Dianetics and Scientology terms). The
cover displays a white drawing on a black background of a long-haired,


or as a representation of a fatherly God (the white hair makes it unlikely



(translations from the Authorised Version).
The title is repeated on the second page, where there is also an interesting



STEFANO BIGLIARDI
130

Penberthy, and that the booklet was published by the Department of Pub-
lications World Wide.
      


Scientology is a religion in the oldest sense of the word, a study of wisdom.
Scientology is a study of man as a spirit, in his relationship to life and the
physical universe. It is non-denominational. By this is meant that Scientol-
ogy is open to people of all religious beliefs and in no way tries to persuade

spiritual being…
The fourth page provides the reader with some further insights into the
  
-

the booklet was printed by Southern Publishing in Brighton.
More importantly, there is also a dedication: ‘IN MEMORIAM. To Katie




-







booklet displays the same structure but is entitled ‘Similarities between the
  

   
Confessions
Sermon on Passion Sunday (undated), On Christian Doctrine (397
The City of God Sermon on the 4th Sunday in Lent
 131
Summa Contra Gentiles 
column on the right a quotation from the Proslogion



Catechism, Articles of Religion, the Apostles’ Creed, the
Athanasian Creed
Science of Survival
  
The Auditor
-

tenets of Dianetics and Scientology, and the ethics of the auditors and of
Scientologists in general.
The parallels are presented as self-evident. Indeed, there are occasional


with Proverbs 15: ‘A soft answer turneth away wrath. But grievous words




-
 
-

Psalm 32, which starts with ‘Blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven,
   


It should be noted, however, that the passages are not always paired
one to one. Sometimes a long quotation in the left column is paired with a
short one in the right, and vice versa. In two cases lengthy quotations in the
right column, from Proverbs, Ruth, Psalms, Ecclesiastes, and the Gospels,
are presented without being paired with any quotation from Hubbard, but we
only read, in the corresponding left-hand column, the headings ‘On the


(p. 44). The scriptural passages are sometimes repeated, i.e. identical ones
STEFANO BIGLIARDI
132


   




         
Scientology sources. In a 1967 issue of The Auditor Worldwide Katie Steele is


Auditor, and she is described as ‘an early old-time Scientologist who did the
major work on the drawing up of parallels between Scientology as a religion
7
Indeed, Scientology and the Bible is not the subject of much serious discus-
sion or reference on the internet. The only discussion of any depth is that


Scientology and the Bible are set up in parallel columns with this objective.

-




Messiah or Madman? that such stays
      -
mous) has provided me through the web site Operation Clambake


proved somewhat weak. ‘Familysearch has: Name Dorothy G Penberthy Event Type Marriage
 -
 

     
  
     
  




 133
-

Informants

Ask the Scientologist
Around that time, there were a few secondary books being produced by
Scientologists. Ruth Minshull wrote a number of them, ‘Miracles for Break-
  

the same time. I think there might have been others. Initially they were
welcomed and some even showed up in some Scientology bookstores. Some


banned, at least from the bookstores. I believe the authors were called into

any more (private communication, 3rd October 2015).





   
sold in the church bookstores. Some of these books were even considered by



Initially, he just forbade church bookstores from carrying such books but then




Bible (private communication, 11th October 2015).
STEFANO BIGLIARDI
134
Leaving Scientol-
ogy



repairing and restocking meters. They were Aussies. The name Margaret

familiar to me (private communication, 17th October 2015).
Similar questions were posed to a lifetime Scientologist in Australia, well-




some information to provide to you. All the others have passed away. She

  
all from Melbourne, Australia and wrote in [sic

had moved underground as it was illegal to practice Scientology or use the
word, but it had never stopped and was spread around Melbourne in various


England (private communication, 13th March 2016).
Some more investigation followed and the informant eventually wrote:
     
worked on this research. She said that she did the research but was not
aware it had been published and had not ever seen the published booklet.
  
and they had seen the booklet in the late 1960s, but only in passing like
     
and a lot of people from that time have passed away, so the story is lost to


Katie Steele so could not shed any light on that entry in the booklet. She
 135
had already left Melbourne for England. So I have hit a dead end on that

Scientologists compiled the passages. There was at that time misunderstand-
ing about Scientology in Melbourne. Scientology, quite unfairly, was seen


struggling as a whole with the rapid change that was taking place in the 60s
and the emergence of new ideas. It was a volatile time in general (private
communication, 24th March 2016).
Discussion
The booklet Scientology and the Bible has some features seemingly unparal-
       






dimensions probably made for cheap production and easy distribution, so
one can suppose that the pamphlet could be used for proselytism.
-


-


mindset. Its use of columns was perhaps suggested by the synoptic gospels,
but it is also the most intuitive one for anyone who wants to (literally) pair


  
       





STEFANO BIGLIARDI
136


   
central topic, some correspondences are left completely obscure, and even


 
the above-mentioned Apollo lecture.
Reading Scientology and the Bible is like being confronted with the out-
come of an autonomous rumination penned quite spontaneously and hast-
ily printed, a tip of an iceberg whose supporting and greater part remains

inspiring theology, even embryonic or simplistic, would be disappointed.



knowledge or sophistication, unless we believe that they were randomly

that interestingly, and in latent tension with the reference to Anglicanism,




-
nation of such features. It is as if Scientology and the Bible



and glue them together in a publication that was not further coordinated or

identical because of the repetition in the column of biblical materials. Thus,
 

was published and it did


still ask: what was its Si im Leben, that is, its precise function when it was
released? It is possible that the death of the mother of one of the compilers
 137
was a decisive factor in its publication.9 There was probably a need to honour
Katie Steele and the very fact that her death happened under circumstances

and criticism of, the medical establishment may have prompted the pub-

on such a project, albeit amateurishly, without harbouring from the very
beginning the intention of publishing its outcome. Indeed, in 1966 Scientol-


happened in a country where Scientology was at the centre of a virulent


chain of command, thus allowing the authorisation of a publication like
Scientology and the Bible.
Conclusion
Scientology and the Bible
alone cannot have been a decisive factor in its prohibition or disappearance.

   

  

  
view any creative elaboration drawing on his teachings as a blow to his ego,
besides constituting a dangerous precedent of intra-Scientology creativity
(as the case of McMaster indirectly shows). Indeed, the problem was not

Advance!, which
directly addressed the continuity of Scientology with other religions (see
Bigliardi 2015). But Advance!
authors were scarcely credited, and it was not the forum in which major
      Scientology and
the Bible
  



STEFANO BIGLIARDI


the eyes of Scientologists) would be forbidden.
It should be emphasised that the idea that a work such as Scientology
and the Bible
is compatible both with the thesis of his sincerity and that which suggests
he was opportunistically introducing new teachings. In this sense this
interpretation should not be automatically thought of as instrumental to
        
inspired prophet (which, as we have seen, was technically not the case with

 
prophet is still alive can be perceived by the prophet as unnecessary and
centrality-threatening.
If one considers internal Scientology dynamics, it appears quite natu-
ral that Scientology and the Bible had a short life. Over time PR with other
religions (as well as with institutions by which Scientologists wanted to
be perceived as a religious community engaged in a dialogue with other
religious communities) was to become an increasingly important topic for

          
under the ambitious title Scientology and the Bible all we are left with today
is an anomalous piece of Scientology ephemera.
* * *

Ifrane. E-mail: S.Bigliardi@aui.ma
 139
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1950b Dianetics. The Modern Science of Mental Health
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
-


  -


     

STEFANO BIGLIARDI
140
Scholarly texts
Bigliardi, Stefano
 -
Temenos. Nordic Journal of Comparative
Religion 51-1, 95–121.
    
International Journal
of Islamic Thought
Dericquebourg, Régis
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Scientology
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htm
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
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 -
 

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
Urban, Hugh B.
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 141
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
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Atack, Jon
1990 A Piece of Blue Sky: Scientology, Dianetics and L. Ron Hubbard Exposed.

Corydon, Bent & L. Ron Hubbard Jr.
 L. Ron Hubbard: Messiah or Madman? 
Hopkins, Joseph Martin
Scientology: Religion or Racket? - Christianity Today 7th November 1969:



Miller, Russell
 Bare-faced Messiah: The True Story of L. Ron Hubbard. 
Ortega, Tony
      -
    The Underground Bunker 


 
The Underground Bunker


Sco, Perry
 -

State of Victoria
1965 Report of the Board of Inquiry into Scientology

STEFANO BIGLIARDI
142
Web pages
Operation Clambake. Undressing the Church of Scientology since 1996

Ask the Scientologist
Leaving Scientology
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Two theological claims characterizing Scientology are its continuity with older religions, and its support for religious freedom and pluralism. This article, focusing on two articles that appeared in the magazine Advance! in the 1970s as well as other pieces authored by L. R. Hubbard, analyses Scientology's narrative about Islam following Jan Hjärpe's 'basket theory'.
Article
Full-text available
Over 60 years ago, founder L. Ron Hubbard began what has become Scientology's greatest battle. Scientology emerged from Dianetics, which Hubbard hoped would replace the psychiatric profession. In this article, we discuss how Scientology attempted to position itself as a rival profession to psychiatry and the consequences of those attempts. Scientology's battle with psychiatry gained some success from the social conditions during which it emerged, but it continues in a time that has seen increasing success with various psychiatric treatments. As such, Scientology's direct influence on the psychiatric profession may be difficult to measure, but its actions have coincided with substantial challenges to psychiatry.
Chapter
This chapter examines auditing, the Church of Scientology's core practice. Hubbard postulated that the systematic application of auditing would lead the practitioner and believer to higher levels of thought revealed in the advancement of not only their cognitive abilities but major lifestyle changes that offered salvation from misery. This chapter describes the initial training phases that transform the newcomer to Scientology into an auditor. It then analyzes the auditing process and its forms, including those administered with and without the E-meter.
Chapter
This chapter examines the role of the ceremonies of the Church of Scientology. Scientology aims at personal, spiritual self-development and does not a priori need a religious service. Hubbard may, in fact, have invented these ceremonies to imitate the major confessions and denominations of the Western world and give his movement the appearance of being a religion. These ceremonies nevertheless do have a form: they contain a particular ritual and specific words, expressing a basic ideology. There are two types of ceremony: the religious Sunday service and occasions of the passage of life (naming after birth, marriage, ministers' ordination, and funerals). This chapter also examines their functions as compared to their theophilanthropic equivalent.
Article
In this essay I refine and greatly expand the scope of my 1987 theory of why religious groups succeed or fail. The initial version was limited to new religions (cult movements). This version applies to all movements, including sects. The theory now consists of 10 propositions which attempt to specify the necessary and sufficient conditions for success or failure.
Theory and Practice of a Contemporary Religion
  • Scientology
Scientology. Theory and Practice of a Contemporary Religion. Los Angeles: Bridge Publications, Inc.
The Modern Science of Mental Health
  • Dianetics
Dianetics. The Modern Science of Mental Health. New york: Paperback Library.
An Annotated Bibliographical Survey of Primary and Selected Secondary Literature
  • Ron Hubbard
L. Ron Hubbard and Scientology: An Annotated Bibliographical Survey of Primary and Selected Secondary Literature. Marburg Journal of Religion 4 (1), 1-24 URL: http://www.solitarytrees.net/pubs/li-fren. htm