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Cultural Tourism: A review of recent research and trends

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This review article traces the development of cultural tourism as a field of research over the past decade, identifying major trends and research areas. Cultural tourism has recently been reaffirmed by the UNWTO as a major element of international tourism consumption, accounting for over 39% of tourism arrivals. Cultural tourism research has also grown rapidly, particularly in fields such as cultural consumption, cultural motivations, heritage conservation, cultural tourism economics, anthropology and the relationship with the creative economy. Major research trends include the shift from tangible to intangible heritage, more attention for indigenous and other minority groups and a geographical expansion in the coverage of cultural tourism research. The field also reflects a number of 'turns' in social science, including the mobilities turn, the performance turn and the creative turn. The paper concludes with a number of suggestions for future research directions, such as the development of trans-modern cultures and the impacts of new technologies.
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Cultural Tourism: A review of recent research and trends
Greg Richards
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Volume 36, September 2018, Pages 12-21
Please refer to final version of the printed text in the journal:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1447677018300755
Abstract
This review article traces the development of cultural tourism as a field of research over the
past decade, identifying major trends and research areas. Cultural tourism has recently been
re-affirmed by the UNWTO as a major element of international tourism consumption,
accounting for over 39% of tourism arrivals. Cultural tourism research has also grown rapidly,
particularly in fields such as cultural consumption, cultural motivations, heritage conservation,
cultural tourism economics, anthropology and the relationship with the creative economy.
Major research trends include the shift from tangible to intangible heritage, more attention for
indigenous and other minority groups and a geographical expansion in the coverage of cultural
tourism research. The field also reflects a number of ‘turns’ in social science, including the
mobilities turn, the performance turn and the creative turn. The paper concludes with a
number of suggestions for future research directions, such as the development of trans-
modern cultures and the impacts of new technologies.
Keywords
Cultural tourism, tangible heritage, intangible heritage, indigenous tourism, cultural
consumption
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1 Introduction
Culture and tourism have always been inextricably linked. Cultural sights, attractions and
events provide an important motivation for travel, and travel in itself generates culture. But it
is only in recent decades that the link between culture and tourism has been more explicitly
identified as a specific form of consumption: cultural tourism.
The emergence of cultural tourism as a social phenomenon and as an object of academic study
can be traced back to the surge in post-World War 2 leisure travel. In Europe, travel helped to
increase cultural understanding as well as rebuild shattered economies. As incomes and
consumption continued to rise in the 1960s and 1970s, so did international travel, and the
consumption of culture. By the 1980s the flow of international tourists to major sites and
attractions began to attract enough attention for the label ‘cultural tourism’ to be attached to
an emerging niche market. Early academic studies of cultural tourism also surfaced at this
time, and the World Tourism Organisation (WTO, as it was then) produced its first definition of
the phenomenon. In the early 1990s the first estimate of the size of this ‘new’ market also
emerged (at 37% of all international tourism) and were attributed to the WTO, even though
Bywater (1993) comments that it was not clear how this estimate was derived.
Interest in cultural tourism continued to grow throughout the 1980s and 1990s, driven by the
‘heritage boom’ (Hewison, 1987), the growth of international and domestic travel and the
identification of cultural tourism as a ‘good’ form of tourism that would stimulate the economy
and help conserve culture (Richards, 2001). The beginning of the 1990s indicates a period of
transformation of cultural tourism which, unlike the original orientation towards elite clientele,
found a new opportunity for development in the orientation towards the mass market.
Cultural tourism became a well-established phenomenon in many tourism destinations, and
was increasingly the target of academic research. The first textbooks on cultural tourism began
to emerge (Smith, 2003; Ivanovic, 2008) and a growing range of research papers appeared,
linked to many different theoretical and methodological approaches (Richards and Munsters,
2010, Smith and Richards, 2013).
Growth in cultural tourism was also marked by fragmentation into a number of emerging
niches, such as heritage tourism, arts tourism, gastronomic tourism., film tourism and creative
tourism. Just as an expanding notion of culture had helped to stimulate the growth of cultural
tourism in the 1990s, so the fragmentation of the cultural tourism concept itself helped to
produce a surge in the proportion of publications dedicated to the field. Growth also brought
its own challenges, and by 2013 Boniface was already signalling problems with the
overcrowding of World Heritage Sites, a phenomenon that is now being linked with the idea of
‘overtourism’. The problems being encountered with the conservation of tangible heritage and
the growing desire of tourists for new experiences also helped to focus attention on the role of
intangible heritage in tourism (du Cros, 2012).
The changing nature of cultural tourism was recently brought into focus by a UNWTO Report
on Tourism and Culture Synergies (2018), which included online surveys covering 43% of
UNWTO Member States as well as 61 international experts and academics in the field. This
study confirmed the importance of the cultural tourism, with 89% of national tourism
administrations indicating that cultural tourism was part of their tourism policy. The
respondents also indicated that they expected further growth in cultural tourism in the
following five years. The research also for the first time provided empirical support for the
original estimates of the size of the cultural tourism market. This was estimated to account for
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over 39% of all international tourism arrivals, or the equivalent of around 516 million
international trips in 2017. This provides an apparent vindication of the long quoted, but
largely unsubstantiated estimate that cultural tourism accounts for 40% of global tourism
(Bywater, 1993). The crucial point, however, is how cultural tourism is defined a debate that
has raged for a long time (Richards, 1996; du Cros and McKercher, 2014; Allen, Rhoden,
Sakharchuk, Ilkevich, Sharafanova, & Pecheritsa, 2015).
Cultural tourism was also one of the types of tourism that received a new operational
definition from the UNWTO at the 22nd Session of the General Assembly held in Chengdu,
China (UNWTO, 2017: 18):
Cultural tourism is a type of tourism activity in which the visitor’s essential motivation
is to learn, discover, experience and consume the tangible and intangible cultural
attractions/products in a tourism destination.
These attractions/products relate to a set of distinctive material, intellectual, spiritual
and emotional features of a society that encompasses arts and architecture, historical
and cultural heritage, culinary heritage, literature, music, creative industries and the
living cultures with their lifestyles, value systems, beliefs and traditions.
This new definition confirms the much broader nature of contemporary cultural tourism,
which relates not just to sites and monuments, but to ways of life, creativity and ‘everyday
culture’. As the UNWTO (2018) report emphasises, the field of cultural tourism has moved
away from the previous emphasis on classic western tangible heritage towards a much
broader and inclusive field of diverse cultural practices in all corners of the world. In this sense
the new definition mirrors the development of the production and consumption of cultural
tourism, as well as the development of academic research on cultural tourism. It is impossible
in such a brief review to do justice to the increasing breadth and diversity of cultural tourism
research, but it is hoped that at least some of the main themes can be traced.
2 Major themes in the Literature
The growing body of cultural tourism scholarship is confirmed by a literature search on the
term “cultural tourism” on Google Scholar. As Figure 1 indicates, cultural tourism sources have
risen from less than 100 in 1990 to over 6000 in 2016. Growth was particularly sharp between
2005 and 2015, and cultural tourism publications have risen as a proportion of all tourism
publications, to reach nearly 5% by 2017. This growth has also been supported by a number of
flourishing sub-themes in the field. These also tend to relate to some major academic
disciplines, such as sociology, economics, anthropology and psychology. The current review
covers first some of the major research areas related to these fields, before summarising some
of the major emerging research trends. Because of the vast scope of the literature most
attention has been paid to research articles published since 2010. Other sources can provide
overviews of the literature up to this date (e.g. Smith and Richards, 2013; du Cros and
McKercher, 2014). A search of the literature reveals, however, that the current review is the
first to cover the cultural tourism field as a whole. Some of the major research themes that
emerge from our review of publications listed in Google Scholar and Scopus include cultural
tourism as a form of cultural consumption, motivations for cultural tourism, the economic
aspects of cultural tourism, the relationship between tourism and cultural heritage, the
growth of the creative economy, and the links between anthropology and cultural tourism.
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Insert Figure 1: Cultural tourism publications 1990-2016 (source: Google scholar)
2.1 Cultural consumption
Cultural tourism as a form of cultural consumption has been a particularly important topic for
sociological studies in the field. Much of this research has sought to understand the cultural
tourism audience and in particular the variation and stratification within it. Early discussions of
cultural tourism also developed a division between ‘general’ and ‘specific’ cultural tourists,
with the former consuming culture as part of a general holiday experience, and the latter
travelling purposefully to engage in some aspect of the culture of the destination (Richards
1996). This simple dichotomy was later extended to cover different typologies of cultural
tourists, based on features such as the depth and purposefulness of cultural motivation (Du
Cros and McKercher, 2014), visits to attractions and events (Pulido-Fernández and Sánchez-
Rivero, 2010), or the degree of mixing or ‘omnivorousness’ in cultural tourism behaviour
(Barbieri & Mahoney, 2010). Most such studies were designed to identify specific groups or
segments within the cultural tourism audience who might be attracted to particular types of
cultural experiences. Stylianou-Lambert (2011) undertook a qualitative study of the different
‘gazes’ in cultural tourism, showing that tourists visiting art museums perceive them in
different ways, using different types of ‘perceptual filters’ that influence their gaze. This
indicates the fairly complex nature of cultural tourism participation, which arguably requires
multi-disciplinary and multidimensional approaches to capture such complexity. Richards and
van der Ark (2013), for example, used multiple correspondence analysis to identify dimensions
of cultural consumption in cultural tourism. This indicated that holiday type and attraction
setting had a strong influence on the type of culture consumed, which suggests an important
effect of the physical context on cultural tourism behaviour. This is also in line with recent
research in the field of visitor attractions (Falk, 2011), which argues that visitor experience is
produced through a combination of visitor-related and context-related factors. Richards and
van der Ark (2013) also suggested that cultural tourists may develop a cultural ‘travel career’,
as younger visitors tend to consume more contemporary art, creativity and modern
architecture, whereas older visitors are more prevalent at more traditional monuments and
museums.
2.2 Motivation
Many studies seek to understand why people engage in cultural tourism through studies of
motivation and related factors such as satisfaction and loyalty. Many of these studies are
undertaken from a marketing perspective, but there are also close links with psychology and
consumer behaviour.
Motivation was an important issue in early studies of cultural tourism, which was defined in
terms of cultural motivation, most clearly related to learning (Richards, 1996). The original
division made between general and specific cultural motivations are still evident in recent
motivational studies. For example Galí-Espelt (2012) identifies two broad groups of cultural
tourist: tourists whose main motivation is to consume culture and those for whom culture is a
secondary motivation. She proposed categorising motivations in terms of the degree of
‘culturedness’: a combination of length of visit and a high to low cultural experience
dimension. This mirrors to some extent the categorisation of motivations suggested by du Cros
and McKercher (2014) on the basis of the ‘depth’ of desired cultural experience.
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These divisions reflect the difference between formal and more informal modes of learning.
Falk, Ballantyne, Packer and Benckendorff (2012) highlight the importance of learning in
cultural tourism experiences. Extending on these findings, Ballantyne and Packer (2011)
argued that the tourism industry has the responsibility to engage visitors in powerful and
transformative learning experiences, both during and after their visit. They suggested that the
long-term impact of a tourism experience can be significantly increased by using technology
and social networking to maintain contact with visitors after they leave the site.
A cluster analysis conducted by Özel and Kozak (2012) identified five distinct cultural tourism
motivation groups, labelled: “Relaxation Seekers,” “Sports Seekers,” “Family Oriented,”
“Escapists,” and “Achievement and Autonomy Seekers.” The division between those seeking
culture and those using it as a form of escape is also evident in the work of Correia, Kozak and
Ferradeira (2013). They identified push and pull satisfaction factors in visits to Lisbon, including
the intrinsic desire to learn about particular aspects of culture (such as Fado music) and a
search for novelty.
Motivations of cultural tourists are often linked to factors such as satisfaction and intention to
return. Chang, Backman and Chih Huang (2013) studied creative tourism sites in Taiwan, and
found that on-site tourism experience was the most influential antecedent of revisit intention.
Also in Taiwan, Lee and Hsu (2013) found that the motivation for visits to Aboriginal festivals
significantly affected satisfaction, and that that satisfaction is also the most important
predictor of loyalty (measured through intention to return).
Motivation is also increasingly linked with questions of identity. Bond and Falk (2013)
presented a theoretical model of identity-related tourism motivation, combining aspects of
both structure and agency theory. They point out that how tourists see themselves is
important in motivating cultural visits. As the relationship between the host and the tourist
culture is often crucial in cultural tourism cultural tourism motivations are also related to the
extent that people self-identify as ‘cultural tourists’ (which is often surprisingly little -
Richards, 2007).
2.3 Economic aspects of cultural tourism
Cultural tourism has long had an important economic dimension, particularly because the
income derived from tourism is argued to help support the preservation of cultural heritage. In
many cases, however, debates have emerged about the extent to which income streams
derived from tourism have reached the cultural amenities that help to attract tourists
(Richards, 2001, Russo, 2002). Many discussions of cultural tourism, particularly in emerging
economies, also revolve around the need to spread tourism geographically (e.g. Ivanovic &
Saayman, 2013).
Growing interest in the relationship between cultural tourism and economics is marked by a
recent special issue of the Journal of Cultural Economics (2017). This includes a number of
papers reflecting on issues such as the spending habits of cultural tourists in Amsterdam
(Rouwendal & van Loon, 2017) and the impact of cultural participation in destinations in
attracting cultural tourists (Guccio, Lisi, Martorana & Mignosa, 2017). In their introduction to
the special issue on “The Economics of Cultural Tourism Noonan and Rizzo (2017) admit that
little theoretical advancement has been made. The editors identify new areas of application,
such as drug tourism, language tourism, and film festivals, as well as the potential for work in
new areas—such as online ‘crowdsourcing’ and cultural conventions.
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At its heart, the distinction between cultural tourism and tourism generally may be a
false distinction…. Moving in the direction of developing more distinctly cultural
economic theories of tourism presents an important challenge to the field (p. 104).
The availability of time-series data is now making it possible to start estimating the economic
effects of cultural tourism more accurately in some destinations. Spain is a leading example, as
the surveys carried out consistently with domestic and international tourists now provide a
wealth of data to be mined. Artal-Tur, Briones-Peñalver and Villena-Navarro (2018) show the
leading role that cultural activities play in attracting long-haul and first time visitors to Spain.
These cultural tourists also tend to spend more than other international tourists, and play a
major role in supporting Spanish Museums (Ponferrada, 2015). Cisneros-Martínez and
Fernández-Morales (2015) also demonstrate the role of cultural tourism in reducing
seasonality in Andalucía. In Italy, Guccio, Lisi, Mignosa and Rizzo (2018) assess the impact of
the monetary value of cultural heritage on tourism. They find that a million euros worth of
cultural heritage generates about 1000 more cultural visitors, which underlines the strong
relationship between the regional performance of the tourism sector and cultural visitors.
Di Lascio, Giannerini, Scorcu and Candela (2011) also looked at the attractiveness of art
exhibitions for tourists in Italy. They found a positive 1-year lagged effect of modern art
exhibitions on tourism and a positive mild effect of contemporary art exhibitions on tourist
flows. They conclude that “temporary art exhibitions contribute to increase tourist flows if
they are part of a structural characteristic of a destination” (p. 239).
2.4 Cultural heritage
Heritage, particularly built and tangible heritage has long been one of the fundaments of
cultural tourism. As Timothy (2011) suggests, the definition of heritage is almost as fraught as
the discussion about cultural tourism. He sees heritage as a broad range of resources including
built patrimony, living lifestyles, ancient artefacts and modern art and culture in other words
there is little distinction between cultural tourism and heritage tourism. However, much of the
research on cultural heritage has tended to concentrate on specific aspects of heritage, such as
the destination of ‘World Heritage Sites (WHS), or debates surrounding ‘contested heritage’
consumed by tourists and others (Yankholmes & McKercher, 2015).
Frey and Steiner (2011) for example, ask whether the World Heritage List makes sense? They
argue that a World Heritage designation is beneficial only where heritage sites are
undetected, disregarded by national decision‐makers, not commercially exploitable, and
where national financial resources, political control, and technical knowledge for conservation
are inadequate (p. 555). The sense-making of designations also extends to the question
whether a WHS designation actually generates more tourism. Addressing this question in
terms of Italian domestic tourism, Patuelli, Mussoni and Candela (2013) conclude that a
designation does appear to influence domestic arrivals to tourism destinations in Italy, but that
spatial competition may reduce the positive effect by increasing competition among
destinations.
Alberts and Hazen (2010) argue that to be considered for listing as a World Heritage site,
properties must meet the conditions of “integrity” and/or “authenticity” and be of
“outstanding universal value”. However, as they note, these concepts are difficult to define
and are open to varying interpretations in different cultural settings. Jimura (2011) examines
impacts on local communities around the World Heritage Site in Ogimachi, Japan. This study
identified both positive and negative changes after WHS listing, including extensive and rapid
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tourism development after WHS inscription; the high level of appeal of a WHS status for
domestic tourists; and improvements in local people's attitudes towards conservation of the
cultural environment and WHS status.
Shin (2010) also looks at cultural heritage issues in Gwangju, Korea. It was found that the
majority of residents around the site were aware of the importance of cultural tourism and
that they argued that it could contribute to urban development. Some older residents were
unhappy with rapid growth caused by cultural tourism, whereas others saw positive effects
from the improved image of the city and strengthened community pride and ethnic identity.
Vong and Ung (2012) found that tourists experiencing heritage places in Macau were able to
learn about Macau's history and culture through on-site heritage interpretation. They
emphasise the importance of packaging heritage tourism products from a service-oriented,
customer perspective.
Much recent research has traced the widening concept of cultural heritage from tangible to
intangible heritage. Zhu (2012) analyses the marriage ceremony in the Naxi Wedding
Courtyard in Lijiang, China. This ritual arguably gives rise to a performative experience of
authenticity and offers a deep understanding of the link between memory, habitus and
embodied practice. Zhu puts forward the notion of “performative authenticity” to illustrate
this transitional and transformative process of authentication. The production of such
performative authenticity also involves an increasing amount of emotional labour from those
involved with heritage resources (Van Dijk & Kirk, 2007).
With the increasing inclusion of tangible and intangible heritage into the tourism system, more
concerns are emerging about the sustainability of heritage. Loulanski and Loulanski (2011)
undertook a meta-analysis of the literature and identified 15 factors deemed critical for the
sustainable integration of heritage and tourism, including local involvement, education and
training, authenticity and interpretation, sustainability-centered tourism management, and
integrated planning.
2.5 Creative economy
The creative economy is just one of a range of terms that have been applied to the increasing
role of creative processes and knowledge generation in the economy as a whole (Richards,
2018). The expansion of cultural tourism in the direction of intangible heritage and
contemporary culture has created more attention for the increasing integration between
tourism and the creative economy. As the OECD (2014) report on this relationship emphasised,
creative economy approaches to tourism offer the potential to add value through developing
engaging creative content and experiences, supporting innovation and helping to make places
more distinctive and attractive.
The creative industries were defined in this report as:
knowledge-based creative activities that link producers, consumers and places by
utilising technology, talent or skill to generate meaningful intangible cultural products,
creative content and experiences. They comprise many different sectors, including
advertising, animation, architecture, design, film, gaming, gastronomy, music,
performing arts, software and interactive games, and television and radio (p. 7).
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There is a growing raft of studies of the relationship between tourism and the creative
economy, covering the development of creative economy policies, specific creative sectors and
activities, the role of knowledge and networks in tourism and the growth of specific ‘creative
tourism’ experiences (Gretzel & Jamal, 2009; Richards, 2011; Fernandes, 2011; Stolarick,
Denstedt, Donald & Spencer, 2011; Wattanacharoensil & Schuckert, 2016; Fahmi, McCann &
Koster, 2017). The convergence of tourism and the creative economy has in many areas
occurred naturally through the growth of the creative industries, creative clusters and the
creative class (Gretzel & Jamal, 2009). But as Fahmi et al. (2017) note in the case of Indonesia,
the creative economy has also been forcibly connected to other development agendas, such
as tourism and cultural preservation, poverty alleviation and city branding.
The Bilbao Guggenheim and other iconic buildings by ‘starchitects’ have also become a major
part of global urban competition strategy (Ponzini, Fotev & Mavaracchio, 2016). Tourists can
also stay in ‘design hotels’ (Strannegård & Strannegård, 2012) or visit the World Design Capital
(Booyens, 2012). Destinations try to attract the mobile ‘creative class’ as a new breed of
cultural tourist particularly interested in the creative atmosphere and ‘buzz’ of places. Such
locations are increasingly identified and packaged as ‘creative clusters of which there are
growing numbers around the world (Marques & Richards, 2014). Many of these formally
designated clusters are now major tourist destinations in different countries (Richards, 2014;
Booyens & Rogerson, 2015), and there are also growing numbers of visitors to informal
creative areas in cities such as London (Pappalepore, Maitland, & Smith, 2014).
The media also has an important influence on cultural tourism flows, as the many case studies
on the impact of films such as The Lord of Rings or the Chinese blockbuster Lost in Thailand
show (Connell, 2012; UNWTO, 2018). Lost in Thailand arguably induced more than four million
Chinese tourists to visit Thailand in 2013, underlining that film tourism can also play a role in
rearticulating geopolitical imaginaries (Mostafanezhad & Promburom, 2018) as well as
supporting particular place images and stereotypes.
Creative experiences such as artistic creation, dance, cookery, are now also being used to
frame destination culture. Aoyama (2009) examines the growing flamenco tourism industry in
Seville, which is increasingly integrating creative production (flamenco schools, local cultural
groups) with consumption (performances for tourists, creative tourism flamenco courses for
visitors). Destinations are also now having to deal with the challenge of embedding relatively
mobile creative processes and ideas in place to attract visitors. This inevitably raises questions
about the possibility and desirability of copyrighting or protecting intangible cultural heritage
(Wanda George, 2010). Ownership is already a fraught issue with tangible heritage, but
cultural globalisation makes embedding of intangible culture a major challenge.
In the field of gastronomy, a lot of work has been done in protecting food local products,
including the development of labels and certification of origin (Ren, 2010). Such labels can not
only help to protect food products, but they also serve as markers for cultural tourism
visitation (Benkhard & Halmai, 2017). Cultural tourism can also be stimulated through the
development of cultural routes linked to food and wine brands, including olive oil routes
(Arjona-Fuentes & Amador-Hidalgo, 2017), cheese routes (Folgado-Fernández, Palos-Sánchez,
Campón-Cerro & Hernández-Mogollón, 2017) and wine routes (Castro, de Oliveira Santos,
Gimenes-Minasse & Giraldi, 2017).
The mobility of creative skills and knowledge has also shed light on the importance of
networks as conduits of knowledge flows and a means to generate creative experiences.
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Hjalager (2009) analyses the development of a complex range of public private collaborations
to support the development of cultural and creativity in the small Danish city of Roskilde.
Cultural tourism there is supported by a famous rock festival, but a Viking ship museum
(Bærenholdt, 2017) and more recently the development of the RAGNAROCK Museum, which
“depicts and conveys how young people through time have moved borders and influenced
society through music and youth culture” (http://museumragnarock.dk/en/besoeg/).
Other elements of youth culture are also being recognised as important sources of cultural
tourism. Redondo-Carretero, Camarero-Izquierdo, Gutiérrez-Arranz and Rodríguez-Pinto
(2017) illustrate the importance of language tourism to the Spanish city of Valladolid.
Estimates indicate that around 850,000 international tourists visited Spain in 2014 for
academic reasons, most to learn Spanish. Research in Valladolid shows that the perceived
value of the cultural offer is important in the choice of destination for language students.
Expenditure is also significantly greater among those motivated by the cultural attractions of
the city.
Báez-Montenegro and Devesa-Fernández (2017) also suggest the existence of a wider kind of
festival tourism, focussed on a general interest in a creative sector, such as cinema. They argue
that such cinema tourism’ is currently undervalued. Film festivals and other creative events
are also becoming important ‘knowledge hubs’ in global networks, with film and literary
festivals attracting a growing audience of aficionados (Podestà and Richards, 2016). Countries
such as Korea are also trying to latch onto cultural and creative tourism linked the creative
industries in general, such as the Korean initiative to develop Korean Wave or Hallyu tourism
(Richards, 2014) based on films, K-Pop and Korean TV dramas (Kim, Long & Robinson, 2009),
but increasingly opened up to wider elements of Korean pop culture. Bae, Chang, Park and Kim
(2017) demonstrate that Hallyu does have a significant positive effect on inbound tourism and
therefore the wider economy.
2.6 Emerging Identities
Anthropology has long made important contributions to the study of cultural tourism, with
seminal works such as Picard’s (1996) study of Bali and Greenwood’s (1972) analysis of cultural
events in Spain. Much recent work in this area has re-focussed attention on the role of
indigenous cultures in different parts of the world. Indigenous or aboriginal peoples are being
increasingly linked into the tourism system by internal and external actors. Korstanje (2012)
argues that indigenous tourism helps maintain neo-colonialist attitudes, and that many
indigenous cultures still face ethnocentric treatment, continuing to be ‘protected’ for tourist
consumption by outsiders who believe they know better than the natives themselves.
Korstanje asks: “Why, for example, are virtually all visits to Hopi and Navajo Indian
reservations considered ethnic tourism or cultural tourism, while most visits to Chicago, or
even rural, Anglo communities in the upper Midwest USA, are not?” (p. 182). This is an
increasingly pressing problem as travel companies increasingly bring tourists to indigenous
communities in formerly inaccessible areas such as the Amazon rainforest (Ochoa Zuluaga,
2015), the Canadian Arctic (Lynch, Duinker, Sheehan & Chute, 2011) and the wet tropics of
Australia (Pabel, Prideaux & Thompson, 2017). In the Kalahari Desert, Tomaselli (2012:5)
remarks that “cultural tourism ventures often forget or neglect the very people on whom
brands are constructed”. Similarly, Nielsen and Wilson (2012) argue that indigenous tourism is
still based on the needs and priorities of non-Indigenous people.
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This is important because the increasing use of intangible heritage puts people at the heart of
cultural tourism, and questions of representation become important. As Yang (2011) shows in
the case of China, hegemony is perpetuated in representations of minority culture. Through
the representation of “otherness,” the state and capital can shape ethnic landscapes for
political and economic interests through tourism development, so that cultural tourism is
constructed not only to meet the needs of tourists, but also the demands of internal domestic
politics. Yang argues that the representation of minority culture has been strongly influenced
by the government and Han managers who act as selectors to construct an “exotic other” that
meets political and economic needs.
As Winter (2009) argues in an Asian context, there is a need to listen to more minority voices
in cultural tourism, as many are current drowned out by dominant narratives and ignored by
western analyses of the tourism system. There now seem to be more alternative voices
emerging in research on cultural tourism (e.g. d’Hauteserre, 2011; Diekmann & Smith, 2015),
but there is doubtless room for more, particularly as more minority cultures themselves start
travelling more (Peters & Higgins-Desbiolles, 2012).
3 Emerging trends and future directions in cultural tourism research
This necessarily limited review of cultural tourism research over the past decade or so reflects
many of the trends that are outlined in the UNWTO Report on Tourism and Culture Synergies
(2018). The many academics who responded to the UNWTO survey not only underlined the
growth of cultural tourism over the five years previous to the survey, but almost
overwhelmingly concluded that cultural tourism would continue to grow in future.
In some ways this is perhaps not surprising, since the growth of cultural tourism is largely
driven by increased tourism, rather than an expansion in cultural interest (Richards, 2007).
Continued growth has, however, changed the position of cultural tourism from a niche market
consisting of relatively well-educated and high income visitors, towards a mass market open to
a much wider range of people. This creates a challenge in many destinations, where the
development of ‘mass cultural tourism’ leads to overcrowding at key sites and complaints of
‘overtourism’ in some cities (García-Hernández, de la Calle-Vaquero & Yubero, 2017). The
crumbling position of cultural tourism as a desirable form of tourism is also directly related to
the decline in elitism in the cultural tourism audience. Cultural tourism used to be seen as a
kind of socially desirable filter that would help attract ‘good’ tourists. Growing numbers have
meant that it can also be seen as the thin end of the mass tourism wedge, entering to destroy
the very culture that the tourists seek. The current research evidence for such hypothesised
effects is mixed, however. For the art city of Florence, Popp (2012) found evidence of positive
and negative effects related to crowds of cultural tourists. In the case of Bruges, Belgium,
Neuts and Nijkamp (2012) also found no clear relationship between crowding and resident
attitudes. In a study of ten German cities Tokarchuk, Gabriele & Maurer (2017) find that
cultural tourism flows have significant well-being benefits for residents.
Many studies of urban cultural tourism are also often based on a shaky dichotomy between
‘tourist’ and ‘resident’ that fails to recognise the increasing porousness of these categories.
Work related to the mobilities paradigm has underlined the considerable overlap between
travellers with different motives (den Hoed & Russo, 2017), and between tourists and
residents (Richards, 2017).
The cultural object of tourism has also shifted as cultural tourism has grown. The search for
the exceptional has been joined by a quest for the everyday (Richards, 2011). Tourists
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increasingly want to ‘live like a local’, whether it is to avoid being labelled as a tourist, or if it is
because the ‘local’ has become the new touchstone of authenticity (Richards & Russo, 2016).
What is the meaning of the ‘local’ for the ‘locals’ themselves, as well as the other groups who
pass through the community? This is a question that tourists struggle with, as do many
destinations, who create a new range of labels for visitors as ‘temporary citizens’ or ‘global
citizens’ or ‘global nomads’ (Kannisto, 2017).
This identification of ‘new cultural tourism’ (Jovicic, 2016) is arguably based on a number of
significant ‘turns’ that have been marked in social science in recent decades. These are the
mobilities turn, the performative turn and the creative turn (Kjaer Mansfeldt, 2015). All three
of these turns are evident in the field of cultural tourism. In particular there are increasing
challenges in defining the ‘cultural tourist’ and the object of cultural tourism as static
categories (Russo and Richards, 2016) as both the tourist and the local begin to perform
different roles relative to one another. This also opens up a space that Kjaer Mansfeldt (2015)
identifies as ‘in-betweenness’: the ways in which the untouristic begins to define tourist
experience and produce new space that belong neither to the usual reality of the tourist or the
local.
This complexity produces new challenges in the definition of cultural tourism. In a sense, there
has been a journey from the original UNWTO definition of cultural tourism as effectively
containing all tourism experience (because all tourism implies learning), through more narrow
definitions designed to aid measurement and conceptual understanding of this emerging
phenomenon (Richards, 2001), back to the broader definition now proposed by the UNTWO
(2018), and even broader concepts that include in-betweenness and non-tourism.
This highlights the need to study cultural tourism not so much as a specific form of tourism or
as a coherent tourism market, but as a collection of cultural practices engaged in by a wide
range of actors in the destination and by tourists themselves. At a micro level the kind of
studies of tourist performance developed by Tim Edensor (2008) at the Taj Mahal in India offer
a lot of promise in uncovering the meanings of the roles and behaviours of tourists and other
actors in the system. But there is also a need to link these micro-behaviours to the level of
broader social groups. In the field of tourism there is room for the kind of analysis of ritual
undertaken by Randall Collins (2004), which enables a linkage of the actions of individuals with
the dynamics of the group and with broader social and economic drivers. Collin’s argument
that gatherings of people react at a bodily level to one another also provides a potentially
useful link to a growing range of studies in the field of crowds. There is little doubt that people
feel and behave differently in a crowded space than in an empty one, and the former is
increasingly the scenario in which most cultural tourists are found. A number of studies have
already attempted to track cultural tourists (e.g. Edwards, Dickson, Griffin & Hayllar, 2010), but
new technologies also offer the possibility of following their mood as they move from one
cultural experience to another.
It is also clear that the focus of cultural tourism research is shifting, from the previous
concentration on tangible heritage in Europe and North America towards areas where the
relationship between tourism and culture is being rapidly re-defined, notably in Asia. Many
new studies are emerging in areas such as China, Taiwan and Korea, where societies
undergoing rapid change are rediscovering their links with tangible and intangible heritage. An
interesting aspect of such developments is that they often combine heritage conservation with
applications of new technologies, strengthening content production and closer links between
tourism and the creative economy. This is very evident in Korea, where government-sponsored
12
programmes have supported the development of creative tourism experiences and
applications (Richards, 2018).
3.1 Future research directions
The UNWTO Report on Tourism and Culture Synergies (2018) points to a number of areas of
future cultural tourism development which may also become fruitful areas for research. The
tourism experts surveyed by the UNWTO expect cultural tourism to grow in future (93%
agree). Growth is also expected to increase the diversity of cultural tourism demand and
supply, increasing the importance of a number of niches, and stimulating a general shift
towards intangible heritage and what one respondent called “soft cultural infrastructure”.
This also poses a number of challenges for future research, particularly in terms of the
definition of “cultural tourism”. Defining cultural tourism has become a major debate in the
literature, because the notions of culture and tourism themselves are so diverse and open to
differing interpretations. As Richards (2003) noted, this has spawned a range of different
definitional approaches that cover a field delineated by two axes: the dichotomy between
meaning and measurement on the one hand, and the division between supply and demand on
the other (Figure 2).
Insert Figure 2: The definitional field of cultural tourism (Source: Richards, 2003)
The problem with such definitional approaches is that they increasingly fail to account for the
integration of supply and demand (for example the co-creation of cultural experiences by
tourists and suppliers) and the failure of most measurements of cultural tourism to capture
the meaning of the phenomenon. In the future, much more effort should be applied to
studying the practices of cultural tourism, which form a system that includes the materials that
provide the basis of the cultural tourism practice (e.g. tangible and intangible heritage,
contemporary culture and creativity), the meanings that people attach to the practice (e.g.
learning, identity, narrative and storytelling) and the competences that are developed through
the practice (e.g. ways of ‘doing’ cultural tourism, reading and interpreting cultural heritage).
The important point is that all elements of the practice are mutually dependent (Figure 3). You
cannot become a cultural tourist without cultural materials to consume, which in turn requires
a certain level of cultural capital or competence, and it must mean something to you, for
example by learning something or affirming your identity. Contemporary cultural tourism
exhibits a wide range of such practices, which may also converge at specific sites, destinations
or times, as Edensor’s work at the Taj Mahal (1998) demonstrates. In identifying the different
practices of cultural tourism, links can also be made to the growing body of work on Actor-
Network Theory (ANT) (e.g van der Duim, Ren & Thór Jóhannesson, 2013).
Insert Figure 3: The practices of cultural tourism
Taking a practice approach to cultural tourism, one entry point into the issue of definition is to
explore what cultural tourism means to the tourists themselves. The ATLAS Cultural Tourism
Project has consistently found a much smaller percentage of people who self-identify as
cultural tourists (5-10%) than the broader measures generated by counting all those who visit
cultural attractions (40%) (Richards and Munsters, 2010). This raises questions such as what is
the difference between a tourist who visits a museum, and a cultural tourist who visits a
13
museum? Does feeling like a cultural tourist lead to different behavior and patterns of
interaction with culture?
Another important pointer to the future of cultural tourism according to the UNWTO is
increasing synergies between tourism and culture. Cultural tourism has long been seen as
benefitting both fields, by providing support for culture and generating attractions for tourism.
But there are real questions about the extent to which such synergies are being realized, and
also whether culture and tourism can actively harm one another. The view of synergies at
present is very narrow, and links are seen more in terms of different types of tourism, rather
than between tourism and culture per se (e.g. Buultjens, Gale & White, 2010; Okumus, Avci,
Kilic & Walls, 2012). Research also tends to focus on economic issues, particularly how much of
the money generated through cultural tourism accrues to the cultural resources that support
it. This economic focus is important, because cultural tourists have consistently been shown to
spend more than most other types of tourists. However, there has been little attempt to
extend the discussion to other forms of value. There is a need to develop and/or apply new
measures of cultural, social, knowledge-based or creative value (e.g. Sacco and Blessi, 2007:
Richards 2015).
The value focus of cultural tourism also often depends on the governance style. But there has
been little research on the types of governance arrangements or ‘regimes’ that promote,
support and develop cultural tourism, how these operate and the consequences they have. For
example there are a growing number of public-private partnerships formed to develop and
promote cultural tourism, such as heritage hotels in Rajasthan, many cultural routes in Europe,
and Cultural Tourism Enterprises in Tanzania (UNWTO, 2018). But we know relatively little
about how these bodies function, or the effect that they have on tourism flows, destination
development or marketing. Many of these partnerships are also tourism-led, rather than
culture-based. This raises the question of whether such arrangements lead to the privatization
or commercialization of culture, particularly under neo-liberal governance regimes.
The application of new technologies to cultural tourism experiences is another area that will
require more research in future. Although Virtual Reality (computer-generated 3D
environments) and Augmented Reality (the projection of computer-generated images onto a
real world view) are hardly new, their potential is only now being fully realized (Wiltshier and
Clarke, 2017). More ludic applications are also now being applied, such as ‘serious games’
(Mortara, Catalano, Bellotti, Fiucci, Houry-Panchetti & Petridis, 2014). There is a particular
need for research on how visitors experience such technology, and whether it increases their
level of engagement. There are important questions about how these technologies are being
developed and applied, for example in “smart tourism” contexts (Gretzel, Koo, Sigala & Xiang,
2015). The development of new technologies also creates a need to analyse stakeholder
relationships, particularly in terms of who benefits from and who pays for the considerable
investment required (Tscheu & Buhalis, 2016).
The growing circulation of content for tourists via new technologies also raises questions
about the cultural basis of cultural tourism in the future. We have been used to situations
where host cultures are presented to visitors, but the simple tourist-host binary is beginning to
fade as mobilities become more complex. In particular we now have large numbers of people
living (semi-permanently) outside their countries of origin. The growing mix of tourists, ex-
pats, refugees, third culture kids and other mobile populations is bringing the very notion of
sedentary society into question in some areas. In these situations the idea of a fixed host
culture becomes absurd. More attention is therefore being paid to more fluid concepts such as
14
trans-modern culture. Originating in the ideas of Rodríguez (1989, 2011) transmodernity
represents a new paradigm which transcends the crisis of modernity while taking up its
outstanding challenges (equality, justice, freedom), while maintaining postmodern criticism
(Dussel, 2012). A transmodern perspective has already been developed in the study of the
authenticity of cultural tourism experiences by Ivanovich and Saayman (2015), who argue that
transformatory experience as a transmodern phenomenon is characterized by lasting personal
transformation in opposition to the short-lived peak, temporal experiences of postmodern
tourism. Such new cultural perspectives offer the possibility of avoiding the straightjacket of
either a modern or postmodern interpretation of culture and coming to new insights that
reflect the plurality and interpenetration of the contemporary world.
A broader trans-modern view might also help tackle the problem of the hegemony of the
English language in tourism research. The power of the language has limited the horizons of
many working in the Anglo-Saxon system. Rather than embracing linguistic diversity, journals
are increasingly dominated by production in English. It seems ironic that in a field where there
are many pleas for minority voices to be heard, English is increasingly the language such pleas
have to be made in (Korstanje, 2010). Finding ways of increasing linguistic diversity in cultural
tourism research would open up the field to more diverse concepts of such basic elements
such as ‘culture’ and ‘heritage’ (which has different connotations from the French term
Patrimoine, for example).
4 Conclusions
This brief review has underlined the rapid growth in cultural tourism scholarship, which has
developed into a well-defined field encompassing multi-disciplinary perspectives. The
optimism expressed in the future growth of cultural tourism demand in the UNWTO report
(2018) makes it almost certain that this field will continue to expand. In some senses, this
growth may undermine the coherence of cultural tourism as an object of study, as lines of
enquiry continue to diverge, tracing the fragmentation and diversification of cultural tourism
demand and supply. To some extent, cultural tourism research has already spawned a number
of extremely fruitful sub-sectors, such as cultural heritage tourism, film-induced tourism and
literary tourism. This opens up new opportunities for cross-fertilisation with new academic
fields, but it may also harbour the danger of removing the study of cultural tourism from its
original social science base. The relative infrequency with which reference is now made to
some of the cornerstones of cultural sociology, such as Bourdieu’s (1984) study of the role of
taste in consumption, is one sign of this.
The vitality of the field is reflected by the many debates that have emerged about the
antecedents and effects of cultural tourism experiences, and the way in which these are
presented or staged. There still seems to be more focus on experience consumption rather
than production, which means that power relations affecting the representation of culture in
tourism are often assumed rather than analysed in detail. Questions of power also seem to be
obscured by the continuing focus on the individual cultural consumer, rather than social
groups and the dynamics between them. New technologies are now making it possible to
study the behaviour of crowds and the interactions of groups via social media to gauge their
reactions to cultural phenomena and their fellow tourists. These should offer new
opportunities in future to study group dynamics and the interactions between individual
tourists, residents and other actors.
15
The dynamism of cultural tourism also makes it likely that many new research avenues will
open up in future. One of the biggest challenges will be to chart the rapidly changing meanings
and interpretations of the term ‘culture’, which in turn has significant implications for the
definition of cultural tourism. The increasing application of technology in cultural tourism and
the resulting overlaps between real world and virtual experiences will no doubt be one
important area of investigation. But at a much more fundamental level there are significant
challenges in understanding how broader social changes, such as the increasing mixing and
mobility of different cultural and social groups, will impact on the production and consumption
of culture by tourists.
16
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Bio
Greg Richards is Professor of Placemaking and Events at Breda University and Professor of
Leisure Studies at Tilburg University in the Netherlands. He has published widely in the fields of
cultural and creative tourism, and his recent books include the SAGE Handbook of New Urban
Studies (2017) and Small Cities with Big Dreams: Creative Placemaking and Branding Strategies
(2018).
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Figure 1: Cultural tourism publications 1990-2016 (source: Google scholar)
Figure 2
Figure 3
Experiential/conceptual
(Meaning)
Operational
(Measurement)
Tourism-derived/
resource based
(Supply)
Motivational
(Demand)
24
... [16,17] Tourism has been increasing because of the rise in religious tourism or because of other segments of tourism? [18][19][20][21][22] The growth of the religious tourism sector is linked exclusively to religious motivations or to other factors? [17,21] Which are the main motivations that lead individuals to travel (religious, cultural, leisure, business, social pressure, cultural attractions, personal, educational, and cultural development, knowledge of other nations' culture and religion)? ...
... [23,24] The most visited destinations in Portugal are linked to its historical-cultural heritage or to the religious sphere? [13,14,[18][19][20] Are the cultural attractions of a destination the main reason for choosing it? [18,19] How could the planning of activities lead to the boosting of tourism in Portugal, namely around the heritage associated to convents and monasteries? ...
... [13,14,[18][19][20] Are the cultural attractions of a destination the main reason for choosing it? [18,19] How could the planning of activities lead to the boosting of tourism in Portugal, namely around the heritage associated to convents and monasteries? [3] With the creation of a tourist itinerary, tourists become better acquainted with Portugal's historical and cultural heritage? ...
Conference Paper
The creation of cultural and tourism routes and itineraries are important resources, which allow the enhancement and dynamization of destinations, particularly from an economic perspective, by increasing tourism demand. As such, it is a differentiating and unique product, offered to visitors and tourists, and that has observed a considerable demand. Although the dimension of religious and cultural tourism is widely studied by several authors, the tourist and cultural routes and itineraries to boost and enhance the historical and cultural heritage are not sufficiently studied, so the aim of this paper is to extend the scientific knowledge on this topic. The general objective of this research is to evaluate the role of Portugal’s historical and cultural heritage in the context of the creation of the monasteries route, focusing on Northern Portugal. The method applied in this research was the qualitative methodology, with data being collected through semi-structured interviews. Ten interviews were applied to the representatives of several entities. According to the exhaustive and detailed analysis of the information and data provided, it can be proven that UNESCO’s attribution of the World Heritage designation to destinations and sites gives them greater recognition and an exponential increase in tourists; the historical and cultural heritage is one of the main factors for the choice of a destination; the historical and cultural heritage is positively leveraged by public and governmental entities; the role of pilgrimages positively influences the increase of the tourism sector in Portugal bringing several advantages mainly in the hotel and restaurant sector; the creation of a tourism and cultural itinerary fosters knowledge, the preservation of the historical and cultural legacy and, finally, repercussions in the economy of Portugal; convents and monasteries are one of the dimensions that are targeted by national policies of preservation of the historical and cultural heritage.
... According to Richards (2018), the UNWTO confirmed cultural tourism as a significant component of international tourism consumption, accounting for 39 percent of tourism arrivals; thus, same-day arrivals in DOT Region IV-A totaled 25.57 million domestic visitors and 466,255 foreign visitors (PNA, 2017). Similarly, the influx of domestic and foreign tourists is not only for the region's offers of sun, sea, and surf tourism but also for other types of tourism such as cultural heritage tourism, which is among the tourist clamor at the destination. ...
... At the moment, this type of cultural heritage tourism is regarded as sustainable in the Philippines; it is especially promising in the CALABARZON region, as the UNESCO (2019) demonstrates that cultural heritage has been a part of the legacy of the past that we live in today focusing on natural and cultural heritage tourism, as well as holding on to future generations of cultural heritage sites (Bayih & Singh, 2020), where cultural tourists spend an average amount of money (Richards, 2018;Cisneros-Martinez & Fernandez-Morales, 2015). As reported by UNESCO (2019) this type of tourism with a concentration on cultural heritage site have encountered an increase in the tourism industry. ...
... The two components, in turn, still depend on the driving force guaranteed by the brand "Veneto the Land of Venice" (as they are not yet present as stand-alone destinations in the preferential map of tourists, nor of the international operators). The itinerary proposal illustrated by the Author aims precisely to contribute towards presenting the Destination in a more harmonious, integrated and cohesive way: to help seize the opportunities offered by the evolution of Demand (which is favourable to its territorial, economic and human fabric) (Richards 2018). ...
Book
Full-text available
This book introduces the concept of cultural routes and itineraries, understood as an innovative tool with which to promote quality sustainable tourism in certain regions of the Adriatic-Ionian area, specifically in Croatia, Greece, Italy, Montenegro, and Slovenia. These regions were chosen by the partners of the QNeST project, financed as part of the EU’s ADRION programme. Many local routes were proposed as part of the project, although not all of them are presented here. Based entirely or partly on pre-existing trails, the cultural routes considered in the chapters of this book develop historic communication channels, together with elements of heritage that reflect long-standing interrelations and shared influences among a mosaic of cultural groups. Every individual route presented serves to promote “cultural growth” and is the result of an analysis of people, processes, and/or historic events that have a strategic value as “custodians of historic memory” or indeed an economic value, attracting tourists while respecting the environment.
... A critical analyzing method is then used in dissecting the topic of financial distress through various bibliographies [20][21][22]. This approach is quite popular and has been used in various fields [19,[23][24][25][26]. ...
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Aims: The purpose of this study is to examine the conceptualization of financial distress research in the textile and apparel industries, particularly in terms of research scope and methodology. Furthermore, this article attempts to systematically analyze the network formed by these literatures. Methodology: In this study, a qualitative approach was used through the literature review method, with 41 specific articles about financial distress in the textile and garment sector serving as the research corpus and drawn from the Litmaps database. To interpret and describe the frequency patterns and relationships visualized using RStudio and Gephi devices, text mining, network analysis, and content analysis were used. Results: This study discovers that a frequently discussed issue is the influence of financial variables, both dependent and independent, on the prediction of financial distress or vice versa, using various quantitative approaches and models of financial distress. This claim is supported by the findings of a systematic analysis, which reveals a positive correlation between global cloud output and network analysis. Implication/Applications: The corpus aspect of this research is limited, and the research scope is limited to the Indonesian context. Future research with broader literature sources and different types Review Article Muhani et al.; JEMT, 28(7): 7-18, 2022; Article no.JEMT.87301 8 of company sectors is highly anticipated. This literature review can provide a comprehensive framework for researchers and practitioners who are interested in cases of financial distress. The Originality of the Study: Furthermore, this is a recent study that conducts a systematic review of the literature on financial distress in Indonesian textile and garment companies.
Article
Bu çalışmada uluslararası imaj ve itibar yönetimi aracı olarak kullanılan kültür belgeselleri söylemlerinin kültür diplomasisine katkısı ele alınmıştır. Araştırmada TRT Belgesel Youtube kanalının paylaşımları arasından rastgele örneklem metoduyla seçilen Gizemli Tarih: Ayasofya belgeseli kültür belgeselciliği açısından ele alınmıştır. Çalışma, kültür belgeselciliğine katkı sağlayan TRT Belgesel’in kültür diplomasisine yönelik söylemlerinin tespit edilmesi bakımından önem arz etmektedir. Ayrıca çalışma, kültür diplomasisine katkı sağlayan Ayasofya üzerine yapılan belgeselleri analiz eden ilk çalışma olması ve bu yönüyle literatüre katkı sağlaması açısından da önem arz etmektedir. Ayasofya belgeseli Maxqda programında Van Dijk’in eleştirel söylem analizi ve içerik analizi metoduyla analiz edilmiştir. Bu bağlamda elde edilen bulgular şöyledir: Ayasofya belgeselinde mabedin tarihçesi, mimari özellikleri ve barındırdığı gizemler üzerinden söylem geliştirilmiştir. Bu söylemler, merak uyandırma ve bilimsel kanıt sunma teknikleri kullanılarak retoriksel açıdan güçlendirilmiştir. Belgeselde Ayasofya’nın mimari özellikleri, tarihi ve gizemleri konu başlıkları, sanatsal ve bilimsel metotlarla irdelenerek kültür diplomasisine katkıda bulunulmaktadır. Kültür diplomasisine katkıda bulunan bu kültür belgeselinde kullanılan bilimsel tekniklerse uluslararası imaj ve itibara katkı sağlamaktadır.
Chapter
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between owner-manager control and nonfamily member employees’ affective commitment in small family business. It is frequently stated in the family business literature that family business is different from nonfamily business, and that these differences can significantly impact outcomes. Based on this assumption, this study examines the extent to which that is true in the case of managerial control and its relationship to employees’ affective commitment. The research design incorporated a quantitative correlational approach using survey data. The study uses a survey with a 177-sample population of the non-family employee who works at the small family business in the foodservice sector located across Victoria, Australia. The results show that there is a positive correlation between managerial capability controls, the relationship quality (LMX), and the affective commitment.
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The MCDM-AHP technique was used for impact assessment of tourism on socioeconomic development in the coastal area with respondents’ point of view. The responses from native people were recorded using questionnaires through interviews about selected nine criteria including accessibility and connectivity, amenities, health care facilities, business, employability, standard of living, cultural values, agriculture and fisheries, and immovable properties. The literature review, fieldwork and experts’ opinions are fundamental keys to select the criteria and determination of ranks. About 35.55% respondents reported higher impact of tourism, 29.14% respondents informed moderate impact, 25.69% respondents reported less impact and 9.62% respondents reported very less impact of tourism activities on development in the region. The development of reported criteria varies according the beach area and relative location of the beaches on the shoreline. The beaches located far south and away from district headquarter show relatively less development. The focus of investment should be concentrated on development of the accessibility and connectivity, required amenities, health care facilities, small-scale business, employability, cultural values, agriculture and fisheries to improve the tourism activities for improving standard of living of native people in the region. The methodology, techniques and results achieved in this study can be useful for planning and monitoring the tourism activities for sustainable and uniform development in the similar areas.
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Purpose Analyzing the main determinants that lead a traveler to make a cultural trip is an important issue to understand where the cultural tourism market is going, and where the decision-makers should intervene. This study helps develop a profile of cultural tourism participants, and underscore the changes in this market niche. This information is crucial for the successful marketing and development of cultural tourism in the future. Design/methodology/approach The authors estimate a binary probabilistic (logit) model to determine the probability of a tourist to travel for cultural reasons, as a function of the traveler's socio-economic characteristic (e.g. age, gender, income or level of studies), of the trip-related characteristics (e.g. distance traveled to destination or mode of transport) and of the characteristics of the province of destination (e.g. weather conditions or existence of cultural sites at destination). Findings This study’s estimates reveal that middle-aged individuals, with a higher level of studies and with a medium level of income show a higher propensity to travel for cultural reasons. The latter finding evidences that cultural tourism has evolved from a niche market reserved for an elite clientele to a much wider range of people. Additionally, cultural travelers tend to travel statistically much longer distances. They are less prone to visit crowded destinations, prefer visiting destinations with important cultural sites, and are less sensitive to weather conditions. Finally, the authors discover a complementary effect of culture tourism and other activities carried out during the trip such as visiting cities or theme parks; and a substitution effect with “beach-and-sun” tourism. Practical implications The information given in this study can be crucial for the successful marketing and development of cultural tourism in the future. A better understanding of the main determinants of being a cultural traveler implies a better and a more efficient implementation of managerial and political measures to attract a kind of tourism characterized by a high spending capacity. Originality/value Discovering the main determinants of being a cultural traveler is a topic scarcely treated in the literature. This study has the main originality to include characteristics of the destination (pull factors) to explain the individual's decision to take a cultural trip. Moreover, the authors work at a provincial (NUTS-3) level of analysis, which makes this study original in the field of cultural tourism.
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This article analyzes tourism plans and policies related to cultural tourism in Turkey. Past and current tourism plans and policy documents, as well as discourses of government officials, were content analyzed. The research findings indicate that Turkey has been positioned as more a sun, sea, and sand destination than a cultural destination. According to the State Planning Organization’s Five-Year Development Plans, as well as past and current tourism plans for Turkey such as Tourism Vision 2023, cultural tourism is seen more as an alternative and secondary type of tourism for Turkey. One can claim that this is perhaps a missed opportunity for Turkey given its rich and unique cultural resources, since Turkey can offer unique, positive, and memorable cultural experiences for culture-core and culture-peripheral tourists. In order to achieve this, it is essential to symbolize and rejuvenate unique cultural resources so that innovative cultural capabilities (experiences) can be offered. In return, such original and vibrant experiences can better differentiate Turkey as a destination from its competitors. The article provides theoretical and practical implications and suggests areas for future research.
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Culture and tourism were two of the major growth industries of the twentieth century, and in recent decades the combination of these two sectors into ‘cultural tourism’ has become one of the most desirable development options for countries and regions around the world. As the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report on The Impact of Culture on Tourism (2009) noted, cultural tourism accounted for almost 360 million international tourism trips in 2007, or 40 per cent of global tourism. In value terms, the contribution of cultural tourism is even greater, since cultural tourists are estimated to spend as much as onethird more on average than other tourists (Richards 2007). However, the rapid growth of cultural tourism from the preserve of the elite Grand Tourists to a major industry in the last century has also caused problems. Growing numbers of tourists at major sites and in small communities has raised questions about the sustainability of this new form of mass tourism. In particular it has become harder for destinations to profile their culture among the welter of products on offer, each desperate to claim their uniqueness. There is a growing number of places in search of new forms of articulation between culture and tourism which can help to strengthen rather than water down local culture, which can raise the value accruing to local communities and improve the links between local creativity and tourism. Many places are therefore turning to creative development strategies, or different forms of creative tourism in the process (Richards 2011). This chapter examines why and how cultural tourism is being transformed into creative tourism.
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