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Determinants of Malnutrition in Children Under Five Years in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

Authors:
  • STIKES Mandala Waluya Kendari

Abstract

Objectives: Malnutrition in children under five years is a serious public health problem in developing countries, particularly in Africa and Asia regions. Child malnutrition has contibuted to 54% of deaths among children under five. This systematic review aimed to identify the determinants of malnutrition in children under five years in developing countries. Method: This study searched several electronic databases,namely Proquest, Scopus, Web of Science, Pubmed, and Medline Ovid. The final rearch obtained 36 articles and were reviewed. Results: Malnutrition in children under five years were determined by parental education, drinking water sources, toilet facilities, and income. Conclusions: Child malnutrition is generated by no single factors, so dealing with child malnutrition will need comprehencive strategies. © 2018, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
Volume 9 Number 6 June 2018
Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development
EXECUTIVE EDITOR
INTERNATIONAL EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD
1. Dr. Abdul Rashid Khan B. Md Jagar Din, (Associate Professor)
Department of Public Health Medicine, Penang Medical College, Penang, Malaysia
2. Dr. V Kumar (Consulting Physician)
Mount View Hospital, Las Vegas, USA
3. Basheer A. Al-Sum,
Botany and Microbiology Deptt, College of Science, King Saud University,
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
4. Dr. Ch Vijay Kumar (Associate Professor)
Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Buraimi, Oman
5. Dr. VMC Ramaswamy (Senior Lecturer)
Department of Pathology, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur
6. Kartavya J. Vyas (Clinical Researcher)
Department of Deployment Health Research,
Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA (USA)
7. Prof. PK Pokharel (Community Medicine)
BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal
NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE
1. Dr. Anju Ade (Associate Professor)
Navodaya Medical College, Raichur,Karnataka
2. Dr. E. Venkata Rao (Associate Professor) Community Medicine,
Institute of Medical Sciences & SUM Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Orissa.
3. Dr. Amit K. Singh (Associate Professor) Community Medicine,
VCSG Govt. Medical College, Srinagar – Garhwal, Uttarakhand
4. Dr. R G Viveki (Professor & Head) Community Medicine,
Belgaum Institute of Medical Sciences, Belgaum, Karnataka
5. Dr. Santosh Kumar Mulage (Assistant Professor)
Anatomy, Raichur Institute of Medical Sciences Raichur(RIMS), Karnataka
6. Dr. Gouri Ku. Padhy (Associate Professor) Community and Family
Medicine, AII India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur
7. Dr. Ritu Goyal (Associate Professor)
Anaesthesia, Sarswathi Institute of Medical Sciences, Panchsheel Nagar
8. Dr. Anand Kalaskar (Associate Professor)
Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, AP
9. Dr. Md. Amirul Hassan (Associate Professor)
Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Ambedkar Nagar, UP
10. Dr. N. Girish (Associate Professor) Microbiology, VIMS&RC, Bangalore
11. Dr. BR Hungund (Associate Professor) Pathology, JNMC, Belgaum.
12. Dr. Sartaj Ahmad (Assistant Professor),
Medical Sociology, Department of Community Medicine, Swami Vivekananda Subharti
University, Meerut,Uttar Pradesh, India
13. Dr Sumeeta Soni (Associate Professor)
Microbiology Department, B.J. Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat,India
NATIONAL EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD
1. Prof. Sushanta Kumar Mishra (Community Medicine)
GSL Medical College – Rajahmundry, Karnataka
2. Prof. D.K. Srivastava (Medical Biochemistry)
Jamia Hamdard Medical College, New Delhi
3. Prof. M Sriharibabu (General Medicine) GSL Medical College, Rajahmundry,
Andhra Pradesh
4. Prof. Pankaj Datta (Principal & Prosthodentist)
Indraprastha Dental College, Ghaziabad
NATIONAL EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD
5. Prof. Samarendra Mahapatro (Pediatrician)
Hi-Tech Medical College, Bhubaneswar, Orissa
6. Dr. Abhiruchi Galhotra (Additional Professor) Community and Family
Medicine, AII India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur
8. Prof. G S Meena (Director Professor)
Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi
9. Prof. Pradeep Khanna (Community Medicine)
Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana
10. Dr. Sunil Mehra (Paediatrician & Executive Director)
MAMTA Health Institute of Mother & Child, New Delhi
11. Dr Shailendra Handu, Associate Professor, Phrma, DM (Pharma, PGI
Chandigarh)
12. Dr. A.C. Dhariwal: Directorate of National Vector Borne Disease
Control Programme, Dte. DGHS, Ministry of Health Services, Govt. of
India, Delhi
Print-ISSN: 0976-0245-Electronic-ISSN: 0976-5506, Frequency: Quarterly
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Editor
Dr. R.K. Sharma
Institute of Medico-legal Publications
501, Manisha Building, 75-76, Nehru Place,
New Delhi-110019
Printed, published and owned by
Dr. R.K. Sharma
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501, Manisha Building, 75-76, Nehru Place,
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New Delhi-110019
7. Prof. Deepti Pruthvi (Pathologist) SS Institute of Medical Sciences &
Research Center, Davangere, Karnataka
Prof Vidya Surwade
Prof Dept of Community Medicine SIMS, Hapur
Indian Journal of Public Health
Research & Development
www.ijphrd.com
CONTENTS
Volume 9, Number 6 June 2018
I
1. OralVersusIntravenousIronforTreatmentofIronDeciencyAnaemiainPregnancy:ARandomized
ControlledTrial.................................................................................................................................................01
Monika Dalal, Ritu Goyal, Smiti Nanda, Pushpa Dahiya, Krishna Dahiya, Shikha Madan
2. EffectivenessofEducationalInterventiononQualityofLifeofPatientswithType2DiabetesMellitus.......07
Sindhu L, B JayaKumar
3. AStudytoAssessStigmaandDiscriminationAssociatedwithTuberculosisin18YearandabovePatients
AttendingCHCHapur......................................................................................................................................13
P N Bhise, Akhilesh Kumar Malhotra, Sandhya Nirmal Bhise
4. HistopathologicalReviewofDermatologicalDisorderswithaKeynotetoGranulomatousLesions:A
RetrospectiveStudy..........................................................................................................................................18
Ankit Singh, Amit Kumar Nirmal, Prapti Gupta, Jay Kant Jha
5. LeadershipStyleCorrelationwiththeOccurrenceofUnsafeActFabricationEmployeesPt.BSBGresik....23
Fardiansyah, Rachmat, Prasetya, T.A.E, Ardyanto, D, Notobroto, H B
6. RelationshipbetweenUnderweightandAcademicAchievementamong
MiddleSchoolChildren...................................................................................................................................28
Neha Bansal
7. ACostAnalysisofDifferentBrandsofAnticonvulsantDrugsAvailableinIndia...........................................32
Ananda Lakshmi, B Krishna Prasanth, Sadgunottama Goud Kamparaj
8. KnowledgeandLifeStylePracticesofIndividualswithPre-Hypertension....................................................37
Keerthi S Nair, Bony M Sunny, Sneha M Y
9. AStudyofSelf-PerceivedNeedforManagementTrainingamongInternsataGovernmentMedicalCollegein
Karnataka.........................................................................................................................................................44
Manjunatha S N, Chandrakumar S G, Revathi Devi ML, Shekar MA, Krishna Murthy, Prashantha B
10. ACorrelationalStudyonAssertivenessandSelfEsteemofUndergraduateStudentsofaSelectedCollege
ofNursing,Ernakulam.....................................................................................................................................49
Sreedevi P A, Aswathy B L, Neethumol Roy
11. QualitativeStudyonWhatMakesaPrimaryHealthCenterGetsUtilized,inBelgaumDistrictNorth
KarnatakaIndia................................................................................................................................................56
Devika Pandurang Jeeragyal, Sasidhar M, K R John, Archana A M
12. AnAwarenessSurveyonSafeSexualPracticeamongFirstYearMedicalStudents.......................................61
Samir Chattopadhyay, Arvind K Shukla, Salki Matta, Nandini Sethi, Neha Rani
II
13. PreventionofCatheterAssociatedUrinaryTractInfection(CAUTI)..............................................................68
Manu Acha Roy, Nisha Philip, Deepa Fulwadiya, Shruti Dhabade
14. SmokedTobaccoPrevalance,KnowledgeofHazardsandMotivationtoQuitamongSmokersinSuburban
Mumbai............................................................................................................................................................74
Tyagi Rahul, Hande Vivek, Singhal Anuj
15. MenstrualGymnasticsonBetaEndorphinsHormoneLevelsandIntensityofPaininPremenstrual
Syndrome.........................................................................................................................................................80
Sri Sumarni, Nur Khadhoh, Umaroh , Munayaroch, Ismi Rajiani
16. StreamliningLaboratoryWorkFlowUsingLeanConcepts:AnExploratoryStudy........................................86
Shweta R Naik, G V Khyathi, A C Lokesh
17. DevelopmentandAssessmentofFeasibilityofaPrototypeAndroidApplicationinManagement
ofDysphagia....................................................................................................................................................92
Shmiruthy Ranjan, Vijay Kumar K V
18. BacterialLoadandContaminationofIndianCurrencyNote:IsolationandTransferabilityStudiesofMulti-
DrugResistantBacteria...................................................................................................................................97
Prasanth Manohar, Thamaraiselvan Shanthini, Priyanka Goswami, Munia S, Haimanti M,
Ashok J Tamhanka, Nachimuthu Ramesh
19. PrescriptionAuditofOutpatientDepartmentsofaTertiaryCareHospitalinMaharashtra...........................103
Anil Pandit, Jyoti Joshi, Amrita Vaidya
20. DifferencesintheInuenceoftheQualityofLifetoMaritalSatisfactioninWomenEarlyMarriageand
NotEarlyMarriage........................................................................................................................................108
Nur Laily, Nia Kania, Adenan, Bahrul Ilmi, Lenie Marlinae
21. DiagnosticAccuracyofProcalcitoninasaMarkerofGram-NegativeBacteremiaonSepsisand
SepticShockPatientsinIntensiveCareUnit(ICU)......................................................................................113
Syafri K Arif, Abdul Wahab, Syafruddin Gaus, Muh R Ahmad, Christa E Damongilala
22. FactorsofSkippingBreakfastandAssociationbetweenSkippingBreakfastandAcademicAchievementof
NursingStudents............................................................................................................................................118
Pratiti Haldar, Baby S Nayak, Yashodha Satish
23. AStudytoAssessKnowledge,AttitudeandPracticesRegardingTuberculosisamong18Yearandabove
PatientsAttendingCHCHapur......................................................................................................................125
Akhilesh Kumar Malhotra, P N Bhise, Sandhya Nirmal Bhise
24. RoleofFineNeedleAspirationCytologyintheDiagnosisofSkinandSupercialSoftTissueLesions:A
Studyof255Cases.........................................................................................................................................131
Ankit Singh, Amit Kumar Nirmal, Jay Kant Jha
25. AConceptualStudyonHowElectronicRecruitmentToolsSimplifytheHiringProcess.............................136
Ramkumar A
26. StudyofComplianceofSurgical&MedicalICUstotheProcessofPreventingNeedleStickInjuries&Blood/
BodyFluidExposures....................................................................................................................................140
A P Pandit, Bhairavee Samant, Vidhi Jain
27. E-RecruitmentthroughJobPortalsandSocialMediaNetwork:Challenges&Opportunities......................143
Ramkumar A
III
28. TheStudyonThyroidStatusamongNewbornsinGautamBudhaNagarDistrictinIndia...........................149
Chandra Prakash Sharma,Widhi Dubey, Suryakant Nagtilak
29. ThePrevalenceofRestlessLegSyndromeinIraqiMultipleSclerosisPatients............................................155
Sajid I Al-Hussainy, Aqeel K Hatem
30. FactorsaffectingthePerformanceofMembersTeamPreparationAccreditationofPublicHealthCenter
(StudyatPublicHealthCenterinKotawaringinTimurDistrict)...................................................................161
Nurul Fatimah Apriliani, Edi Har toyo, Lenie Marlinae, Husaini, Bahrul Ilmi
31. CurrentStatusofVoiceRestorationFollowingTotalLaryngopharyngoesophagectomy:ACaseReport......166
Sheela S, Venkataraja U Aithal, Rajashekhar B, Balakrishnan R
32. ClinicalandRadiographicComparisonofConventionalandMinimalInvasiveMethodofCavityPreparation
inMandibularMolars.....................................................................................................................................170
Sonali Sharma, Mithra N Hegde, Vandana Sadananda
33. DiabetesMellitusType2-APredictorofMetabolicSyndromeinUrbanPopulationofNorthIndia..........176
Manoj Kumar Sharma, Sonali Pandey, Suryakant Nagtilak
34. TheImpactsofGoodsandServiesTax(GST)onMiddleIncomeEarnersinIndia......................................182
Ch. Bala Nageswara Rao, B Neeraja
35. TheImpactofScenarioPlanningonOrganizationalSustainabilityinHealthcarePrivateSector.................188
Hamad Karem Hadrawi
36. DetectionofBacterialCausesofPsoriasisandDeterminationofSomeImmunological
AspectsinPatients.........................................................................................................................................194
Zainab Nasser Nabat
37. AssessmentofKnowledge,AttitudeandPracticesaboutRabiesinUrbanSlumsofAmritsarCity(Punjab),
India...............................................................................................................................................................199
Kanwal Preet Kaur Gill, Priyanka Devgun
38. FaecesWasteTreatmentDesigninHouseholdwithNarrowLandArea........................................................205
Marlik, Demes Nurmayanti, Ferry Kriswandana, Heru Santoso Wahito Nugroho
39. RiskFactorsatHomeonAcuteRespiratoryInfection(ARI)IncidenceinChildrenUnderFiveinSapuli
Island,SouthSulawesi...................................................................................................................................210
Mulyadi, Heru Santoso Wahito Nugroho
40. RelationbetweenUnderutilizationofAntenatalCareandBirthOutcome.....................................................215
Bushra M Majeed, Ruqiya S Tawfeek, Nabila K Yaaqoub
41. BacteriologicalProleofWoundInfectionsinMRSAandESBLDetectioninE.Coli&Klebsiella............220
Suresh P, P Vamsimuni Krishna, V Praveen Kumar, Sreenivasulu Reddy
42. TheRiskFactorsofHepatitisBinPregnantWomaninBanjarmasinonAugust–OctoberPeriod2017.....224
Melani, Zairin Noor Helmi, Husaini, Roselina Panghiyangani, Eko Suhartono
43. InvestmentDecisionFactorsInuencingtheShareMarketInvestorsinChennaiCity.................................229
V Venkatragavan, M Chandran
44. AnAssessmentofRuralHealthCareFacilitiesandInfrastructuralGapsinAlipurduarDistrict,
WestBengal,India..........................................................................................................................................233
Barnali Biswas, Piyal Basu Roy
IV
45. WorkPlaceViolenceAgainstNursingStaffWorkinginEmergencyDepartmentsatGeneralHospitals
inBasraCity...................................................................................................................................................239
Samira Muhammed Ebrahim, Sajjad Salim Issa
46. ImplementationE-HealthSystemonUseBehaviorCustomerbasedonUniedTheoryofAcceptance andUse
ofTechnology(Utaut).....................................................................................................................................245
Farouk Ilmid Davik, Nurus Sa’idah, Muhammad Ardian C.L, Djazuly Chalidyanto
47. NursesPracticeConcerningPostoperativeCleanWoundDressing..............................................................251
Abdulkareem Salman Khudhair
48. TheRoleofMoringa Oleifera LeavesAgainstOxidativeStressandChronicInammation:AReview.....257
Kusmiyati, Soedjajadi Keman, Muhammad Amin,
Suwarno, Heru Santoso Wahito Nugroho
49. ExplorationonAdolescentKnowledgeRelatedMetabolicSyndrome(METS)............................................263
Nurhaedar Jafar, Rahayu Indriasari, Aminuddin Syam, Yessy Kurniati
50. QualitativeStudy;Knowledge,ArvAccess,andAdherenceamongPeopleLivingwithHIVinBulukumba
District,SouthSulawesi..................................................................................................................................267
Suswani A, Arsunan AA, Amiruddin R, Syafar M, Yurniati
51. ParentalInvolvement,AcademicPerformanceandMentalWellbeingofSelectedPre-UniversityStudentsof
UdupiDistrict.................................................................................................................................................273
Rochelle Jane Dsa, Blessy Prabha Valsaraj, Renjulal Yesodharan
Indian Journal of Public Health
Research & Development
www.ijphrd.com
CONTENTS
Volume 9, Number 6 June 2018
I
52. TripleBandMonopoleFrequencyRecongurableAntennaforWirelessMedicalApplications...................279
G Jyothsna Devi, U Ramya, B T P Madhav
53. FractalShapedConcentricRingStructuredRecongurableMonopoleantennawithDGSforGPS,GSM,
WLANandISMBandMedicalApplications.................................................................................................285
M Monika, Sk Rajiya, B T P Madhav
54. TripleBandDefectedGroundStructureF-ShapedMonopoleAntennaforMedicalBandApplications.......290
Raghava Yathiraju, P Pardhasaradhi, B T P Madhav
55. CircularSlottedRecongurableAntennaforWirelessMedicalBandandX-BandSatelliteCommunication
Applications....................................................................................................................................................296
SK Rajiya, M Monika, B T P Madhav
56. TristripMonopoleAntennawithSplitRingResonatorsforISMBandBiomedicalApplications.................301
M Sujatha, B T P Madhav, V Prakhya, B Akhila, N Gowtham, S Mozammil, M Venkateswara Rao
57. ACPWfedDualBandNotchedUWBAntennaforWirelessMedicalApplications.....................................306
K Phani Srinivas, Habibulla Khan, B T P Madhav
58. FrequencySwitchableMonopoleAntennaforMultiBandWirelessMedicalApplications..........................311
U Ramya, G Jyothsna Devi, B T P Madhav
59. ImageProcessingbasedSegmentationTechniquesforSpinalCordinMRI..................................................317
SK Hasane Ahammad,V Rajesh
60. TrapezoidalNotchBandFrequencyandPolarizationRecongurableantennaforMedicalandWireless
CommunicationApplications..........................................................................................................................324
B Siva Prasad, P Mallikarjuna Rao, B T P Madhav
61. SierpinskiMetaFractalMonopoleAntennawithDefectedGroundStructureforMedicalandSatellite
CommunicationApplications..........................................................................................................................329
S Ram Kumar, M V S Prasad
Indian Journal of Public Health
Research & Development
www.ijphrd.com
CONTENTS
Volume 9, Number 6 June 2018
I
62. Determinants of Malnutrition in Children Under Five Years in Developing Countries:
A Systematic Review ....................................................................................................................................... 333
Tasnim Tasnim
63. The Effect of Blood Lead Levels on Malondialdehyde as an Indicator of Oxidative Stress in Workers of
Gas Station in Sleman ...................................................................................................................................... 339
Noviati, Brian Klopeeisch
64. Analysis Chemical Compound of Pokea (Batissa Violacea Celebensis Martens 1897) The Origin of Konawe
Regency Southeast Sulawesi .......................................................................................................................... 345
Sri Anggarini Rasyid, Maria Bintang, Bambang P Priosoeryanto, Ratna Umi Nurlila, Ridwan Adi Surya
65. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) Approach in the Modeling of Malnutrition and the Inuencing
Factors in Muna Regency ................................................................................................................................ 351
Fitri Rachmillah Fadmi, Sri Mulyani, La Djabo Buton
66. The Effect of Technical and Functional of Health Service Quality Toward the Image of Faisal
Islamic Hospital ............................................................................................................................................... 357
Alwy Arin, Nisrina Nursakinah, Darmawansyah, Saifuddin Sirajuddin, Dian Saputra Marzuki
67. Model Development of Clinical Learning with Outcome Present Test Method Peer Learning and Application
in Medical Surgical Nursing Stase for the Student of Nurse in Stikes Mandala Waluya ............................... 362
Asbath Said, Islaeli, Sartini Risky, Ari Novitasari, Dwi Wulandari, Dewi sari Pratiwi
68. Spatial and Temporal Epidemiological Study of Smear Positive Tuberculosis in Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi,
Indonesia ......................................................................................................................................................... 367
Titi Saparina, Rachmawati, Lodes Hadju, Muhammad Guntur Nangi, Muhammad Isrul
69. Analysis of Quality of Life among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in Elderly People in Wua Wua Health
Centre .............................................................................................................................................................. 373
Rahmawati, Titi Saparina L, Ridia Utami Kasih, La Djabo Buton, Sri Mulyani
70. Legal Protection for Independent Midwife for Using Ultrasonography in Wonosobo Regency .................... 379
Toto Surianto S, Dwi Erna Widayanti
71. The Relation between Knowledge, Stress and Salt Consumption with Incidence of Hypertension in Elderly
Woman Out Patients in General Hospital of Bahteramas Southeast Sulwesi Province .................................. 385
La Djabo Buton, Fitri Rachmillah Fadmi, Rahmawati, Sri Mulyani, Noviati
II
72. Differences Knowledge Prevention and Treatment of Diarrhea with Role Play Methods in School Age
Children ........................................................................................................................................................... 390
Islaeli, Ari Notasari, Asbath Said, Dewi Sari Pratiwi, Ruslan
73. Inuence of Back Massage Method to Intensity of Inpartus Active Phase Pain in the Delivery Room of
Kendari City Hospital ...................................................................................................................................... 394
Dewi Sari Pratiwi, Ari novitasari, Islaeli, Asbath said, Yulli Fety, Sri Mulyani
74. Knowledge and Attitude of Primary School Teacher on the Practice of Selected Food Students Containing
Additional Hazardous Foodstuffs in Sdn 01 Poasia Kota Kendari ................................................................. 399
Ari Notasari, and Islaeli, Dewi Sari Pratiwi, Asbath Said, Sartini Risky, Sari Arie Lestari
75. Hold Relax Technique and Oral Glucosamine are Effective on Decreasing Pain, Joint Stiffness, Functional
Limitation and Serum Level of Comp in People with Osteoarthritis .............................................................. 403
Djohan Aras, Mochammad Hatta, Andi Asadul Islam, Syafri Kamsul Arif
76. Analysis of 24-Hour Postpone Time of Newborn Umbilical Cord Clamp to Baby Weight Elevation Newborn
in Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia ...................................................................................................... 408
Rosmiati
Pakkan, Sartini
Risky,
A
d
r
iy
a
n
i
77. Risk Factor of Rheumatoid Arthritis among Elderly in UPT Panti Werdha Mojopahit Mojokerto District
Indonesia ......................................................................................................................................................... 412
Abdul Muhith, M.H. Saputra, Arief Fardiansyah, Lady Andani
78. Protease Potency Assay of Indigenous Proteolytic Bacteria in the Collagen Isolation Process from Snakehead
Fish Scale (Channa striata) .............................................................................................................................. 417
Sugireng, Widodo, Suharjono
79. Related Factors Increased Obesity Prevalence in Adult Women in Denpasar City, Bali ............................... 422
Ni Komang Wiardani, I Putu Gede Adiatmika, Dyah Pradnya Paramita D, Ketut Tirtayasa
80. The Determinants of the Geographical Distribution and Transmission of 16S rRNA of M.leprae in Endemic
Areas, Indonesia .............................................................................................................................................. 429
Andi Rizki Amelia, Ridwan Amiruddin, Andi Arsunan Arsin, Burhanuddin Bahar, Mochammad Hatta
81. Behavioral Mercury Exposure of People in Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Site Area at Lebaksitu
Village, 2017 .................................................................................................................................................... 433
Astri Getriana, Umar Fahmi Achmadi, Citra Hati Leometa
82. Effectiveness of Household Insecticides to Reduce Aedes Aegypti Mosquitoes Infestation : A Community
Survey in Yogyakarta, Indonesia .................................................................................................................... 439
Dyah Widiastuti, Tri Isnani, Sunaryo, Siwi Pramatama Mars Wijayanti
83. The Threat of Lymphatic lariasis Elimination Failure in Pasaman Barat District, West
Sumatra Province ............................................................................................................................................. 446
Bina Ikawati, Tri Wijayanti, Jastal
84. Spatio-Temporal Factors Related to Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Makassar City, 2010 – 2014 ................ 452
Hasanuddin Ishak, Anwar Mallongi, Isra Wahid, Imam Bachtiar
III
85. The Use of Owner House ID Card to Increase Effectiveness of Monitoring Larva Visit by Jumantik .......... 457
Mochammad Choirul Hadi, Ni Made Marwati, I Gusti Ayu Made Aryasih, Dewa Ayu Agustini Posmaningsih,
I Nyoman Sujaya, Anwar Mallongi
86. Administration of Tempehethanol Extract on Prenatal Until Weaning Period Inhibit the Ovary Follicles
Developing of Little Wistar Rats .................................................................................................................... 462
Ni Nyoman Budiani, Ni Ketut Somoyani, Gusti Ayu Marhaeni, Gusti Kompiang Sriasih, Luh Putu Sri Erawati,
Anwar Mallongi
87. Combination of Vimentin, E-Cadherin, CD44 and CD24 Expression as Predictor Model of Anthracycline
Base Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Response to Stage IIIB Luminal Breast Cancer ....................................... 468
Bachtiar M Budianto, Bambang Pardjianto, Edy Mustofa, Setyawati Soeharto, Solimun
88. Comparison of Tumor Growth in Mice Balb/C Induced Breast Cancer Cells Injected with Corticosteroids and
Black Seed Oil Extract .................................................................................................................................... 474
Andi Asadul Islam, Itzar Chaidir Islam, Muhammad Faruk, Prihantono Prihantono
89. Hemorrhoidectomy using Hemorrhoidal Artery Ligation and Rectoanal Repair (HAL-RAR) Technique to
Reduce Level of Pain Perceived by Patients Postoperative ............................................................................ 480
Warsinggih, Prihantono
90. Characteristics of Multi-drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) Patients in Medan City in 2015-2016 ...... 484
Syarifah, Erna Mutiara, Sri Novita
Indian Journal of Public Health
Research & Development
www.ijphrd.com
CONTENTS
Volume 9, Number 6 June 2018
I
91. An Investigation in Learning English Language by Students of Sudanese University A Case Study of Tertiary
Level Khartoum Locality ................................................................................................................................. 490
Sangita Babu, Mahassin Osman Mohmmed Gibreel
92. Design of Mixed Radix-2, 3& 4 based SDF-MDC FFT for OFDM Application .......................................... 501
K Periyarselvam, G Saravanakumar, M Anand
93. Second Order Sliding Mode Control of Three Phase Four Switch VSI Fed Fault Recongurable Sensor Less
PMSM Drive .................................................................................................................................................... 507
Ashok Kumar R, Balaji K
94 An Investigation of English Spelling Achievement among Second Level Saudi Students at King Khalid
University ......................................................................................................................................................... 517
Mahassin Osman Mohmmed Gibreel, Sangita Babu
95 PFB+_ Tree For Big Data Memory Management System ................................................................................ 531
K Santhi, T Chellatamilan T, B Valarmathi
96. A Bipolar-Pulse Voltage Method For Junction Temperature Measurement of Sporadic Current LED .......... 539
K Thanigai Arul
97. Skin Cancer - Computer Aided Diagnosis by Feature Analysis and Machine Learning: A Survey ................ 544
S P Maniraj, P Sardar Maran
98. Utilization of Information Technology in Teaching English Literature Christalin Janet ............................... 550
Christalin Janet
99. Knowledge Management Utilized to Developing College English Teaching Group ..................................... 554
K Manigandan
100. Study of Eddy Current in Litz Wire Using Integral Equation ....................................................................... 557
Paulraj Jayasimman
101. Differential Quadrature Method Useing Obtained Poisson Equations .......................................................... 560
G Genitha
102. Far-Field Distribution of High Power Laser Beam ........................................................................................ 563
M Suresh Kumar
II
103. Dynamic Model For Gathering Target Estimation Using Graph Theory ....................................................... 566
C Periyasamy
104. Sequential Quadratic Programming Optimization Method Used Cutting-Stock Problem ............................. 570
M Sudha
105 Algorithm for the Solution of ODE and PDE using Genetic Programming And Automatic
Differentiation ................................................................................................................................................ 574
S Meher Taj
106 Analyze the Probability Function Using Random Distribution Control Method in Nonlinear System ......... 579
I Paul Raj Jayasimman
107. Fatigue Analysis of Stiffened Plates Based on Accumulative Plastic Strain Model ...................................... 582
M Sudha
108 Transmission Line Applications Using with 2-D Numerical Inverse Laplace Transforms ............................ 586
C Periyasamy
109. GPS Signal Anti-Jamming Assisted with Probability Statistics based on Frequency-Space Domain ........... 590
P Palanichamy
110. Micromachined Flow Impactor for Spectrometer .......................................................................................... 595
KThanigai Arul
111. Photovoltaic Module’s Physics: An Eight-Parameter Adaptive Model for the Single Diode
Equivalent Circuit ........................................................................................................................................... 600
Suresh Kumar
112. Piezoelectric Microgenerator based Fabrication of Polymer Substrate with PPE, IDE and ME ................. 605
K Rajesh
Determinants of Malnutrition in Children Under Five Years in
Developing Countries: A Systematic Review
Tasnim Tasnim
STIKES Mandala Waluya Kendari,
Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia
ABSTRACT
Objectives: Malnutrition in children under ve years is a serious public health problem in developing
countries, particularly in Africa and Asia regions. Child malnutrition has contibuted to 54% of deaths among
children under ve. This systematic review aimed to identify the determinants of malnutrition in children
under ve years in developing countries.
Method: This study searched several electronic databases,namely Proquest, Scopus, Web of Science,
Pubmed, and Medline Ovid. The nal rearch obtained 36 articles and were reviewed.
Results: Malnutrition in children under ve years were determined by parental education, drinking water
sources, toilet facilities, and income.
Conclusions: Child malnutrition is generated by no single factors, so dealing with child malnutrition will
need comprehencive strategies.
Keywords: Malnutrition, Children under ve, Determinants, Developing Countries.
Corresponding author:
Tasnim, Tasnim, PhD
Jl. H. A. Nasution G-37 Kendari 93232, Southeast
Sulawesi Province, Indonesia
Email: tasnim349@gmail.com
INTRODUCTION
Malnutrition among children aged below ve years is
a serious public health problem in developing countries,
particularly in Africa and Asia regions1. In 2010, the
World Health Organization reported the number of
underweight children is about 30 million in Africa and
71 million in Asia1. Health inequities in developing
countries are caused by unequal distribution in income,
power, goods and services2. This condition leads to
unfairness in accessibility of health care, education and
employment2. Therefore, children under ve in lower
socioeconomic positions often have worse nutritional
status than those in higher socioeconomic position.
Malnutrition can increase the risk of both morbidity
and mortality in children under ve years old3. About
54% of deaths among children under ve years old are
caused by malnutrition4. Malnutrition in early childhood
can also increase impaired psychological and intellectual
development1. The disturbance in both psychological
and intellectual development can lead to low school
performance and behavioural disturbance3. Furthermore,
malnutrition in early childhood is often associated with
low individual’s economic productivity that leads to
social and economic deprivation3. Therefore, developing
the effective strategies to overcome child malnutrition
is crucial. However, developing the effective strategies
will require sufcient evidence as a basis of decision
making among health policy makers and practices5.
This means that understanding the determinants of
child malnutrition is essential. Hence, this systematic
review aimed to identify determinants of malnutrition in
children under ve years.
SEARCH METHODS
Search strategy and outcome
Several electronic databases were used to search
relevant articles, namely Proquest, Scopus, Web
of Science, Pubmed, and Medline Ovid. Search
DOI Number: 10.5958/0976-5506.2018.00574.0
334 Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, June 2018, Vol. 9, No. 6
articles in those databases used various terms such as
“Malnutrition”, “Socioeconomic”, “Children under
ve”. Electronic databases were searched with a
combination of all terms and with OR, AND. Searching
was limited to the English language, journal articles, and
a date of publication between 2006 and 2018. The start
date of 2006 was based on the endorsement of the new
international child growth standards6. At that time, there
were many studies that investigated the risk factors of
childhood malnutrition.
Screening articles was based on inclusion and
exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria included papers that
investigated the association between child malnutrition
and socioeconomic factors. Papers that investigated
socioeconomic status and other determinants of
malnutrition, such as dietary intake and morbidity were
also included. Furthermore, papers about interventions
addressed for improving child health status were
included. Papers were excluded if they investigated
only nutrient intake patterns without relating to
socioeconomic factors. Papers that investigated the
risk factors of nutritional status in primary students,
adult or elder groups were also excluded. Furthermore,
several papers that examined the association between
socioeconomic factors and obesity were excluded.
The rst screening was done through the titles and
abstracts. Then, the nal selection was done through
full text articles. There were many same articles in
different databases during this selection. Thus, further
identication was done and the same articles removed.
Finally, 36 relevant articles were obtained. The process
of selection the articles can be represented as follows.
Number of studies identified
(n= 5184)
Records excluded
(n= 4995)
(n= 5184)
Full-text articles assessed for eligibility
(n= 189)
Full-text articles excluded
(n= 153)
Studies included in the review
(n= 36)
REVIEW DESIGN
A qualitative literature review is used as an approach
to this review. The author summarized and categorized
data or evidence from every study into themes. The
themes were then integrated and criticized without use a
statistical theory. A thematic analysis is applied to analyse
evidence after Liamputtong 2009, pp.284-2867. The
process of thematic analysis was started with identifying
patterns of determinants of child malnutrition. Similar
themes were grouped into sub-categories. Then, these
sub-categories were integrated into higher order themes.
Finally, this review found 4 themes as mentioned in the
results.
RESULTS
Household and community socioeconomic factors
The determinants of malnutrition are dened into
two different levels of the extent, namely household and
community level. They inuence each other to result in
malnutrition in children under ve years8. The household
wealth index includes a household possession, drinking
water sources, toilet facilities, ooring material, income
and expenditure variables9. While, the household social
index comprises paternal education and occupation8.
Household socioeconomic factors are recognised as
predictors of child malnutrition. While, the community
socioeconomic factors are determinants of individual
socioeconomic status through sharing knowledge
and imitation behaviours of demand for services and
infrastructures10.
Parent’s and grandmother’s education
The effect of mother’s education on child
Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, June 2018, Vol. 9, No. 6 335
malnutrition is stronger than father’s and grandmother’s
education11. Social norms in rural areas include the
role of a mother in domestic chores and child-rearing.
Thus, mother’s education affects to child nutrition
through several pathways. Firstly, educated mothers are
more likely to have more knowledge of child nutrition
which leads to better child care practices12. Educated
mothers also tend to provide healthy environments for
children13. Educated mothers are 6.5 times more likely
to provide toilets and have hygienic behaviours than
uneducated mothers14. Secondly, educated mothers
tend to have a higher awareness of utilization of child
health care services15. This leads children under ve
to complete immunization and receipt of vitamin A
capsule16. Complete immunization during infancy and
receipt of vitamin A capsules can reduce the risk of
infectious diseases which contribute signicantly to
child malnutrition17. Moreover, educated mothers are
more likely to have a better chance of getting jobs.
Thus, mothers can support family income and increase
purchasing power for healthy food for under-ve
children14. In addition, educated mothers tend to have
high autonomy over resources19. This leads to egalitarian
gender norms of children’s nutrition19. Also, autonomous
mothers tend to utilize antenatal care of breastfeeding
counselling19. As a result, child and mother’s health
status can be increased. In fact, healthier mothers tend
to have the ability to adequately breastfeed20, and deliver
high-birth weights babies21.
However, the effect of fathers’ education on child
malnutrition is signicant when women have low social
status and low decision making power in the family17.
Thus, decision making in the family will be handled
by fathers. Furthermore, educated fathers tend to have
educated wives22 and earn more money17. Educated
wives are more likely to have better knowledge about
child care practices22. Earning more money increases
purchasing power for healthy food and provides a better
environment for children17.
Futhermore, Globalization has contributed to an
increased number of working mothers in developing
countries, particularly in urban areas23. Working
mothers in urban areas generally give responsibility for
grandmothers to look after their children. Therefore,
grandmothers play important roles in determinants of
child nutritional status. Uneducated grandmothers are
more likely to feed differently between young boys and
girls23. Young girls tend to have slightly more food than
boys. This leads higher prevalence of malnutrition in
young boys than girls. The risk factor of young boys in
uneducated grandmothers is 0.64 times more likely to be
stunted and 0.54 times more likely to be underweight23.
Household Income
Household income contributes to malnutrition in
children under-ve. It affects purchasing power for food,
utilization of child health services and physical capital
of improving hygiene standards16. Providing appropriate
food, such as animal source of food is essential for
child growth24. Thus, low income cannot meet those
aspects. In fact, children in lower income families
are 1.49 times more likely to be stunted than those in
higher income families25. Poor families also tend to
spend less money on health services, so mothers have
poor knowledge of child feeding practices and children
have incomplete immunization and lack of vitamin A28.
Furthermore, low income families cannot provide better
quality of housing, including inadequate clean water and
appropriate sanitation facilities29. This condition also
increases prevalence of infectious diseases in children
under ve years old.
Water and sanitation facilities
Diarrhea is the biggest contribution to malnutrition
in under-ve children and leads to deaths30. The main
cause of diarrhea is unhygienic behavior in food
preparation and feeding practices22. This is generated by
inadequate access to clean water and proper sanitation
facilities 31. The effect of diarrhea on childhood is
reduced body immunity. Thus, diarrhea will also lead
to other infectious diseases and leading to malnutrition.
Contaminated water resources have increased parasitic
infections26. Furthermore, inadequate sanitation
facilities, such as toilets and garbage bins contribute to
increase contaminated food and drinking water. In fact,
children living in a house without a toilet are about 1.61
times more likely to be underweight32 and 2.7 times
more risk of stunting33.
DISCUSSION
The effect of socioeconomic factors on health is
consistent in numerous countries for long periods of
time in relation to age, gender or other demographic
factors. This review also nds signicant contribution
of socioeconomic factors to malnutrition in children
below ve years of age. Under-ve children with poor
336 Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, June 2018, Vol. 9, No. 6
facilities at home, low income and uneducated families
have worse nutritional status than those with adequate
facilities at home, rich and educated families. Low
socioeconomic factors signicantly inuence child
growth during the second year of life. During this
period, children require sufcient healthy supplemental
food, supportive environment, complete immunization
and adequate vitamin A. Thus, the roles of parents,
communities and governments become very important
to meet these aspects. Formal educational attainment
for parents becomes essential to support their roles in
increasing child growth. Formal education is the way to
obtain a better job and high knowledge of social sciences,
including health knowledge34. This condition will lead
to improving and increasing child food intakes and
living conditions. Better knowledge will also generate
awareness to better utilize child healthcare services15.
Eventually, this phenomenon will reduce infectious
diseases and increase child nutritional status.
On the other hand, the community plays a crucial
role in sharing knowledge and creating demand of
utilization public services and developing infrastructures
23. Thus, increasing socioeconomic factors is essential
at the community level rather than the household level.
Improving socioeconomic factors at the community
level will affect household socioeconomic status8.
Increasing household socioeconomic status will
then increase living conditions, food availability,
behavioural and psychological factors. Ultimately, this
condition will lead to health equity and well-being.
This review also identies several crucial issues in
relation to socioeconomic factors that contribute to child
malnutrition. Firstly, there is inequality in educational
attainment between men and women, particularly in
rural or remote areas. This leads to high prevalence
of malnutrition in these areas35. The socio-cultural
norms and isolated areas result in gender inequality
in education36. Therefore, several studies suggest the
promoting of gender-balanced formal education to
overcome educational inequalities33. This strategy gives
more benets to increase women’s educational status
and to improve a household economic structure and
child nutritional status. Gender equality, eventually, can
lead to increasing mother and child health status at the
community and country level37. Another crucial issue
is infectious diseases, including diarrhoea and malaria
which contribute to malnutrition in children under ve
years30. The diseases are caused by the quality and
accessibility to water and sanitation facilities.
CONCLUSION
Household socioeconomic factors are recognised as
predictors of child malnutrition, including uneducated
parents, household income and water and sanitation
facilities in the home. This literature review focus
on knowledge of other basic determinants of child
malnutrition, such as socio-cultural and political factors.
Thus, this review is only suitable as the basis of the
study or developing health policies and practices that
have strong issues of socioeconomic factors in relation
to child malnutrition
Conict of Interest: The author has no conict of
interest associated with the material presented in this
paper.
Source of Funding: This study was supported by
Mandala Waluya Kendari Foundation.
ORCID
Tasnim Tasnim http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5322-
082X
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... Knowledge of social determinants (SDs) can contribute to implementing comprehensive social programs to address the conditions that generate disadvantages to people's health [2]. For example, unfavorable socio-economic conditions are one SD that show greater consistency and persistence over time [3][4][5]. Furthermore, age [6], gender [3], and demographic and ethnic conditions [2,7] are usually relevant, among others. ...
... Malnutrition in children under five-either under or overnutrition-is a matter that requires serious attention because it increases the risk of illness or death, worsens comorbidities, and negatively impacts physical, intellectual, and psychomotor development [2,6,8,9]. Moreover, children with undernutrition are more likely to live in a context of poverty and inequality in their adulthood, which perpetuates the risk of undernutrition for future generations, creating a harmful cycle that is difficult to eradicate [4]. On the other hand, those with overnutrition have detrimental academic performance and, in addition, Page 2 of 11 Alvear-Vega and Vargas-Garrido BMC Public Health (2022) 22:44 mental health problems linked to low self-esteem. ...
... Previous studies have found conditions that could encompass this classification. For example, regarding undernutrition of children from zero to five, some key SDs are parents' educational level-mainly the mother, access to drinking water, and sanitation facilities [4,6,15,16]. In this vein, the mother figure is critical, as a greater vulnerability is found in children of single mothers with a low income, chronic diseases, and lacking health insurance. ...
Article
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Background This study aimed to ascertain the Social Determinants (SDs) of malnutrition (over and undernutrition) of Chilean children aged up to five. Methods The study was carried out using a sample of children from zero to five years old (n = 1,270,485; 52.2% female) from the National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey (CASEN) 2017. A multinomial logistic regression model was used, where the “child nutritional status” outcome variable assumed three possible values: normal nutrition, overnutrition, and undernutrition, while taking those variables reported in previous literature as independent variables. Results The model, by default, set normal nutrition as the reference group, Count R2 = 0.81. Results show a higher likelihood of both overnutrition and undernutrition among male children from the lowest quintiles, with native ethnic backgrounds, reporting health problems, having public health insurance, and who attend kindergarten. Additionally, higher probabilities of undernutrition in younger than two and living in the north of the country, while overnutrition is more likely in the south. Conclusions Socioeconomic variables are fundamentally related to both over and undernutrition; the current single schema program to prevent malnutrition should consider SDs such as ethnicity and geographical location, among others; moreover, successful nutritional programs—which focused on the lowest quintiles, need to be expanded to other vulnerable groups and pay more attention to overnutrition.
... Malnutrition results from low food intake and is related to transmission factors such as crowding, water, and environmental hygiene [7]. Childhood malnutrition is attributed to low birth weight, insufficient breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding, inappropriate complementary feeding, maternal education, lack of proper micronutrient intake, parity, birth spacing, socioeconomic level of the home, food insecurity, inadequate sanitation, immunization, and infectious illnesses [8][9][10]. ...
... The situation is worst in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal, which failed to reduce the required level of malnourishment, even after a long history of nutritional policy commitment to combat anaemia among children. Despite policies and social development, childhood malnutrition remains a significant public health and social challenge in less developed countries [10]. ...
Article
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Background Despite policies and social development, childhood malnutrition remains a significant public health and social challenge in many south Asian countries. Also, there is a lack of study for a comparative understanding between the nutrition policies and nutritional status of under-5 children in south Asian countries. In this context, the present study aims to understand the comparative evolution of nutritional policies and programs in south Asian countries between 1950 to 2016 and assess current nutritional status of children under the age of 5 in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. Methods This study obtained yearly anaemia data from the Global Health Observatory Data Repository (World Health Statistics) from 1990 to 2016 for comparative analysis. The most recent Demographic Health Survey (DHS) rounds have been taken for four south Asian nations. Bivariate analysis and classical figures have been utilised to demonstrate the findings. Results In Bangladesh, Nepal, India, and Pakistan, the prevalence of anaemia decreased by 33%, 31%, 20%, and 12% from 1990 to 2016, respectively. While analysis of the policy and programs, the problem of under-nutrition in all selected countries stems from the lack of serious implementation of National Nutrition Policies. Conclusion This study suggests that the national nutrition programs require inter-sectoral coordination between central ministries within countries to reduce the anaemia level. In light of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), a multi-faceted policy should be implemented to prevent and control malnutrition problems in these countries.
... Often underweight is demonstrated by less visible micronutrient deficiencies, e.g., iron-deficiency anemia [4]. Regardless of where a child comes from, malnutrition is determined by different factors based on comprehensive strategies [1,2,7,8]. Many countries have considered various programs and policies to reduce malnutrition. ...
... The massive expansion of village programs during 1975-90 covered all villages by 1990 with a steady decrease in underweight. Although the program ended, the planners now intended to restart it [7]. Most nutrition intervention programs only eliminate the symptoms without removing the causes of hunger. ...
Article
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Purpose Malnutrition is an important public health issue and the main cause of child morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. The present study aimed to model trend changes in percentage of the malnourished children under 5 among 39 Asian countries during 1987 to 2016. Methods Information about percentage of the malnourished under 5 years children based on under-weight (weight for age) malnutrition for 39 Asian countries were extracted from Gapminder web site during 1987 to 2016. To cluster Asian countries based on trend changes, Growth Mixture Model (GMM) was implemented. All the statistical analyses were performed in Mplus 7.4 software and P < 0.10 in likelihood ratio test (LRT) was considered as statistically significant. Results Based on P-value of LRT, the model with 3 clusters was selected. Although, cluster 3 with 9 countries had higher intercept in 1987 and the worst situation in malnutrition, they gained a sharp decrease (− 0.93) in percentage of malnourished children under five annually. The slope of − 0.64 for cluster 1 countries indicate a moderate decrease annually in percent of children with malnutrition. The other 20 countries with slope of − 0.29 in their linear trend belonged to cluster 2 which shows slow decrease in the percentage of children with malnutrition. Conclusion The investments in public health and education programs, as well as political commitment and government proper response in line with needs and demands are crucial to promote food security, nourishing diets and improving child nutrition. Certainly, most of them are still a long way from eradicating malnutrition.
... Compared with a child with higher maternal education, a child with lower maternal education has more risk of being in a worse under-nutrition. Several previous studies from Ethiopia, Bangladesh, Tanzania and Uganda complied with this finding supporting the notion that children whose mothers have higher education were less likely to be undernourished as compared with children whose mother had lower or no education [22,26,[33][34][35][38][39][40][41] indicating that maternal education is an essential factor affecting infant feeding practices. As educated mothers have better knowledge of child health and nutrition, they are more conscious of their child's health and look after their children better [42]. ...
... et al in Burkina Faso, Zeray et al in Ethiopia and Tasnim in Developing Countries[23,25,41]. ...
Article
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Background: Ethiopia is one of the developing countries where child under-nutrition is prevalent. Prior studies employed three anthropometric indicators for identifying factors of children’s under-nutrition. This study aimed at identifying the factors of child under-nutrition using a single composite index of anthropometric indicators. Methods: Data from Ethiopia’s Demographic and Health Survey 2016 was the base for studying under-nutrition in a sample of 9494 children below 59 months. A single composite index of under-nutrition was created from three anthropometric indices through principal component analysis recoded into an ordinal outcome. In line with World Health Organization 2006 Child Growth Standards, the three anthropometric indices involve z-score of height-forage (stunting), weight-for-height (wasting) and weight-for-age (underweight). Partial proportional odds model was fitted and its relative performance compared with some other ordinal regression models to identify significant determinants of under-nutrition. Results: The single composite index of anthropometric indicators showed that 49.0% (19.8% moderately and 29.2% severely) of sampled children were undernourished. In the Brant-test of proportional odds model, the null hypothesis that the model parameters equal across categories was rejected. Compared to ordinal regression models, partial proportional odds model showed an improved fit. A child with mother’s body mass index less than 18.5 kg, from poorest family and a husband without education, and male to be in a severe under-nutrition status was 1.4, 1.8 1.2 and 1.2 times more likely to be in worse under-nutrition status compared to its reference group respectively. Conclusion: Authors conclude that the fitted partial proportional odds model indicated that age and sex of the child, maternal education, region, source of drinking water, number of under five children, mother’s body mass index and wealth index, anemic status of child, multiple births, fever of child before 2 months of the survey, mother’s age at first birth, and husband’s education were significantly associated with child under-nutrition. Thus, it is argued that interventions focus on improving household wealth index, food security, educating mothers and their spouses, improving maternal nutritional status, and increasing mothers’ health care access.
... 14 Socioeconomic factors are an important contributor to nutritional status of children and are consistent in different countries worldwide for a long duration in relation to age, gender, or other demographic factors. 9,15,16 Hence, household poverty is a consistent determinant of poor nutrition in children aged 0 to 59 months 17,18 and affects their health outcomes. 19 Though studies have identified different demographic, maternal, sociocultural, and political factors to be important determinants of childhood undernutrition, the mediating factors of household poverty are unrecognized. ...
Article
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Objectives: We explored the maternal charateristics that mediate the effect of household poverty on childhood undernutrition. Methods: We used the population-based Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey data from 2014 for demographic characteristics, child and maternal factors. Results: Of the 7173 under-5 children, 3456 (48.2%) had undernutrition. The prevalence of undernutrition was less common in wealthy households (poorest vs richest: adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.37), mothers having history of antenatal care (ANC) visits (no visit vs ≥4 visits: aPR = 1.22), maternal higher education (no education vs higher education: aPR = 1.54), and mothers with good nutritional status (underweight vs healthy: aPR = 1.13). The risk of undernutrition (37.1%) was attributed to household wealth, mediated 55% by maternal factors; of which 20% by maternal education, 21% by ANC visits, and 14% by maternal nutritional status. Conclusions: Our study findings outlined higher maternal education, ≥4 ANC visits and maternal good nutritional status in mediating the impact of household wealth on childhood nutrition.
Article
Malnutrition is a global concern and particularly in children. It impacts negatively on mortality, morbidity, educability and productivity, and it affects millions of children in South Africa. As part of our Millennium Development Goals set by the Department of Health and World Health Organisation (WHO), it is vital to combat malnutrition by eradicating extreme poverty and hunger. Health care workers needs to apply health promotion intervention strategies to combat malnutrition, particularly for children under five years old. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of intervention practices in preventing childhood malnutrition in a semi-rural area in the Cape Winelands of the Western Cape. A qualitative approach with an explorative design were used. Data were collected through focus group interviews. Thematic content analysis with coding was used for qualitative data analysis. The results revealed that three categories of interventions for preventing malnutrition were recorded in this study. The first category contained the interventions and practices that had taken place in the clinic. This was followed by the second category of interventions, namely those interventions that had taken place in the community and the third category of interventions presented in the form of referrals. This study recommended that health education and health promotion should be done at all health facilities with regular intervals, as well as within the community. Authorities should provide a platform for all doctors and all categories of primary health care workers, including various categories of registered professional nurses, caregivers and home based care givers, dieticians and social workers, to go for regular updates and to participate in continuous development programmes to combat malnutrition. The results could improve health care practices in the communities of the Western Cape and the South African context at large.
Article
Background Child undernutrition is a major public health problem. Globally in 2020, 149 million children under 5 were estimated to be stunted (too short for age), 45 million were estimated to be wasted (too thin for height), and 38.9 million were overweight. The purpose of this paper was to review the previous studies to determine the factors associated with malnutrition and contribute to the existing body of evidence needed for the formulation of effective interventions. Methods This systematic review was conducted using the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Google scholar database was used to search the studies already conducted between 2012 to 2021. The included studies were searched by using some combinations of keywords and saved in Mendeley Desktop for review and referencing. Results Of a total of 2150 articles retrieved from the google scholar databases, 36 studies met our inclusion criteria. Out of the total 36 studies reviewed; 11 were in India, 6 in Ethiopia, 3 in Bangladesh, 2 in Ghana, 2 in Nepal, 2 in developing countries and one each in Bolira, Benin, Netherland, Columbia, Pakistan, Malaysia, Africa, Egypt, Ecuadorian and Indonesia. Conclusion The most consistent factors associated with child malnutrition were maternal education, household income, maternal nutritional status, age of the child, availability of sanitation facility at home, size of family, birth order in the family and birthweight of the child. Breastfeeding and caring practices, cooking area and the fuel used, gender and socioeconomic status of the children also contribute towards child malnutrition.
Preprint
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Background: This study aimed to ascertain the Social Determinants (SDs) of malnutrition (over and undernutrition) of Chilean children aged under five. Methods: The study was carried out using a sample of children from zero to five years old (n = 1,270,485; 52.2% female) from the National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey (CASEN) 2017. A multinomial logistic regression model was used, where the "child nutritional status" dependent variable assumed three possible values: normal nutrition, overnutrition, and undernutrition, while taking those variables reported in previous literature as control variables. Results: The model, by default, set normal nutrition as the reference group, Count R2 = 0.81. Results show a higher likelihood of both overnutrition and undernutrition among male children from the lowest quintiles, with native ethnic backgrounds, reporting health problems, having public health insurance, and who attend kindergarten. Additionally, higher probabilities of undernutrition in younger than two and living in the north of the country, while overnutrition is more likely in the south. Conclusions: Socioeconomic variables are fundamentally related to both over and undernutrition; the current single schema program to prevent malnutrition should consider SDs such as ethnicity and geographical location, among others; moreover, successful nutritional programs—which focused on the lowest quintiles, need to be expanded to other vulnerable groups and pay more attention to overnutrition.
Article
Full-text available
Malnutrition is a considerable contributor to child mortality and morbidity. Child malnutrition further affects the country's economic development. Child malnutrition in South Africa is persistent, continuing to be an alarming burden. The nutritional status of kids under the age of five years is a critical indicator of the country's economic condition and health status. An understanding of the influencers of the nutritional status of children can act as a catalyst in combatting all forms of malnutrition. The purpose of this paper was to review selected studies concerning the factors that affect the nutritional status of children in South Africa. Studies were selected from electronic databases, which were PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Sabinet African Journals, and the University of Zululand library catalog. The keywords that were used to search studies and articles from the selected database were: risk factors, child nutritional status, children under the age of five years, South Africa, malnutrition, underweight, stunted, wasting, and over-nutrition. Studies and surveys published from 2010-2019 that reported on the factors influencing the nutritional status of children under the age of five years were included in this review. Twenty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria of the study. The 27 articles were made up of 21 cross-sectional articles and six longitudinal articles. The finding from this review highlights that there is a lack of studies conducted in urban areas. The results show that the nutritional status of children is affected by several factors. These include household food insecurity, low household income, illiterate caregivers, unemployment, inadequate dietary intake, low birth weight, consumption of monotonous diets, poor caregiver's nutritional knowledge, poor access to water and sanitation, poor weaning practices, age of the caregiver, and demographic characteristics of a child (age and gender). It is critical to have an understanding of the factors that affect the nutritional status of children. Such knowledge can significantly contribute to formulating policies that can enhance nutrition security and the country's economy. Moreover, insights into strategic interventions to eradicate all forms of malnutrition can be made.
Article
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Backgroud: Many rural mothers did not give appropriate child feeding which impacted to underweight for their children in Konawe Disrict of Southeast Island in Indonesia. This was also related to mother's poor knowledge about child feeding. Objective: this study aimed to investigate the relationship between rural mothers' knowledge and their practices of child feeding with underweight in under-5 children in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province in Indonesia. Methods: The case-control study was conducted in 5 rural areas in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province. The study involved 400 under five children and their mothers, including 100 of whom were cases and 300 of whom were age-matched contorls (1:3). Cases were underweight children, while the controls were children with a normal nutritional status. The independent variabels were mother's knowledge and their child feeding practices. The data analysis used Conditional Logistic regression. Results: poor mothers' knowledge (odds ratio [OR], 8.9; 95% confidene interval [CI], 4.0 to 19.6; p<0.001), poor practices of under-5 children feeding (OR, 15.2; 95% CI, 5.5-41.7; p<0.001) significantly associated with underweight in rural children. Conclusion: Mothers' knowledge about the availability of nutritious foods determines her child feeding practices. A mother's level of knowledge about nutritious foods and her practices is related to her educational level and health information sources.
Article
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Objectives The prevalence of underweight in children under 5 years of age is anomalously high in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This state of affairs may be related to poor housing conditions, such as limited access to clean water, the absence of a sanitary latrine, and the use of poor housing materials. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effect of housing conditions on underweight in under-5 children in Konawe District. Methods This study was conducted in 2013 in 5 health centres in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, and used a case-control study design. The study recruited 400 under-5 children, including 100 of whom were cases and 300 of whom were age-matched controls (1:3). Cases were underweight children, while the controls were children with a normal nutritional status. The independent variables were the availability and types of water and latrine facilities and housing materials (roof, wall, and floor). The statistical analysis used Cox regression. Results A lack of water availability (odds ratio [OR], 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7 to 9.5; p<0.001), a lack of latrine availability in the home (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.0; p<0.001), and poor-quality roofing materials (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; p<0.02) significantly contributed to underweight in children. In contrast, the walls and the floors did not contribute to under-5 year children being underweight (p=0.09 and p=0.71, respectively). Conclusions Sanitation facilities and roofing were identified as important factors to address in order to improve children’s nutritional status. Children’s health status was directly impacted by food intake via their nutritional status.
Article
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This study uses data from Cambodia's 2005 Demographic and Health Survey to examine how three measures of children's nutritional status vary by mother's educational attainment. To identify mechanisms for that association, the study analyzes birth size, which depends on factors during gestation, and low height-for-age (stunting) and low weight-for-height (wasting), which are affected by factors that operate after birth. In multivariate specifications that control for socioeconomic status, mother's education is strongly inversely associated with stunting, but not small birth size or wasting. Addition of household composition and environmental factors to the model reduces the association between mother's education and child nutritional outcomes only slightly.
Article
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Using a sample of 1359 Nigerian households from the 2003 Demographic and Health Surveys, this article investigates the contribution of improved maternal information about access to community health services toward the reduction of child stunting and undernourishment. The analysis shows that family wealth and region-specific knowledge about community health care access positively affects child nutrition status measured by height-for-age and weight-for-age. However, these nutrition gains can be reinforced or tempered by differences in mother's education and/or her access to community health services. These findings suggest that interventions which enhance public knowledge about availability and access to health care could strengthen more general development-oriented child nutrition-enhancing interventions, such as poverty reduction or growth in health services infrastructure.
Article
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Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a serious health problem among young children in Bangladesh. PEM increases childhood morbidity and mortality. Information is needed on the major risk factors for PEM to assist with the design and targeting of appropriate prevention programmes. To compare the underlying characteristics of children, aged 6-24 months, with or without severe underweight, reporting to the Dhaka Hospital of ICDDR,B in Bangladesh, a case-control study was conducted among 507 children with weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) < -3 and 500 comparison children from the same communities with WAZ > -2.5. There were no significant differences between the groups in age [overall mean+standard deviation (SD) 12.6 +/- 4.1 months] or sex ratio (44% girls), area of residence, or year of enrollment. Results of logistic regression analysis revealed that severely-underweight children were more likely to have: undernourished mothers [body mass index (BMI) < 18.5, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-5.4] who were aged < 19 years (AOR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.9-4.8) and completed < 5 years of education (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.9-3.8), had a history of shorter duration of predominant breastfeeding (< 4 months, AOR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.3), discontinued breastfeeding (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), and had higher birth-order (> 3 AOR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7); and fathers who were rickshaw-pullers or unskilled day-labourers (AOR = 4.4; 95% CI 3.1-6.1) and completed < 5 years of education (AOR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.2), came from poorer families (monthly income of Tk < 5,000, AOR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.9-3.8). Parental education, economic and nutritional characteristics, child-feeding practices, and birth-order were important risk factors for severe underweight in this population, and these characteristics can be used for designing and targeting preventive intervention programmes.
Article
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In 2003, the child mortality rate in Kenya was 115/1000 children compared to 88/1000 average for Sub-Saharan African countries. This study sought to determine the effect of maternal education on immunization (n=2,169) and nutritional status (n=5,949) on child's health. Cross-sectional data, Kenya Demographic Health Survey (KDHS)-2003 were used for data analyses. 80% of children were stunted and 49% were immunized. After controlling for confounding, overall, children born to mothers with only a primary education were 2.17 times more likely to be fully immunized compared to those whose mothers lacked any formal education, P<0.001. For nutrition, unadjusted results, children born to mothers with primary education were at 94% lower odds of having stunted growth compared to mothers with no primary education, P<0.01. Policy implications for child health in Kenya should focus on increasing health knowledge among women for better child health outcomes.
Article
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To determine how much of the variation in nutritional status of Bangladeshi children under 5 years old can be attributed to the socio-economic status of the family. Nutritional status used reference Z-scores of weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ). A 'possession score' was generated based on ownership of a radio, television, bicycle, motorcycle and telephone, and the availability of electricity, with categories of 0 to 4+ possessions. A five-point (quintile) 'poverty index' was created using principal component analysis. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004 was the source of data. A sample of 4891 children aged <5 years was obtained. Some 57.8 % of the sample was either stunted, wasted or underweight (7.7 % were stunted, wasted and underweight). Of those stunted (48.4 %), 25.7 % were also underweight. Underweight and wasting prevalences were 40.7 % and 14.3 %, respectively. Mean WAZ, HAZ and WHZ did not differ by sex. Children of mothers with no education or no possessions were, on average, about 1 sd more underweight and stunted than those with higher educated mothers or with 4+ possessions. The possession score provided much greater discrimination of undernutrition than the poverty index. Nearly 50 % of children from households with no possessions were stunted, wasted or underweight (only 27 % in the poorest quintile), compared with only 3-6 % of children from households with 4+ possessions (over 13 % in the richest quintile). Maternal education and possession score were the main predictors of a child's nutritional status. Possession score was a much better indicator of undernutrition than the poverty index.
Article
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A secondary analysis of data for 150 children under the age of five was carried out in three villages of El Fau rural area of Gadarif state. The community mainly consists of farmers of a semi nomadic nature who own different sizes of herds and agricultural lands; they are the farmers of the Arabic pedigree. The rest of the community is workers from western Sudan, who were brought from their original areas to enhance the nomadic settlement strategy of the Sudanese government in the mid seventies. These worker groups comprise of different tribes namely Tama , Hawsa , Birgid , Masalet and Folany . Farming is the major activity practiced almost by all the community members and the government controls the farming system. The study was carried out to investigate some of the social and economic factors, which have a direct and indirect effect on feeding patterns and nutritional status of children under age of five. Mothers were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire, about the social norms affecting both mother and child’s nutritional and health status, in addition to the feeding habits of the children (including breastfeeding and weaning practices). In addition, information was collected about the socio-economic status of the family. The income of the family was assessed. The results revealed low parental education (76.7% of the mothers and 54.0% of the fathers are illiterate), socioeconomic-demographic factors and poor nutrition of knowledge of mothers as well as and feeding practices led to the prevalence of nutritional aneamia (65.3% of the children with haemoglobin concentration of 50% or below) in addition to the prevalence of wasting, where 6% of the children are moderately malnourished and 3.3% of them are severely malnourished. It is recommended that an improvement in societal infrastructure, better maternal education and nutrition are needed to maintain the children’s nutritional status in several rural areas of Sudan.
Book
This third edition of Fran Baum's The New Public Health is the most comprehensive book available on the new public health. It offers students the opportunity to gain a sense of the scope of the new public health visions, and combines theoretical and practical material to assist students to understand the social and economic determinants of health. Based on the premise of previous editions - that the new public health offers the chance of greatly improved equity by raising health world health standards - this new edition has been fully revised to reflect recent changes in the theory and practice of the new public health. PART ONE - APPROACHES TO PUBLIC HEALTH ; 1. Understanding health - definitions and perspectives ; 2. A history of public health ; 3. The new public health evolves ; PART TWO - POLITICAL ECONOMY OF PUBLIC HEALTH ; 4. Politics and ideologies: the invisible hands of public health ; 5. Globalisation and health ; PART THREE - RESEARCHING PUBLIC HEALTH ; 6. Research for a new public health ; 7. Epidemiology and public health ; 8. Survey research methods in public health ; 9. Qualitative research methods ; 10. Planning and evaluation of community-based health promotion ; PART FOUR - HEALTH INEQUITIES: PROFILES, PATTERNS AND EXPLANATIONS ; 11. Changing health and illness profiles in the twenty first century: Global and Australian perspectives ; 12. Patterns of Health Inequities in Australia ; 13. The social determinants of health inequity ; PART FIVE - UNHEALTHY ENVIRONMENTS: GLOBAL AND AUSTRALIAN PERSPECTIVES ; 14. Global physical threats to the environment and public health ; 15. Urbanisation, population, communities and environments: Global trends ; PART SIX - HEALTHY SOCIETIES AND ENVIRONMENTS ; 16. Healthy economic policies ; 17. Sustainable infrastructure for health and well-being ; 18. Creating more equitable societies ; PART SEVEN - HEALTH PROMOTION STRATEGIES FOR ACHIEVING HEALTHY AND EQUITABLE SOCIETIES ; 19. Medical interventions ; 20. Behavioural health promotion and its limitations ; 21. Participation and health promotion ; 22. Community development in health ; 23. Healthy settings, cities, communities and organisations: Strategies for the twenty-first century ; 24. Public health policy ; PART EIGHT - PUBLIC HEALTH IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY ; 25. Linking the local, national and global ; Appendix: Public health keywords
Article
The high prevalence of child under-nutrition remains a profound challenge in the developing world. Maternal autonomy was examined as a determinant of breast feeding and infant growth in children 3-5 months of age. Cross-sectional baseline data on 600 mother-infant pairs were collected in 60 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. The mothers were enrolled in a longitudinal randomized behavioral intervention trial. In addition to anthropometric and demographic measures, an autonomy questionnaire was administered to measure different dimensions of autonomy (e.g. decision-making, freedom of movement, financial autonomy, and acceptance of domestic violence). We conducted confirmatory factor analysis on maternal autonomy items and regression analyses on infant breast feeding and growth after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic variables, and accounting for infant birth weight, infant morbidity, and maternal nutritional status. Results indicated that mothers with higher financial autonomy were more likely to breastfeed 3-5 month old infants. Mothers with higher participation in decision-making in households had infants that were less underweight and less wasted. These results suggest that improving maternal financial and decision-making autonomy could have a positive impact on infant feeding and growth outcomes.