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Effect of Steam Sauna Bath on Fasting Blood Glucose Level in Healthy Adults

  • Bharati Vidyapeeth deemed to be University Medical College and Hospital Sangli
  • Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University) Medial College Sangli


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Vandana V Shiralkar et al
Effect of Steam Sauna Bath on Fasting Blood Glucose
Level in Healthy Adults
1Vandana V Shiralkar, 2Pratap E Jagtap, 3Gajanan J Belwalkar, 4Nitin S Nagane, 5Sushama P Dhonde
amount of blood glucose rise is one of the risk markers
for developing type II diabetes, so keeping it down is
important for good health.
Steam sauna increases insulin sensitivity. Insulin is
an endocrine hormone that primarily regulates glucose
homeostasis by promoting the uptake of glucose into
muscle and adipose tissue. In humans, there is more evi-
dence indicating that the major anabolic effects of insulin
on skeletal muscle are due to its inhibitory action on
protein degradation.
Intermittent hyperthermia (by steam sauna) has been
known to reduce insulin resistance in obese, diabetic
mouse model. There was a 31% decrease in insulin levels
and a notable reduction in blood glucose levels, suggest-
ing resensitization to insulin.5 Nowadays, because of
speedily changing lifestyles, lack of exercise, sedentary
life systems, and stress, early onset of diabetes is common,
with overweight and obesity.
For such people, steam bath is a boon. Steam bath
appears to be useful as it increases the rate of metabolism.
Most people are unaware of the health benefits of sweat-
ing and use of steam bath for improving their health.
Heating of the body in steam bath creates “sensible per-
spiration.” Producing 1 gm of sweat requires 0.585 Kcal.
A person can sweat off up to 500 gm in steam sauna
consuming nearly 300 Kcal, which is equal to running
2 to 3 miles. It gives the benefits of exercise without exer-
tion.6 Thus, “artificially induced fever leads to therapeutic
sweating.” Moreover, when the body temperature rises,
blood vessels start to dilate. This encourages blood flow
and circulation within the body.
The function of the vascular endothelium is impaired
in subjects with lifestyle-related diseases, such as hyper-
tension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and
smoking. Vascular endothelium is a monolayer covering
the intimal surface and plays a pivotal role in maintaining
vasomotor tone, coagulation, fibrinolysis and vascular
structure, modulating inflammatory response, and oxi-
dative stress.
Endothelial cells secrete many substances, including
nitric oxide, prostacyclin, endothelial-derived hyperpo-
larizing factors, endothelin, thromboxane, growth factors
cytokines, and others. Endothelial function is determined
by the balance among these substances.7 Thermal therapies,
such as taking a warm water bath or steam sauna, induces
systemic vasodilatation.
1Assistant Professor, 2Professor and Head, 3Associate
Professor, 4,5Professor
1-5Department of Biochemistry, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed
University Medical College and Hospital, Sangli, Maharashtra
Corresponding Author: Vandana V Shiralkar, Assistant
Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Bharati Vidyapeeth
Deemed University Medical College and Hospital, Sangli
Maharashtra, India, Phone: +912332374502, e-mail:
The aim of the study was to know the effects of steam sauna bath
on fasting blood glucose levels (FBGLs). A total of 80 subjects,
40 males and 40 females, in the age group of 30 to 50 years
were subjected to seven steam baths on alternate days. The
temperature of the steam sauna was maintained at 50°C and
each bath was taken for 15 minutes.
Blood for FBGL was taken before the rst steam bath and
blood was taken again after seven steam sauna baths and the
FBGL was estimated. The FBGLs after seven steam sauna
baths were signicantly decreased as compared with presteam
sauna FBGLs. Steam saunas may help in preventing hyper-
glycemia and hence diabetes mellitus. It is also benecial for
healthy, asymptomatic subjects.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Fasting blood glucose level,
Hyperthermia, Insulin sensitivity, Steam sauna bath.
How to cite this article: Shiralkar VV, Jagtap PE, Belwalkar GJ,
Nagane NS, Dhonde SP. Effect of Steam Sauna Bath on Fasting
Blood Glucose Level in Healthy Adults. Indian J Med Biochem
Source of support: Nil
Conict of interest: None
Steam baths were known to ancient Greeks and are a
traditional place for experiencing heat sessions. Accord-
ing to the Oxford dictionary, “Steam bath is a room filled
with hot steam for the purpose of cleaning and refreshing
the body and for relaxation.”1,2 Steam sauna operates
effectively at temperature of 50°C and humidity of 100%.
It is an important time-tested treatment which induces
perspiration naturally. The temperature of the body rises
and goes into a state of hyperthermia. The physiological
changes that occur are due in part to hyperthermia and
in part to the influence of the hormonal and nervous
systems which attempt to increase the heat loss.3,4 The
Effect of Steam Sauna Bath on Fasting Blood Glucose Level
Indian Journal of Medical Biochemistry, January-June 2018;22(1):18-21
Repeated sauna therapy (50°C for 15 minutes)
improves hemodynamic parameters, clinical symptoms,
cardiac function, and vascular endothelial function in
patients with congestive heart failure. One of the molecu-
lar mechanisms by which steam sauna improves endothe-
lial dysfunction in these subjects is increase in messenger
ribonucleic acid and protein levels of endothelial nitric
oxide synthase.7
There are very few studies on the effects of steam
sauna bath on blood glucose levels and particularly there
is very much scarcity in the study of effect of sauna on
blood glucose levels in healthy adults. Hence, the aim of
the present study was to determine the effect of steam
sauna bath on FBGLs in healthy adults.
The objective of the study was to assess the effects of
steam sauna bath on FBGL in healthy adults.
The present study was carried out in the Department of
Biochemistry, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University
Medical College and Hospital (BVDUMC&H), Sangli. The
study protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethical
Committee of BVDUMC&H, Sangli.
A total of 80 volunteers, apparently healthy 40 men
and 40 women, between the age group 30 and 50 years,
were selected randomly. They did not practice any sport
and had not used steam bath before. The female subjects
did not report any menstrual irregularities. None of the
female subjects used any hormonal contraception.
After informed consent, blood samples were collected
before first steam sauna bath and second blood samples
were collected after seven steam sauna baths given on
alternate days. The temperature of sauna was maintained
at 50°C. The time duration of each steam sauna bath was
15 minutes. The subjects were asked to drink plenty of
water before and after the bath to prevent dehydration
due to excessive perspiration.
Steam sauna bath was well tolerated by all subjects
without any complaints during and after the procedure.
Fasting blood glucose levels were assayed in both pre-
and postsauna bath blood samples on fully automatic
biochemistry analyzer.8,9 All values were expressed as
mean + standard deviation (SD). Comparison of FBGLs
before and after sauna was done in total 80 subjects as
well as in males and females.
The glucose oxidase–peroxidase method was used.
SteamLife Portable Steam Bath was used for the project.
SteamLife is an easy-to-use portable steam bath unit that
helps you detoxify, rejuvenate, and burn extra calories.
It is easy, convenient, and safe to use. We can take steam
bath on our own convenience, in our personal room, while
watching TV, reading newspaper, talking on phone, etc.
It is compact and portable so that you can carry it
with you anywhere.
The mean FBGL before steam sauna in all the subjects
was 115.94 mg/dL + 26.434 SD and the mean FBGL after
seven steam baths in all the subjects was 97.19 mg/dL +
19.553 SD. There is decrease in mean FBGL in all subjects
before and after the steam bath. This difference is statisti-
cally significant (Table 1).
The mean FBGL before steam sauna bath in male
subjects was 116.9 mg/dL + 22.676 SD and after seven
steam baths, it was 95.98 mg/dL +15.662 SD (Table 2).
There is statistically significant difference (decrease in
mean FBGL) in mean FBSL of male subjects before and
after the steam bath.
The mean FBGL before steam bath in female subjects
was 114.98 mg/dL + 29.989 SD and after seven steam
saunas, it was 98.4 mg/dL + 22.938 SD (Table 3).
Table 1: Fasting blood glucose level (mg/dL) before and after
steam bath in all the 80 subjects
statistics Mean n
mean t-value p-value
115.94 80 26.434 2.955 14.107 <0.001
97.19 80 19.553 2.186
Table 2: Fasting blood glucose level (mg/dL) before and after
steam sauna in male subjects
statistics Mean n
mean t-value p-value
FBSL (male)
116.9 40 22.676 3.585 12.749 <0.001
After FBSL
95.98 40 15.662 2.476
Table 3: Fasting blood glucose level (mg/dL) before and after
steam sauna in female subjects
statistics Mean n
mean t-value p-value
114.98 40 29.989 4.742 8.068 <0.001
98.4 40 22.938 3.627
Vandana V Shiralkar et al
Thus, there is statistically significant difference
(decrease in mean FBGL) in mean FBGL of female subjects
before and after the steam bath.
Statistically significant difference is not found in mean
FBGL of males and females before and after steam bath
(Table 4).
The regulation of the rate of metabolic changes in the
human body depends mainly on the functioning of the
nervous and endocrine system and the activity of key
enzymes in peripheral tissues. Insulin is an endocrine
hormone that primarily regulates glucose homeostasis,
particularly by promoting the uptake of glucose into
muscle and adipose tissue.
Insulin regulates protein metabolism in skeletal
muscle by two mechanisms: (1) By stimulating the uptake
of amino acids into skeletal muscle and (2) there is more
evidence indicating that the major anabolic effects of
insulin on skeletal muscle are due to the inhibitory action
on protein degradation. Thus, hyperthermic condition-
ing may promote muscle growth by improving insulin
sensitivity and decreasing muscle protein catabolism.10,11
Steam sauna increases blood flow to the skeletal muscles,
keeping them fueled with glucose and oxygen, while
removing by-products of metabolic process, such as
lactic acid.
This may be due to increase in metabolic rate result-
ing from excitation of the sympathoadrenal system and
an increase in the internal temperature of the body by
steam sauna bath.12 One small pilot study from 1999 had
eight type II diabetics use steam sauna for 30 minutes a
day, 6 days a week for 3 weeks. The volunteers’ average
blood glucose level went down significantly, dropping
more than 10%.
Overall, research indicates that passive heating, such
as a steam bath can increase the rate calories are burnt
by the people and may help reduce blood glucose spikes.
In the long term, these may assist with weight control
and improve control of blood glucose which would help
persons with type II diabetes mellitus.13
Steve Faulkner of Loughborough University tested
the men’s blood for heat shock proteins (HSPs) before
and after steam bath and exercise, as they are released in
response to heat stress and exercise. In Faulkner’s study,
the volunteers were healthy individuals without a history
of diabetes. According to Faulkner, peak glucose was
actually quite a bit lower after the bath, compared with
exercise. He also concluded that HSPs are released when
body temperature rises.
These proteins are part of the defense system and help
shunt glucose from blood stream into skeletal muscles,
thus reducing blood glucose levels. They are released
when the body is under stress, such as inflammation,
infection, and exercise. From Faulkner’s perspective,
increasing the core temperature of the body through hot
baths and saunas would be most beneficial if one strug-
gles with insulin resistance and controlling blood sugar,
or is physically unable to exercise.14,15 Faulkner did his
study to find out whether there are any alternatives to
exercise which could assist people in maintaining health.
He conducted a study on 10 sedentary males, bathed
for an hour at 40°C with continuous glucose monitoring
in subsequent 24 hours. The same participants were asked
to do cycling on separate days. He compared an hour-long
hot bath with same period of cycling and found that less
strenuous activity produced surprising results.
Overall, the research suggested that passive heating,
such as steam bath, can increase the rate of calorie
burning by people and may help to reduce blood sugar
spikes. He also commented that, these findings may help
weight control and possibly improve control of blood
sugar, which would help people with type II diabetes.14
The anti-inflammatory response to exercise is important
as it helps to protect us against infection and illness, but
chronic inflammation is associated with a reduced ability
to fight off diseases.
Thus, repeated passive heating may contribute to
reducing chronic inflammation, which is often present
with long-term diseases, such as type II diabetes.14,16
It was seen that people with obesity and diabetes tend
to have a lower response to HSPs, which suggests that
they may be important in helping to control our blood
glucose levels.14 Recent research by Dr Mercola confirms
that more calories are burned when the body temperature
rises in a hot bath, and it also has a beneficial effect on
blood glucose.17 Dr Richard Beever did his study on the
effect of far-infrared saunas on cardiovascular benefits
in people with type II diabetes mellitus. This was done
Table 4: Comparison of FBGL (mg/dL) in male and female subjects before and after steam sauna
BGender n Mean
Standard error
mean Z p-value
Before FBSL Male 40 116.9 22.676 3.585 0.324 0.747
Female 40 114.98 29.989 4.742
After FBSL Male 40 95.98 15.662 2.476 –0.552 0.583
Female 40 98.4 22.938 3.627
Effect of Steam Sauna Bath on Fasting Blood Glucose Level
Indian Journal of Medical Biochemistry, January-June 2018;22(1):18-21
on 15 people with thrice-weekly infrared sessions over a
period of 3 months. The results were: mean systolic blood
pressure decreased by 6.4 mm Hg, waist circumference
decreased by 5.1 cm. But there was no decrease in FBGL.
In our study, seven steam sauna baths were given to
80 subjects on alternate days. The duration of each bath
was 15 minutes and there was a significant decrease in
FBGL after the seven steam baths. Thus, steam sauna may
be a nonpharmacological therapeutic intervention in life-
style modification. It could prevent the current epidemic
of lifestyle-induced chronic disease.18-21
Limitations of the Study
The present study and also most of the previous studies
looked at the short-term effects of taking steam bath.
So, more detailed long-term study on a larger group
of subjects (control as well as cases of diabetes mellitus)
is required to help subjects with diabetes mellitus.
Steam sauna activates many biological systems in the
body including the endocrine system. Majority of research
on the influence of steam bath on volunteers using steam
sauna showed that hyperthermia causes a shift of metabo-
lism toward carbohydrate changes. Steam sauna is an
important modality in biological regeneration and is used
by athletes and people who do not practice any exercise.
Thus, the aim of the present study was to know the
effects of steam sauna bath on FBGLs in healthy adults.
It can be concluded that there is a significant decrease in
the FBGLs after seven steam saunas.
The authors are thankful to the Dean, Bharati Vidyapeeth
Deemed University Medical College and Hospital for
providing laboratory facility to carry out this work.
They are also thankful to all the 80 subjects who par-
ticipated in the study.
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... Several studies on the use of foot spa sauna bathing for blood glucose have been carried out, for example, the stud Shiralkar et al (2018), used the steam sauna bath method to explain changes in blood glucose levels in fasting people, and the study found a decrease in mean scores. Average fasting blood glucose level is 14%. 3 In addition, Apiyu massage was used to explain changes in sensitivity levels and glucose levels, and the study explained that there was a significant difference between measurements before and after massage using the Apiyu device at the average sensitivity level for pre-massage. ...
... Average fasting blood glucose level is 14%. 3 In addition, Apiyu massage was used to explain changes in sensitivity levels and glucose levels, and the study explained that there was a significant difference between measurements before and after massage using the Apiyu device at the average sensitivity level for pre-massage. test and post-test on the right foot (pretest 9.49, post-test 9.64; p-value = 0.011) and left leg (pre-test 9.55, post-test 9.80; p-value = 0.004), and (b) blood glucose levels (pre-test 271.6, post-test 220.7; p value = 0.001). ...
... The previous study found that there was a significant decrease in FBGL after seven steam baths. 3 Therefore, steam saunas can be considered one of the non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions in the lifestyle modification of T2DM patients. ...
Full-text available
Introduction: There was evidence that diabatic foot spa has a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels, but the combination of diabetic foot spa and sauna bathing have never been carried out to decrease blood glucose. The aim of this study was to analyze the combination of diabetic foot spa and sauna bathing therapy and its impact on blood glucose levels. Methods: The data studied were blood glucose levels. This data can be obtained after administering a combination of diabetic foot spa and sauna bathing and afterward. Then this data was analyzed using an independent t test with p value of 0.000 (p <0.005). Results: : This study showed that 60 respondents, mostly 58.3% were aged 45- 60 years, almost half of the respondents (48.3%) had suffered from DM for <1- 5 years, (70%) women, from the independent t test obtained blood glucose p value= 0.000 (p <0.05). Conclusion: There was a decrease level of blood glucose after the patients receive the diabetic foot spa and sauna bathing therapy.
... A Study conducted by Hussain J et al., have concluded that regular dry sauna bath has potential health benefits [12]. Shiralkar et al. [13] concluded that the continuous seven days of steam, sauna shows the significant decrease in the fasting blood glucose levels in the peoples who do not practice any exercise and also athletes. ...
Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the immediate effects of steam bath and sauna bath on body composition and Heart Rate Variabilities in individuals with obesity. Study Design: Prospective randomised comparative trial. Materials and Methods: Participants visiting Shantivana Nature cure hospital with age ranging from 18 to 32, without any comorbidities and Body Mass Index (BMI) more than 31 kg/m2 were appraised about the study protocol and after getting informed consent were divided into Steam bath group (n = 50) and Sauna bath group (n = 50) and were administered one sitting of Steam bath and sauna bath for 15 minutes. The Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and Body Fat Analyser data was recorded before and after one sitting of treatment. The data was analysed using JASP (version software and parametric and non-parametric tests were employed based on the normal distribution. Results: Marked changes were observed in BMI (p= 0.022), Total Body Water (TBW; p<0.0001), Heart Rate (HR; p= 0.002), RR Interval (p< 0.001), NN50 (p=0.013), pNN50 (p=0.0001), variables in the Steam bath group after comparing with the baseline. In the Sauna bath group significant changes (in %) were seen in Body weight (BW; p<0.001), BMI (p<0.001), Free-Fat Mass (FFM; p= 0.004), Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR; p< 0.001), Systolic Blood Pressure SBP; p= 0.008), HR (p<0.001), Mean RR (p<0.0001), RMSSD (p=0.005), pNN50 (p<0.0001), Very low frequency (VLF; p<0.0001), Low Frequency (LF; p<0.001), High Frequency (HF; p<0.001), LF/HF (p<0.001). When comparing steam bath with sauna bath group, the variables Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP; p=0.002), HR (p= 0.021), RMSSD (p<0.001), RMSSD (p<0.001), NN50 (p<0.001), pNN50 (p<0.001), VLF (p<0.001) showed significant changes. Conclusion: The present study concludes that single dose of steam bath and sauna bath reduces the body weight by acting on the total body water percentage, reduces diastolic blood pressure, and causes vagal dominance. Sauna bath also increases basal metabolic rate which further helps in improving metabolism in the body and further helps in reducing body weight.
... The results showed statistically significant lowering in fasting glucose level. The reduction in fasting blood sugar was in accordance with the results of a study conducted by Shiralkar et al. [28]. There is no rationalistic explanation to this effect, but a plausible conjecture that Ḥammām-i-yābis increases blood flow to the skeletal muscles, fuels them with glucose and oxygen, removes by-products of metabolic process such as lactic acid, enhances metabolic rate owing to excitation of the sympathoadrenal system and increases the internal temperature of the body, resulting in, thereby, reduction of blood glucose level. ...
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Objectives: This study intended to evaluate the efficacy of Ḥammām-i-yabis (dry bath) in metabolic syndrome as primary objective and perceived improvement and changes in quality of life as secondary objective. Methods: The study was designed as single arm, open-labelled, pre and post without control clinical trial comprising 30 diagnosed cases of metabolic syndrome belonging to 20-50 years of age of either sex. The enrolled patients were exposed to the dry heat of Ḥammām-i-yābis for 15 min at a temperature of 60 degree centigrade on every third day for a duration of 30 days (A total of 10 sittings). Objective parameters comprising systolic &diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference were assessed on every follow up, while other objective parameters (FBS, HDL and Serum Triglycerides) were assessed before and after the study. Results: Significant statistical difference was observed in objective parameters. Two tailed paired Student's t-test, (for pre and post) and Repeated Measure ANOVA (for 0, 15th and 30th day) were used to find the significance of mean change in study parameters. No significant adverse change appeared in safety parameters. Conclusions: Ḥammām-i-yābis was found effective, safer, more feasible and less expensive regimenal modality for the patients of Metabolic Syndrome.
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The importance of breastfeeding has strong evidence[1]. But in reality, there are many obstacles in its implementation[2]. Data shows that exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia is 89.4% (2020). Physical factors due to complications or fatigue after giving birth also have an impact on breast milk production, so mothers tend to fail to exclusively breastfeed[3][1]. A non-pharmacological method that can reduce postpartum stress, increase comfort and body fitness so as to help stimulate breast milk production is the herbal steam bath.[4]. This is a culture of local wisdom that is still preserved in various parts of Indonesia as a therapy for postpartum mothers. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of herbal steam bath on breast milk production for postpartum mothers in Surabaya. The design of this study was a quasi-experimental (two group pre-post test design). This research was conducted on postpartum mothers in Surabaya. The study was conducted for 6 months. Determination of the sample using purposive sampling technique. The treatment group was given intervention for 1 week as much as 2x, namely Herbal Steam Bath for 5-20 minutes. Endorphin massage was performed in the control group for 1 week with a frequency of 2 times/week for 20 minutes. Each group was given a pre-test and post-test to determine the production of breast milk with indicators of increased baby weight, increased frequency of urination and defecation. Data analysis with independent T-test and Mann Whitney. The results showed that there was a significant effect of herbal steam baths on increasing breast milk production with a value of = 0.012 or <0.05. There was a significant difference in milk production in the treatment group compared to the control group with a value of = 0.004 or <0.05. Conclusion: By doing of herbal steam baths it can increase milk production.
Objectives: Steam bath is extensively used around the world. However, its physiological influence is not understood in detail. Objective of the current study is to examine the effects of 12 sessions of steam bath on spirometric parameters among healthy participants. Methods: Forty healthy adult volunteers of both sex (14 male and 26 female) aged 26.38 ± 8 years participated in the study. A steam bath session (10-15 min) was given once a week for 12 weeks. The spirometric parameters [forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1, L), forced vital capacity (FVC, L), FEV1/FVC ratio (absolute value), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF, L/s) and peak expiratory flow (PEF, L/s)] were measured by Helios 401 spirometer. Results: Compared to baseline, post-intervention spirometric parameters showed significant (p<0.05) improvement in the FVC (82.40 ± 11.24 to 96.91 ± 18.76), FEV1 (86.13 ± 14.39 to 91.17 ± 12.48), FEV1/FVC ratio (86.96 ± 3.64 to 93.75 ± 4.80), MMEF 25-75% (86.96 ± 3.64 to 94.16 ± 11.57), peak expiratory flow rate (79.82 ± 14.90 to 92.18 ± 18.96). Conclusions: Taking steam bath improves the spirometric parameters of healthy adult participants. However, future randomized controlled trials with on a large scale have to done to validate our findings.
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Objectives. To study physiological, therapeutic and adverse effects of sauna bathing with special reference to chronic diseases, medication and special situations (pregnancy, children). Study design. A literature review. Methods. Experiments of sauna bathing were accepted if they were conducted in a heated room with sufficient heat (80 to 90 degrees C), comfortable air humidity and adequate ventilation. The sauna exposure for five to 20 minutes was usually repeated one to three times. The experiments were either acute (one day), or conducted over a longer period (several months). Results. The research data retrieved were most often based on uncontrolled research designs with subjects accustomed to bathing since childhood. Sauna was well tolerated and posed no health risks to healthy people from childhood to old age. Baths did not appear to be particularly risky to patients with hypertension, coronary heart disease and congestive heart failure, when they were medicated and in a stable condition. Excepting toxemia cases, no adverse effects of bathing during pregnancy were found, and baths were not teratogenic. In musculoskeletal disorders, baths may relieve pain. Medication in general was of no concern during a bath, apart from antihypertensive medication, which may predispose to orthostatic hypotension after bathing. Conclusions. Further research is needed with sound experimental design, and with subjects not accustomed to sauna, before sauna bathing can routinely be used as a non-pharmacological treatment regimen in certain medical disorders to relieve symptoms and improve wellness.
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To study and determine the link of different degrees of thyroid dysfunction and kidney function in general population of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa attending Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM) Peshawar KPK, Pakistan. Kidney failure and electrolyte imbalance are often associated with hypothyroidism whereas, in hyperthyroidism apparently Serum Creatinine level increases. Serum Creatinine was measured colorimetrically using Elitech diagnostic kit on Microlab 200 at Pakistan Medical Research Council (PMRC), Khyber Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan. Coefficient of correlation (r) was calculated using SPSS version 16.00 as a soft ware statistical package. We found no positive correlation between thyroid function tests and Creatinine in patients suffering from hyperthyroidism. However there was a positive relationship between thyroid stimulating hormone and tri-iodothyronine with serum Creatinine. Tetra-iodothyronine showed a negative correlation for hypothyroids.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in 13–18-year-old schoolchildren of Nalagarh, Himachal Pradesh, India using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment need (IOTN) and to analyze the treatment needs between males and females and correlation between the esthetic component (AC) and dental health component (DHC) of IOTN. Subjects and Methods: The sample comprised 2000 school children (1125 females and 875 males) who had not undergone orthodontic treatment. No radiographs, study casts, were used; IOTN was calculated from clinical examination. Results: DHC results showed that little need for orthodontic treatment was found in 31.6% and moderate need in 30.85%. A great need was estimated at 37.55%. Severe contact point displacement of more than 4 mm was the most common occlusal feature in the definite treatment need group, followed by increased overjet, impeded eruption of teeth, and anterior or posterior cross bite. AC results showed that little need for orthodontic treatment was in 86.15%, moderate need in 8.90%, and great need in 4.95%. Limitations: Index does not consider midline discrepancy, soft tissue abnormalities, and AC does not include Class III and Class II div 2 malocclusion photographs. Conclusions: There seems a discrepancy in the proportion of children needing orthodontic treatment on esthetic and dental health grounds. This study provides baseline data on the need and demand for orthodontic treatment among the sample which is important for planning public orthodontic and dental services.
Fetal active and quiet periods of behavioral activity were determined at 28 to 32 weeks' and 36 to 40 weeks' gestational age in insulin-dependent diabetic pregnancies and in normal pregnancies resulting in infants with weights appropriate for gestational age. Fetal active and quiet periods were based on observations of fetal movements and long-term fetal heart rate variability. The number of fetal active-quiet periods, the average duration of fetal quiet periods, and the average duration of fetal active periods were the three parameters evaluated. In the normal pregnancy groups, with increasing fetal gestational age from 28 to 32 weeks to 36 to 40 weeks there was an increase in the length of the active and quiet periods with fewer active-quiet cycles per hour. The fetuses of the diabetic women had findings similar to those of the normal group at 28 to 32 weeks; these findings were essentially unchanged at 36 to 40 weeks. These findings suggest delayed development of the active-quiet cycles in these diabetic pregnancies.
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malocclusion among predominantly Yoruba adolescents in lbadan, Nigeria, and to compare the results with those of other authors. The sample for this epidemiological survey comprised 636 secondary school students, (334 [52.5%] boys and 302 [47.5%] girls), aged 12-17 years (mean age, 14.72 +/- 1.16 SD). The subjects were randomly selected, and none had received previous orthodontic treatment. Occlusal anteroposterior relationships were assessed based on the Angle classification. Other variables examined were overjet, overbite, crowding, and midline diastema. The results showed that about 24% of the subjects had normal occlusions, 50% had Class I malocclusions, 14% had Class II malocclusions, and 12% had Class III malocclusions. Over 66% had normal overbites, and 14% and 9% had increased and reduced values, respectively. Overjet relationship was normal in 66%, increased in 16%, and decreased in 8%. Crowding was observed in 20% of the subjects and midline diastema in 37%. No statistically significant differences were observed for any occlusal variables (P >.05). Class I malocclusion is the most prevalent occlusal pattern among these Nigerian students. Different patterns of Class II and Class III might be present for the dominant ethnic groups in the country. Therefore, a survey of the occlusal pattern in southeastern Nigerians (Ibo ethnic group) would appear to be worthwhile.
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of severe malocclusion requiring orthognathic surgery on self-esteem (SE) and quality of life (QOL) in female adult orthognathic patients in comparison to a group with minor malocclusions seeking only orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: Female patients who were 18 to 30 years old who presented for an orthodontic consultation for correction of a malocclusion were enrolled over an 18 month period. In Group one, all patients required a two jaw surgery and they were subdivided into those with a Class II or Class III malocclusion. This group was further subdivided into those with and without a clinically significant asymmetry. A second comparison group was selected as having a minor malocclusion (MMG). The minor malocclusion group (MMG) included patients who had a Class I molar relationship with less than 5 mm on the irregularity index in the upper anterior teeth. Each participant completed the Rosenberg's self-esteem scale (RSE) and the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ) before starting treatment. The RSE and OQLQ measurements were compared using one-way ANOVA and Scheffe's multiple omparison. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: MMG (n=52) showed a significantly better RSE and OQOL values than did Class II (n=37) and Class III (n=47) (P <0.01). In OQLQ measurements, social aspects, esthetics, and oral function scores were better in the MMG group (P <0.01). Only the awareness component did not show a significant difference. There was no significant difference in QOL or SE between Class II and Class III orthognathic patients. The influence of asymmetry on RSE and OQLQ was not significant in Class II and III group. Conclusion: In female adults, orthognathic patients showed significant impairments in QOL and SE compared with mild malocclusion patients.
We present a new technique using MRA instead of the usual DSA to provide guidance in the treatment of venous vascular malformations. When one performs this embolization procedure, appropriate needle positioning within the malformation must be confirmed before injection of the sclerosing agent to prevent untoward complications. Time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics-MRA can accurately depict the angioarchitecture of the lesion, which substantially reduces the total radiation dose in these patients who are commonly in the pediatric age group and usually require numerous treatment episodes.