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2017 update - Air Quality Laboratory & Olfactometry Laboratory equipment - Koziel's lab

Authors:
EQUIPMENT
Major equipment in Dr. Koziel’s laboratory (koziel@iastate.edu) see reference list below for
complete descriptions of equipment used in previous research:
For odorous VOC gas quantification:
- VOCs: Agilent 6890 GC-MS-FID-PID (5975C)
- VOCs: multidimensional GC-MS-Olfactometry (based on Agilent GC-MS platform)
equipped with thermal desorption for sorbent tubes.
- NH3 and H2S (Drager electrochemical portable meter). INNOVA (NH3, CO2)
- Greenhouse gas GC-FID-ECD (for CO2, CH4, and N2O)
-
Figure 1. Thermal desorption - multidimensional gas chromatograph mass
spectrometer olfactometer (TD-MDGC-MS-O) for VOCs analysis. Gas samples were
collected on sorbent tubes in the field, brought to the lab and desorbed/introduced to
MDGC-MS-O for analysis via thermal desorption (TD) autosampler. Quantified mass of
VOCs and volume of gas sample was used to estimate gas concentration.
Figure 2. Panelist uses special software simultaneous sensory analyses on a thermal
desorption - multidimensional gas chromatograph mass spectrometer olfactometer
(TD-MDGC-MS-O) system for VOCs analysis. Photo of a computer screen used during
analyses.
Figure 3. Simultaneous sensory analyses on a thermal desorption - multidimensional gas
chromatograph mass spectrometer olfactometer (TD-MDGC-MS-O) system for VOCs
analysis.
Figure 4. Advantage of using simultaneous sensory analyses. Trained panelists uses
nose to identify odorous compounds that can be easily omitted by chemical analyses
only.
-
Figure 5. Drager portable gas analyzer used to measure NH3 and H2S from the vent line of
the manure storage reactor via the gas sampling station.
-
-
Figure 6. Top Left: SRI Greenhouse Gas GC. Top Right: Sample vial cleaning system.
Sample analysis of GHGs. Bottom Left: Gas sample is injected on the GC. Bottom Right:
Chromatogram of gas sampling showing CH4, CO2 and N2O (Koziel’s lab, ISU).
For standardized odor measurement:
- AC’SCENT Dilution Olfactometer
Figure 7. ACSCENT dilution olfactometry (Koziel’s lab, ISU)
For gas and odor sampling:
- Sorbent tubes, portable pumps, automated thermal desorption and solid phase
microextraction will be used for aroma and volatiles sampling, sample preparation, and
sample introduction to GC-MS systems.
- Vacu-chambers for odor sample collection.
- Nasal Rangers (portable olfactometers)
- Wind-tunnel for flux measurements (gaseous emissions from area sources) (Maurer et al.,
2017)
- Flux chambers for GHGs measurements.
- Odor bag making facility.
- Miscellaneous air sampling equipment.
- SOPs, established QC/QA.
Koziel lab. Laboratory-scale system for controlled studies of treatments and mitigation of odor
and gaseous emissions at Iowa State University.
Equipment in pilot-scale studies:
- D. Koziel controls pilot plant facility in the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems
Engineering where n=5 treatments can be tested in triplicates in any given time.
Figure 9. Pilot scale reactor setup. Fifteen 36 gal PVC reactors to hold swine manure with
adjustable ventilation flow control and emission sampling stations (Koziel’s lab).
References with full description of equipment listed in this section:
1. Maurer, D., J.A. Koziel, K. Bruning, D.B. Parker. 2017. Farm-scale testing of soybean
peroxidase and calcium peroxide for surficial swine manure treatment and mitigation of
odorous VOCs, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide emissions. Atmospheric Environment, 166, 467-
478.
2. Maurer, D., J.A. Koziel, K. Kalus, D. Andersen, S. Opalinski. 2017. Pilot-scale testing
of non-activated biochar for swine manure treatment and mitigation of ammonia,
hydrogen sulphide, odorous VOCs, and greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainability, 9(6),
929, doi: 10.3390/su9060929.
3. Kalus, K., S. Opalinski, D. Maurer, S. Rice, J.A. Koziel, M. Korczynski, Z.
Dobrzanski, R. Kolacz, B. Gutarowska. Odour reducing microbial-mineral additive for
poultry manure treatment. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 2017,
11(3), 7. doi: 10.1007/s11783-017-0928-4.
4. Koziel, J.A., Nguyen, L.T., T.D. Glanville, H.K. Ahn, T.S. Frana, J.H. van Leeuwen.
2017. Method for sampling and analysis of volatile biomarkers in process gas from
aerobic digestion of poultry carcass using time-weighted average SPME and GC-MS.
Food Chemistry, 232, 799-807. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.062.
5. Maurer, D., J.A. Koziel, K. Bruning. 2017. Field scale measurement of greenhouse gas
emissions from land applied swine manure. Frontiers of Environmental Science &
Engineering, 2017, 11(3), 1, doi: 10.1007/s11783-017-0915-9. http://rdcu.be/qAsm
6. Maurer, D., J.A. Koziel, K. Bruning, D.B. Parker. 2017. Pilot-scale testing of
renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs,
ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide gas emissions. Atmospheric Environment, 150, 313-
321. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.11.021.
7. Parker, D.B., M.B. Rhoades, B.H. Baek, J.A. Koziel, H.M. Waldrip, R.W. Todd. 2016.
Urease inhibitor for reducing ammonia emissions from an open-lot beef cattle feedyard
in the Texas High Plains. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 32(6), 823-832. doi:
10.13031/aea.32.11897.
8. Parker, D.B., M. Hayes, T. Brown-Brandl, B.L. Woodbury, M.J. Spiehs, J.A. Koziel.
2016. Surface application of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide for reducing
odorous VOC emissions from swine manure slurry. Applied Engineering in
Agriculture, 32(4), 389-398. doi: 10.13031/aea.32.11672.
9. Cai, L., J.A. Koziel, S. Zhang, A.J. Heber, E.L. Cortus, D.B. Parker, S.J. Hoff, G. Sun,
K.Y. Heathcote, L.D. Jacobson, N. Akdeniz, B.P. Hetchler, S.D. Bereznicki, E.A.
Caraway, T.T. Lim. 2015. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings:
Part 3 – chemical emissions. Transactions of ASABE. 58(5), 1333-1347.
doi.10.13031/trans.58.11199.
10. Zhang, S., J.A. Koziel, L. Cai, S.J. Hoff, K. Heathcote, L. Chen, L. Jacobson, N.
Akdeniz, B. Hetchler, D.B. Parker, E. Caraway, A.J. Heber, S. Bereznicki. 2015. Odor
and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 5 – correlations between
odor intensities and chemical concentrations (GC-MS/O). Transactions of ASABE,
58(5) 1349-1359. doi.10.13031/2013.32645.
11. Zhu, W., J.A. Koziel, L. Cai, D. Wright, F. Kuhrt. 2015. Testing odorants recovery from
a novel metalized fluorinated ethylene propylene gas sampling bag. Journal of the Air &
Waste Association, 65(12), 1434-1445.
12. Akdeniz, N., L.D. Jacobson, B.P. Hetchler, S.D. Bereznicki, A.J. Heber, J.A. Koziel, L.
Cai, S. Zhang, D.B. Parker. 2012. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal
buildings: Part 2 – odor emissions. Transactions of ASABE, 55(6), 2335-2345.
13. Zhang, S., L. Cai, J.A. Koziel, S. Hoff, D. Schmidt, C. Clanton, L. Jacobson, D. Parker,
A. Heber. 2010. Field air sampling and simultaneous chemical and sensory analysis of
livestock odorants with sorbent tube GC-MS/Olfactometry. Sensors and Actuators: B.
Chemical, 146, 427-432.
14. Maurer, D.L, A. Bragdon, B. Short, H.K. Ahn, J.A. Koziel. 2017. Improving environmental
odour measurements: comparison of lab-based standard method and portable odour measurement
technology. Accepted for oral presentation at the 7th International Water Association Conference
on Odours and Air Emissions, Warsaw, Poland, September, 2017.
15. Maurer, D.L., J.A. Koziel, K. Bruning, D.B. Parker. 2017. Pilot-scale testing of real-time
wind speed-matching wind tunnel for measurements of odorous volatile organic compounds,
greenhouse gases, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions. Accepted for poster presentation
at the 2017 ASABE Annual International Meeting, Spokane, Washington, July, 2017.
16. Maurer, D.L., J.A. Koziel, K. Bruning, D.B. Parker. 2017. Renewable biocatalyst for swine
manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions:
Pilot-scale testing. Accepted for poster presentation at the 2017 ASABE Annual International
Meeting, Spokane, Washington, July, 2017.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
This study was an add-on project to the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) and focused on comprehensive measurement of odor emissions considering variations in seasons, animal types, and olfactometry laboratories. Odor emissions from four of 14 NAEMS sites with nine barns/rooms (two dairy barns at the WI5B and IN5B sites, two pig finishing rooms at IN3B, and two sow gestation barns and a farrowing room at the IA4B site) were measured during four 13-week cycles. Odor emissions were reported per barn area (OU h-1 m-2), head (OU h-1 head-1), and animal unit (OU h-1 AU-1). The highest overall odor emission rates were measured in summer (1.2 × 105 OU h-1 m-2, 3.5 × 105 OU h-1 head-1, and 6.2 × 105 OU h-1 AU-1), and the lowest rates were measured in winter (2.5 × 104 OU h-1 m-2, 9.1 × 104 OU h-1 head-1, and 1.5 × 105 OU h-1 AU-1). The highest ambient odor concentrations and barn odor emissions were measured from the sow gestation barns of the IA4B site, which had unusually high H2S concentrations. The most intense odor and the least pleasant odor were also measured at this site. The overall odor emission rates of the pig finishing rooms at IN3B were lower than the emission rates of the IA4B sow gestation barns. The lowest overall barn odor emission rates were measured at the IN5B dairy barns. However, the lowest ambient odor concentrations were measured at the ventilation inlets of the WI5B dairy barns. © 2012 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.
Article
The swine industry, regulatory agencies, and the public are interested in farm-tested methods for controlling gaseous emissions from swine barns. In earlier lab- and pilot-scale studies, a renewable catalyst consisting of soybean peroxidase (SBP) mixed with calcium peroxide (CaO2) was found to be effective in mitigating gaseous emissions from swine manure. Thus, a farm-scale experiment was conducted at the university's 178-pig, shallow-pit, mechanically-ventilated swine barn to evaluate SBP/CaO2 as a surficial manure pit additive under field conditions. The SBP was applied once at the beginning of the 42-day experiment at an application rate of 2.28 kg m⁻² with 4.2% CaO2 added by weight. Gas samples were collected from the primary barn exhaust fans. As compared to the control, significant reductions in gaseous emissions were observed for ammonia (NH3, 21.7%), hydrogen sulfide (H2S, 79.7%), n-butyric acid (37.2%), valeric acid (47.7%), isovaleric acid (39.3%), indole (31.2%), and skatole (43.5%). Emissions of dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT) increased by 30.6%. Emissions of p-cresol were reduced by 14.4% but were not statistically significant. There were no significant changes to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The total (material + labor) treatment cost was $2.62 per marketed pig, equivalent to 1.5% of the pig market price. The cost of CaO2 catalyst was ∼60% of materials cost. The cost of soybean hulls (SBP source) was $0.60 per marketed pig, i.e., only 40% of materials cost.
Conference Paper
Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. The objective of this paper is to review the use of soybean peroxidase (SBP) and peroxides as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC), NH3, H2S, and GHGs. Soybean peroxidase plus peroxide (SBPP) was tested as a mitigation technology for swine manure emissions on three scales (lab, pilot and farm). Several laboratory scale experiments were completed to assess SBPP dosages and type of oxygen source mixed into swine manure and surface application. A pilot scale experiment was done with surface application of SBPP and multiple dosages to observe scale up effects. Finally, a farm scale trial was completed to assess the SBPP treatment to a swine manure surface under a fully slatted barn floor. The ‘gated’ approach to testing SBPP from lab- to pilot- and finally the farm-scale was appropriate and allowed for controlled experiments with sufficient replication. This approach resulted in gradual decrease of the dose of SBP, decreasing the cost of treatment, increase of treatment longevity, inclusion of many key gases of concern to the experimental protocol, and finally testing the treatment on farm-scale. To date, the farm-scale results indicate that SBPP can be effective in mitigating many important odorous gas emissions without increasing GHGs. Specifically, a 2.28 kg m-2 SBP dose mixed with 4.2% CaO2 added by weight and added to manure surface resulted in significant reductions in gaseous emissions of NH3 (21.7%), H2S (79.7%), n-butyric acid (37.2%), valeric acid (47.7%), isovaleric acid (39.3%), indole (31.2%), and skatole (43.5%). Emissions of DMDS/MT increased by 30.6%. Emissions of p-cresol were reduced by 14.4% but were not statistically significant. There were no significant changes to the GHG emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O. The treatment cost (SBP+CaO2) was $1.45 per marketed pig of which the cost of SBP was only ~40%. Thus, further research is needed to optimize the dose and the cost of catalysts.
Article
Implications: Caution is advised when using polymeric materials for storage of livestock-relevant odorous volatile organic compounds. The odorants loss with storage time confirmed that long-term storage in whole-air form is ill advised. A focused short-term odor sample containment should be biased toward the most inert material available relative to the highest impact target odorant. Metallized FEP was identified as such a material to p-cresol as the highest impact odorant from confined animal feeding operations. Metallized FEP bags have much cleaner background than commercial Tedlar bags do. Significantly higher recoveries of methyl mercaptan and p-cresol were also observed with metallized FEP bags.
Article
Characterization and quantification of livestock odorants is one of the most challenging analytical tasks because odor-causing chemicals are very reactive, polar, and often present at very low concentrations in a complex matrix of less important or irrelevant gases. The objective of this research was to develop a novel analytical method for characterization of the livestock odorants including their odor character, odor intensity, and hedonic tone and to apply this method for quantitative analysis of the key odorants responsible for livestock odor. Field samples were collected with sorbent tubes packed with Tenax TA. The automated one-step thermal desorption module coupled with multidimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry/olfactometry system was used for simultaneous chemical and odor analysis. Fifteen odorous VOCs identified from livestock operations were quantified. Method detection limits ranged from 30 pg for indole to 3590 pg for acetic acid per sample. In addition, odor character, odor intensity, and hedonic tone associated with each of the target odorants were also analyzed simultaneously. The mass of each VOC in the sample correlated well with the log stimulus intensity of odor. All of the coefficients of determination (R2) were greater than 0.74, and the top 10 R2s were greater than 0.90. Field air samples from swine and dairy operations confirmed that target compounds quantified represented typical odor-causing compounds emitted from livestock.
Pilot-scale testing of non-activated biochar for swine manure treatment and mitigation of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, odorous VOCs, and greenhouse gas emissions
  • D Maurer
  • J A Koziel
  • K Kalus
  • D Andersen
  • S Opalinski
Maurer, D., J.A. Koziel, K. Kalus, D. Andersen, S. Opalinski. 2017. Pilot-scale testing of non-activated biochar for swine manure treatment and mitigation of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, odorous VOCs, and greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainability, 9(6), 929, doi: 10.3390/su9060929.
Odour reducing microbial-mineral additive for poultry manure treatment
  • K Kalus
  • S Opalinski
  • D Maurer
  • S Rice
  • J A Koziel
  • M Korczynski
  • Z Dobrzanski
  • R Kolacz
  • B Gutarowska
Kalus, K., S. Opalinski, D. Maurer, S. Rice, J.A. Koziel, M. Korczynski, Z. Dobrzanski, R. Kolacz, B. Gutarowska. Odour reducing microbial-mineral additive for poultry manure treatment. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 2017, 11(3), 7. doi: 10.1007/s11783-017-0928-4.
Method for sampling and analysis of volatile biomarkers in process gas from aerobic digestion of poultry carcass using time-weighted average SPME and GC-MS
  • J A Koziel
  • L T Nguyen
  • T D Glanville
  • H K Ahn
  • T S Frana
  • J H Van Leeuwen
Koziel, J.A., Nguyen, L.T., T.D. Glanville, H.K. Ahn, T.S. Frana, J.H. van Leeuwen. 2017. Method for sampling and analysis of volatile biomarkers in process gas from aerobic digestion of poultry carcass using time-weighted average SPME and GC-MS. Food Chemistry, 232, 799-807. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.062.
Field scale measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from land applied swine manure
  • D Maurer
  • J A Koziel
  • K Bruning
Maurer, D., J.A. Koziel, K. Bruning. 2017. Field scale measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from land applied swine manure. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 2017, 11(3), 1, doi: 10.1007/s11783-017-0915-9. http://rdcu.be/qAsm
Pilot-scale testing of renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide gas emissions
  • D Maurer
  • J A Koziel
  • K Bruning
  • D B Parker
Maurer, D., J.A. Koziel, K. Bruning, D.B. Parker. 2017. Pilot-scale testing of renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide gas emissions. Atmospheric Environment, 150, 313321. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.11.021.