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The development of personified medicine, aimed at prevention, makes relevant any development of foodstuffs with improved quality characteristics, including by addition of natural plant ingredients. Nuts are a high- calorie food with a high protein and fat content, including pine nuts. They have a positive impact on human health and attract the attention of researchers due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics. The study objects were samples of a nut kernel of Pinus sibirica , growing in the Kemerovo Oblast. In the Pinus sibirica nut samples the protein composition (15-16%) is not lower by content than in many other kinds of nuts; as for the fat content (62-67%), the greatest one belongs to linolenic acid; oleinic and linolenic acids are the next by content. Palmitic acid dominates among the saturated fatty acids. The studied nut samples exceeded the ones of the Tuva Republic, the Far East region and China by many indicators of nutrition value. By the protein and fat content of the studied nut samples are comparable with the ones of the Far East region. By the protein content they exceed the nut samples of China (15%); by the fat content - the ones of Tuva (40%). It is stated that by chemical and microbiological parameters the Pinus sibirica nuts, growing in the Kemerovo Oblast, satisfy the requirements of the current normative documents, they do not have any toxic effect on a human, and their nutrition value can be considered as a promising ingredient for various food products, including sport nutrition and special food.
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ISSN 2308-4057. Foods and Raw Materials, 2017, vol. 5, no. 2
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170
 FOOD HYGIENE
THE POTENTIAL OF PINE NUT AS A COMPONENT
OF SPORT NUTRITION
O. O. Babicha, I. S. Milent'evaa, S. A. Ivanovaa,b,*, V. A. Pavskya,b,
E. V. Kashirskikhb, and Y. Yangc
a Kemerovo State University,
Krasnaya Str. 6, Kemerovo, 650043, Russian Federation
b Kemerovo Institute of Food Science and Technology (University),
Stroiteley blvd. 47, Kemerovo, 650056, Russian Federation
c College of Food and Bioengineering, Qiqihar University,
Cultural Str. 24, Heilongjiang Province Qiqihar, 161006, China
*e-mail: pavvm2000@mail.ru
Received October 01, 2017; Accepted in revised form November 24, 2017; Published December 26, 2017
Abstract: The development of personified medicine, aimed at prevention, makes relevant any development of
foodstuffs with improved quality characteristics, including by addition of natural plant ingredients. Nuts are a high-
calorie food with a high protein and fat content, including pine nuts. They have a positive impact on human health and
attract the attention of researchers due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics. The study objects were
samples of a nut kernel of Pinus sibirica, growing in the Kemerovo Oblast. In the Pinus sibirica nut samples the protein
composition (15–16%) is not lower by content than in many other kinds of nuts; as for the fat content (62–67%), the
greatest one belongs to linolenic acid; oleinic and linolenic acids are the next by content. Palmitic acid dominates
among the saturated fatty acids. The studied nut samples exceeded the ones of the Tuva Republic, the Far East region
and China by many indicators of nutrition value. By the protein and fat content of the studied nut samples are
comparable with the ones of the Far East region. By the protein content they exceed the nut samples of China (15%); by
the fat content - the ones of Tuva (40%). It is stated that by chemical and microbiological parameters the Pinus sibirica
nuts, growing in the Kemerovo Oblast, satisfy the requirements of the current normative documents, they do not have
any toxic effect on a human, and their nutrition value can be considered as a promising ingredient for various food
products, including sport nutrition and special food.
Keywords: Pinus sibirica, nut kernel, chemical compound, nutrition value, sport nutrition
DOI 10.21603/2308-4057-2017-2-170-177 Foods and Raw Materials, 2017, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 170–177.
INTRODUCTION
On the domestic market of functional food, sport
nutrition and dietary supplements of plant origin
mainly products are represented, based on ingredients,
supplied by foreign producers (India, South-East Asia
and southern Europe). At the same time, the Russian
Federation, with its potentially large raw material base
for the production of functional food and dietary
supplements of plant origin, occupies a small volume
of this market segment. At the moment, the
requirements of the domestic market in food additives
and functional food ingredients are satisfied through
import by 75–80%.
A promising source of biologically active
substances is wild-growing raw materials. In the
Siberian Federal District 6.5% of wild-growing
products are implemented, in other Russian regions -
18.5%. The share of export in total sales of wild-
growing products of Tomsk companies is 36.5%, the
main export (80%) goes to China.
In the Siberian Federal District on the territory of
5114800 km², covered with forests and marshes,
considerable biological resources are located. These
include first of all wild plants (berries, mushrooms
and nuts). Nuts are a high-calorie food with a high
content of fat, most of which is represented by
unsaturated fatty acids [1]. Nuts also contain a
significant amount of fiber, folic acid, minerals and
antioxidative substances [2, 3, 4]. The interest of
researchers to nuts is due to their nutrition content.
Influence of nuts on health, cardiovascular diseases
risk mitigation [5], high cholesterol [6, 7] and
diabetes [8, 9] was studied. Nuts are also often
considered as a source of selenium [10–14].
The most studied nuts are almonds, hazelnuts,
walnuts, pistachios and cashews, however, only few
researchers have examined the characteristics of pine
nuts. Pine nuts differ with a high content of protein,
unsaturated fatty acids and dietary fiber, low-molecular
carbohydrates, vitamins (folic acid, niacin, tocopherol,
B6 and B2), minerals, phytoesterols and polyphenols
[15–18]. There are few works, in which characteristics
of Pinus sibirica du tour nuts of the Kemerovo Oblast
have been studied. The objective of this paper is to
study the potential of seeds of Pinus sibirica of the
ISSN 2308-4057. Foods and Raw Materials, 2017, vol. 5, no. 2
171
Kemerovo Oblast as a component of functional food
for people with a high physical activity.
OBJECTS AND METHODS OF STUDY
Objects of study were the samples of Pinus sibirica
nut kernel, growing in the Kemerovo Oblast (Tashtagol
region, crop of 2016 and 2017). The shell was
preliminarily separated from the pine nut kernel,
sample No. 1 is from the crop of 2016, sample No. 2 is
from the crop of 2017.
Moisture mass fraction was determined according
to GOST 31852-2012 (ISO 6756:1984) “Peeled pine
nuts”.
A sample was placed in the distillation apparatus
flask; a sufficient amount of distillate (toluene, xylene)
was added to it, so that to fully cover the sample, taken
for analysis. The flask content was mixed with slewing.
The apparatus was assembled, the receiver was filled
with a solvent by pouring it through the cooler until it
started to overflow into the distillation flask. Cold
water was turned on.
The flask was heated until the distillation speed
reached approximately four drops per second. Heating
was going on until water began to collect in the
graduated part of the receiver.
Condensation was removed from the cooler from
time to time during distillation. 5 cm3 of the solvent
were used to clean the moisture, which deposited on
the cooler or receiver walls. To separate water from the
solvent, a copper spiral was put in the receiver and
cooler, which was periodically moved up and down,
thus causing deposition of water on the receiver
bottom.
Distillation process was going on until the water
level in the graduated receiver was permanent during
15 min, then heating was stopped. The receiver was
immersed in water at room temperature at least for
15 min or until the solvent became transparent, then the
water volume was measured with accuracy rate of
0.1 cm3.
Moisture mass fraction in % was measured
according to the formula:
,/100 MVX
(1)
where V is the volume of water, collected in the
receiver with a graduated test tube, cm3; ρ is the water
density, ρ=1 g/cm3; M is the mass of the sample, taken
for analysis, g.
Protein mass fraction was measured by express-
method of combustion according to Dumas using the
express analyser Rapid N Cube (Elementar, Germany).
Protein fractional content was measured by ion-
exchange chromatography using a chromatograph
ARACUS.
Fat mass fraction was measured according to
GOST [State Standard] 10857–64 Interstate Standard
oily seeds. Oil content measuring method.
Kernel weighed amount, taken with consideration
for oil content, was thoroughly minced and put in the
weighed holder, prepared in advance. The holder was
closed and put in the Soxhlet apparatus for extraction.
To the extractor a clean flask was connected, which
was preliminarily dried during 1 h at 100–105°С and
weighed after cooling. Diethyl ether was poured to the
extractor and connected with the cooler, after which
extraction began.
After extraction ether was distilled and oil was
dried in a dryer at a temperature of 100–105°C until the
constant mass. The first weighting was carried out after
1–1.5 h, the next was in 30 minutes. In case of twice
increase in mass, drying was stopped and the minimal
mass was taken for measuring.
The fat content in % in kernels, freed from dirt, and
dried, was measured according to the formula:
,/100)( 21 mmmX
(2)
where m is the flask mass with oil, g; m1 is the mass of
the empty flask, g; m2 is the weighed amount of the
dried seeds, g.
The fatty acid content was analyzed with gas-
chromatography method using a gas-liquid mass-
spectrometer GCMS-QP2010 Ultra (Shimadzu, Japan).
The ash mass fraction was measured according to
GOST 26226–95 “Fodder, compound fodder,
compound fodder raw materials. Crude ash measuring
methods”.
In a crucible, dried to a constant weight, the tested
sample was placed with a mass of approximately
0.5–2.0 g (the amount of the tested ash should be at
least 50 mg). The sample was put in the crucible
without compression so that atmospheric oxygen flew
to its lower layers. Up to half of the crucible was filled
with the sample.
The crucible with the sample was weighed with the
accuracy rate of 0.001 g; then it was placed in a cold
furnace and temperature was increased up to
200–250°C (until smoke appeared, it is allowed to
carry out preliminary combustion at the open door of a
muffle, heated to dark red heat (525 ± 25)°C on an
electric heater or gas burner, in a fume hood, avoiding
ignition of the sample).
After the smoke exhalation stopped, the furnace
temperature was adjusted to (525 ± 25)°C and the
crucible with the sample was being annealed during
4–5 h. The absence of the coal particles and the ash
uniform grey color indicated the complete ashing of the
material.
The mass fraction of crude ash (X) in % in the test
sample was measured according to the formula:
),/(100)( 0102 mmmmX
(3)
where m0 is the crucible mass, g; m1 is the mass of the
crucible with the sample before ashing, g; m2 is the
mass of the crucible with ash, g;
The vitamin content was measured with a
capillary electrophoresis method with the use of the
system of capillary electrophoresis Kapel'-105 (Lumex,
Russia); the method is based on the migration and
separation of ionic forms of the analyzed components
under the influence of electric field due to their
different electrophoretic mobility, with the following
registration at a wavelength of 200 nm.
The vitamin PP content was measured according
to GOST R 50479–93. “Products of fruit and vegetable
processing. The vitamin PP content measuring
method”.
The sample weighed amount with a mass of
1.0–10.0 g was ground in a porcelain mortar with
1.5 g of calcium hydroxide. Then the mortar content
was transferred in portions in a conical flask with a
capacity of 100 cm3, washing away 50–60 cm3 of
water in small portions. The flask with the sample
ISSN 2308-4057. Foods and Raw Materials, 2017, vol. 5, no. 2
172
was heated during 90 min on a boiling water bath,
having closed preliminary the flask neck with a small
funnel or a special glass insert stopper, and shaken
periodically. After heating, the flask was cooled to
room temperature. Then the hydrolysate volume was
adjusted with water to 75 cm3, stirred, cooled during
2 hours on an ice bath or placed in a refrigerator for
the whole night. The cooled hydrolysate was filtered
or centrifuged.
The filtrate volume of 25 cm3 was placed in a
cylinder with a capacity of 50 cm3, 1–2 drops of
phenolphthalein solution and sulfuric acid solution
2.5 mol/dm3 were added by drops until discoloration.
8 test tubes or flasks with ground stoppers were
used for carrying out the color reaction. In three tubes
5 cm3 of the working standard solution of vitamin PP
were added with a pipette. In 4 tubes 5 cm3 of the
obtained filtrate were added with a pipette, in the
control tube 5 cm3 of water instead of the filtrate were
added. All tubes were closed with stoppers and heated
on a water bath at a temperature of 48–52°C during
5–10 min. Then, in the tubes with a standard vitamin
solution, in the tube with water and in two tubes with
the test filtrate, 2 cm3 of rodenberger were added from
the burette in a fume hood.
All tubes were closed with stoppers, shaken and left
on a water bath at a temperature of (50 ± 2)°C during
10 min. After 10 min all the tubes were cooled with
water to room temperature and left for 10 min in a dark
place, then 3 cm3 of metol solution were added to each
of them, they were shaken and left for 1 h in a dark
place. Then the optical density of the solutions was
measured with a spectrophotometer. Distilled water
was a control solution.
Vitamin E content was measured according to
GOST R 54634–2011 “Functional food. Vitamin E
measuring method”.
For carrying out the alkaline hydrolysis, 5–20 g of
the analyzed sample were placed in a flat-bottomed
flask with a capacity of 100–500 cm3. 5–20 cm3 of
water were added to the dry material and heated on a
water bath at a temperature of 60–70°C, stirring during
5 min. Then 50–150 cm3 of ethyl rectified alcohol were
added, 0.2–2.0 g of antioxidant (ascorbic acid,
hydroquinone, butylhydroxytoluene) and 3–40 cm3 of
50%-potassium hydroxide-solution, all these were then
heated during 15–40 min on a water bath with a reflux
condenser at a temperature of 80–100°C.
After hydrolysis, the flask content was rapidly
cooled to (20 ± 5)°C and transferred in portions to the
separatory funnel. The flask was rinsed with water, the
volume of which is equal to the volume of the added
ethyl alcohol, and water was poured into the same
funnel. Tocopherols were extracted with diethyl ether,
ethyl acetate, n-hexane and n-hexane with the addition
of diethyl ether in a volume ratio of 1 : 1 during 2 min.
The extraction was repeated three or four times
with the extractant portions of 50–100 cm3. The
combined extract was washed from alkali three or four
times with water portions of 50–150 cm3 until the
alkaline wash water disappears (according to universal
detector paper). To remove water, the extract was
filtered through a filter with 2–5 g of anhydrous
sodium sulfate. Then, the extract was evaporated to
dryness with the use of a rotary evaporator and
re-suspended in n-hexane.
The obtained solution was analyzed with a method of
normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography
(NP HPLC).
The macronutrient content (phosphorus,
potassium, magnesium, manganese, iron, iodine) was
measured with atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
The analysed samples were transferred to the atomic
state and the optical density of the atomic vapour of the
determined element was measured in a certain spectral
range. The element concentration was measured by the
intensity of the light absorption by the atomic vapour of
the determined element with a specific wavelength. To
obtain the atomic vapour, a gas burner with spray was
used. The light source was a lamp with a hollow
cathode.
The micronutrient content was measured with a
capillary electrophoresis method with the use of the
system of capillary electrophoresis Kapel'-105 (Lumex,
Russia), which is based on the separation of cations
due to the differences in their electrophoretic mobility
during migration in quartz capillary in the electrolyte
under the action of electric field with the following
registration of the difference of optical absorption by
electrolyte and cations in the UV-area of the spectrum
(wavelength is 254 nm).
Chemical and microbiological safety indicators.
Measurement of mercury is according to GOST 26927–
86 “Raw materials and foodstuffs. Mercury measuring
method (with Amendment No. 1)”.
Measurement of arsenic is according to GOST
26930–86 “Raw materials and foodstuffs. Arsenic
measuring method (with Amendment No. 1)”.
Measurement of lead is according to GOST 26932–
86 “Raw materials and foodstuffs. Lead measuring
method (with Amendment No. 1)”.
Measurement of cadmium is according to GOST
26933–86 “Raw materials and foodstuffs. Cadmium
measuring method (with Amendment No. 1)”.
Measurement of pesticides is according to GOST
30349–96 “Fruits, vegetables and products of their
processing. Methods of measuring of residual
quantities of organochlorine pesticides”.
Measurement of mycotoxin is according to GOST
30711–2001 “Foodstuffs. Methods of detection and
determination of aflatoxins B(1) and M(1)”.
The total number of yeast and mold fungi is in
accordance with GOST 10444.12–2013 “Microbiology
of foodstuffs and fodder. Methods of identification and
calculation of the number of yeast and mold fungi (with
Amendment)”.
The number of coliform bacteria is according to
GOST 31747–2012 “Foodstuffs. Methods of detection
and determination of coliform bacteria”.
The number of pathogenic microorganisms is
according to GOST ISO 22118–2013 “Microbiology of
foodstuffs and fodder. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
for detection and quantitative accounting of pathogenic
microorganisms in foodstuffs. Technical characteristics”.
Statistical analysis. All repeated experiments were
performed triply. Data processing was carried out with
standard methods of mathematical statistics. The test of
homogeneity of the obtained value selection was
performed with the use of the Student criterion.
Differences between means are considered significant
when the confidence interval is smaller than 5%
(P 0.05).
ISSN 2308-4057. Foods and Raw Materials, 2017, vol. 5, no. 2
173
Table 1. Chemical compound of pine nut samples
Parameter Mass fraction, %
sample No. 1 sample No. 2
Moisture 5.20 ± 0.52 4.87 ± 0.49
Protein 15.15 ± 0.76 16.04 ± 0.80
Fats 62.10 ± 3.11 66.72 ± 3.34
Ash 2.51 ± 0.25 2.24 ± 0.22
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
All nuts, including pine nuts, have a high fat and
protein content, which determines their high energy
value. A decreased risk of disorders of metabolic
exchange and morbidity of diabetes of the 2nd
type [19] are associated with the intake of protein of
plant origin, such as nuts, legumes and grains. The
results of determination of chemical compound of the
pine nut kernel samples are presented in Table 1.
Lipids are a predominant component of the pine nut
kernel (62.10–66.72%). Also pine nuts, including our
samples, differ with a high protein content and are
second only to peanuts [20]. The moisture content in
the nuts is up to 8.0%, which meets the requirements of
GOST 31852-2012 (ISO 6756:1984).
The study results of the qualitative composition of
the protein component in pine nuts in the Kemerovo
Oblast are indicated in Fig. 1 and Table 2. In water-
soluble protein fraction of the samples No. 1 and No. 2,
fractions with a molecular weight of 19 kDa (line B2,
C2) and 11 kDa (line B5, C5) dominate.
A B C
Fig. 1. Profile of water-soluble protein fraction of pine
nut kernel: track A - marker, track B - sample No. 1,
track C - sample No. 2
Fig. 2. Protein profile (a) in the marker, (b) sample
No. 1, (c) sample No. 2.
Table 2. Protein profile of water-soluble fraction in the
marker and in the pine nut samples
Track
name
Line
number
Molecular
mass, kDa
Mobility
coefficient, Rf
А
А1 227.17 0.0223
А2 115.89 0.0487
А3 67.83 0.0911
А4 45.55 0.1449
А5 33.96 0.2056
А6 25.81 0.2812
А7 21.19 0.3557
А8 17.09 0.4611
А9 13.88 0.5928
B
В 1 23.39 0.3167
В 2 19.17 0.4007
В 3 17.09 0.4611
В 4 12.64 0.6770
В 5 11.31 0.7572
C
С 1 23.39 0.3167
С 2 18.94 0.4070
С 3 17.09 0.4611
С 4 12.73 0.6622
С 5 11.10 0.7572
Note. A - in the marker, B - sample No. 1, C - sample No. 2.
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
Molecular weight
(
a
)
Intensit
y
Molecular weight
(b)
Intensit
y
Molecular weight
(
c
)
Intensit
y
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174
Table 3. Amino acid content of the pine nut kernel
Amino acid name Content, g/100 g of protein
sample No. 1 sample No. 2
Alanine 5.44 ± 0.27 5.33 ± 0.27
Arginine 15.41 ± 0.77 15.44 ± 0.77
Asparagine acid 5.89 ± 0.29 6.12 ± 0.31
Valine 3.37 ± 0.17 3.52 ± 0.18
Histidine 2.84 ± 0.14 2.79 ± 0.14
Glycine 4.58 ± 0.23 4.65 ± 0.23
Glutamic acid 11.84 ± 0.59 11.75 ± 0.59
Leucine+Isoleucine 15.73 ± 0.79 15.70± 0.79
Lysine 6.04 ± 0.30 5.84 ±0.29
Methionine 1.66 ± 0.08 1.62 ± 0.08
Proline 5.47 ± 0.27 5.52 ± 0.28
Serine 6.72 ± 0.34 6.81 ± 0.34
Thirosine 2.86 ± 0.14 2.80 ± 0.14
Threonine 3.15 ± 0.16 3.10 ± 0.15
Triptophane 1.18 ± 0.06 1.24 ± 0.06
Phenylalanine 6.49 ± 0.32 6.52 ± 0.33
Cystine 1.33 ± 0.07 1.25 ± 0.06
Amino acid content of the pine nut sample is
indicated in Table 3. The analyzed samples differ with a
high content of such essential amino acids as leucine and
isoleucine, phenylalanine and lysine: 15.72 g, 6.50 g and
5.94 g per 100 g of protein respectively. Also, there is a
high content of such non-essential amino acids as
arginine, glutamic acid, serine, asparagine acid, proline
and alanine: 15.43 g, 11.80 g, 6.77 g, 6.00 g, 5.50 g and
5.39 g per 100 g of protein respectively.
Nuts are a good source of fat and are considered
good for health due to the high content of unsaturated
fatty acids [21, 22]. The fatty acid content of the pine nut
kernel is indicated in Table 4. The total content of
saturated fatty acids in the pine nut kernel is 9.53%, of
unsaturated fatty acid – 90.47%. In the analyzed samples
linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acids) has the highest
content - approximately 43% from the total fat content,
oleinic and linolenic acids are the next by content -
approximately 24% and 21% respectively. Palmitic
(5.23%) and stearic (2.82%) acids dominate among the
saturated fatty acids.
Table 5. Vitamin content of the pine nut kernel
Vitamin name
Vitamin content,
mg/100 g of product
sample No. 1 sample No. 2
Water-soluble vitamins
B1 (thiamine) 0.540 ± 0.180 0.470 ± 0.160
B2 (riboflavin) 0.270 ± 0.090 0.240 ± 0.080
B3 (niacin, РР) 3.780 ± 1.280 3.900 ± 1.330
B5 (nicotinamide,
nicotinic acid) 0.450 ± 0.150 0.520 ± 0.180
B6 (pyridoxin) 0.120 ± 0.040 0.100 ± 0.030
C (ascorbic acid) 0.670 ± 0.230 0.740 ± 0.250
Fat-soluble vitamins
Е (alpha-
tocopherol) 8.330 ± 0.830 8.120 ± 0.810
К (phylloquinone) 0.050 ± 0.005 0.050 ± 0.005
Table 6. Macro- and micronutrient content of the pine
nut kernel
Element
name
Element content,
mg/100 g of product
sample No. 1 sample No. 2
Macronutrients
Potassium 602.30 ± 30.10 595.60 ± 29.80
Calcium 15.90 ± 0.80 17.60 ± 0.90
Magnesium 246.00 ± 12.30 255.80 ± 12.80
Sodium 7.10 ± 0.40 7.90 ± 0.40
Phosphorus 789.00 ± 39.50 795.20 ± 39.80
Micronutrients
Iron 5.67 ± 0.28 5.59 ± 0.28
Manganese 8.73 ± 0.44 8.88 ± 0.44
Copper 1.27 ± 0.06 1.39 ± 0.07
Zinc 4.41 ± 0.22 4.35 ± 0.22
Iodine 0.15 ± 0.01 0.12 ± 0.01
Table 4. The fatty acid content of the pine nut kernel
Fatty acid name Fatty acid index Fatty acid content, g/100 g of fat
sample No. 1 sample No. 2
Saturated
Myristinic acid С14:0 0.44 ± 0.02 0.52 ± 0.03
Palmitic acid С16:0 5.18 ± 0.26 5.27 ± 0.26
Stearinic acid С18:0 2.89 ± 0.14 2.75 ± 0.14
Arachic acid С20:0 0.95 ± 0.05 1.06 ± 0.05
The amount of unsaturated fatty acids 9.46 ± 0.47 9.60 ± 0.48
Unsaturated
Palmitoleic acid С16:1 0.35 ± 0.02 0.46 ± 0.02
Oleic acid С18:1 24.05 ± 1.20 24.27 ± 1.21
Linoleic acid С18:2 42.20 ± 2.11 42.77 ± 2.14
Linoleic acid С18:3 20.98 ± 10.49 20.43 ± 1.02
Gondoic acid С20:1 0.87 ± 0.04 0.93 ± 0.05
Eicosadienoic acid С20:2 0.65 ± 0.03 0.57 ± 0.03
Eicosatrienoic acid С20:3 1.44 ± 0.07 0.97 ± 0.05
The amount of unsaturated fatty acids 90.54 ± 4.53 90.40 ± 4.52
ISSN 2308-4057. Foods and Raw Materials, 2017, vol. 5, no. 2
175
Table 7. Chemical and microbiological pine nut safety indicators
Parameters Content, mg/kg
sample No. 1 sample No. 2
Mercury, not detected not detected
Arsenic 0.0500 ± 0.0030 0.0350 ± 0.002
Lead 0.1000 ± 0.0050 0.0600 ± 0.0003
Cadmium 0.0100 ± 0.0005 0.0070 ± 0.0004
Aflatoxin B1 0.0050 ± 0.0003 0.0030 ± 0.0002
Hexachlorocyclohexane (the sum of isomers) 0.0060 ± 0.0003 0.0050 ± 0.0003
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its
metabolites 0.0100 ± 0.0005 0.0150 ± 0.0008
Product mass (g), in which coliform bacteria were
not detected 0.01 0.01
Product mass (g), in which pathogenic
microorganisms, including Salmonella, were not
detected
25.00 25.00
Fungi, CFU/g 1.00·101 1.10·101
Nuts have a wide range of micro-, macronutrients
and vitamins in sufficient quantities [23, 24], which can
have a positive impact on health and contribute to the
prevention of nutritional deficiency (Tables 5–6). Pine
nut kernel samples are rich in a fat-soluble vitamin
alpha-tocopherol and water-soluble vitamins PP, C, B1
and B5: 8.23 mg and 3.84 mg, 0.71, 0.51 mg, 0.49 mg
per 100 g of the product respectively. The main
macronutrients in the samples content are phosphorus
(792.1 mg/100 g of the product), potassium
(600.0 mg/100 g of the product) and magnesium
(250.9 mg/100 g of the product); as for micronutrients,
the main ones are manganese (8.81 mg/100 g of the
product), iron (5.63 mg/100 g of the product) and zinc
(4.38 mg/100 g of the product).
Chemical compound and content of micro - and
macronutrients and vitamins may vary depending on
climatic and soil conditions [25]. The protein content in
the kernels of Kuzbass Pinus sibirica is comparable
with the protein content of the nuts of cedar of Tuva
and the Far East region [26, 27] and exceeds by
approximately 15% the samples, obtained in China
[28]. By content the nut kernels of the Far Eastern
cedar are less full-valued than the ones of Pinus
sibirica [27]. The fat content in our samples is
comparable with the content of nut samples of China
and the Far East region and exceeds by more than 40%
the samples of Tuva.
The difference in content of micro - and
macronutrients between our nut samples and the ones
of China and Tuva was as follows: potassium is +20%
and -15%; calcium is 400% and -2%; phosphorus is
+40% and +4% respectively [26, 28]. The zinc and
vitamin B2 content in Kuzbass and China nuts is
comparable, by 25% less by sodium and by 400% by
vitamin E, exceeds 3000 times by the vitamin B1, by
other micro- and macronutrients, except iodine,
exceeds by 40%-220% [28].
While growing and ripening, nuts, including pine
nuts, can accumulate in their fruits toxic chemicals
(mercury, arsenic, lead, etc.), as well as during storage
and transportation they can accumulate toxins (waste
products of fungi, pathogens, etc.). Pine nut samples
(Table 7) satisfy the requirements of the current
regulations (CU TR [Technical Regulations of the
Customs Union] 021/2011, SanPiN [Sanitary
Regulations and Norms] 2.3.2.1078–01) by chemical
and microbiological parameters and do not have a
toxic effect on a human.
CONCLUSIONS
The desire to prevent cancer, cardiovascular,
gastrointestinal and other diseases preserves the
relevance of developments of foodstuffs of high
biological value with addition of natural ingredients. To
achieve this goal, a full-valued protein, individual
amino acids, probiotics, prebiotics, vitamins, micro-
and macronutrients and plant raw material [28–36] are
considered as supplements. Traditionally, nuts are
considered as a source of nutrients to improve the food
quality. Those, who eat nuts, usually do not feel the
deficiency of vitamins A and C, folate, calcium, iron,
magnesium and zinc [37, 38]. Pine nuts of Pinus
sibirica differ with a high content of proteins, in some
samples the content is equal to the one in a peanut.
Nuts have a positive impact on health due to their anti-
inflammatory and antioxidative characteristics [39, 40],
which reduce the impact on cholesterol level.
Nutritional value of Pinus sibirica nuts allows to using
them as ingredients in different food, such as: cereals,
bread and cakes, cheese and functional products,
including sport nutrition.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The present paper is performed under the Federal
Target Program "Research and Development in Priority
Development Areas of Scientific and Technological
Complex of Russia for 2014-2020 (Agreement
No. 14.577.21.0255, a unique identifier of the
Agreement is RFMEFI57717X0255).
ISSN 2308-4057. Foods and Raw Materials, 2017, vol. 5, no. 2
176
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Please cite this article in press as: Babich O.O., Milent'eva I.S., Ivanova S.A., Pavsky V.A., Kashirskikh E.V., and Yang Y.
The Potential of Pine Nut as a Component of Sport Nutrition. Foods and Raw Materials, 2017, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 170–177.
DOI: 10.21603/2308-4057-2017-2-170-177.
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Background Due to an aging population and illnesses related to current lifestyles, health-related concerns are becoming increasingly more important. Moreover, today's society is more aware of the potential side effects of medicines and is looking for innovative therapeutic alternatives. Hence, the use of natural compounds in the prevention of various diseases and health maintenance has been studied. Among the natural products studied are mushrooms, which are well known for their nutritional value and health-promoting properties. These have been considered as both functional foods and a source of nutraceuticals. Scope and approach The present review is aimed at collecting and critically examining current data on the bioactive properties of mushrooms as well as their classification as functional foods and source of nutraceuticals. It also intended to describe the state of the art regarding mushroom formulations currently available on the market, and to highlight what could be done to improve this market in order to make a variety of quality and duly-certified products that promote human well-being available. Key findings and conclusions Mushrooms are natural matrices of excellence. Their bioactivity has been proved and therefore, their incorporation in foods has been studied. However, these new food products have not yet gone to market and most of the mushrooms and their compounds are mainly consumed in their natural form or in dietary supplements. Despite interest in such products having grown over the years, in Western countries, mushroom products are not as common as in Asia and legislation needs to be implemented to permit an increase in their consumption.
Article
Background Much research has been conducted to attest that different food and herbal extracts display functional properties in humans when consumed regularly as part of a balanced diet. However, most studies only relate one or some in vitro and/or in vivo functionalities of these extracts, without performing clinical trials to attest the alleged functionality. For instance, while some studies focus on the existence of statistical correlation between antioxidant activity and antidiabetic properties and the phenolic composition of a certain herb, others aim to assess the effects of different extraction methods (i.e., pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, and supercritical fluid extraction) on some selected in vitro functional properties. Scope and approach Although these studies are essential for a better understanding of the extracts and foods consumed worldwide, they lack depth and, principally, practical application on consumer's health and well-being. In this scenario, in this article we propose an integration of multiple interlinked disciplines and between academia and food companies to elucidate the health-promoting properties of foods and extracts. In addition, we discuss and propose a multidimensional team to develop new functional foods. Key findings and conclusions Researchers should perform a wide variety of in vitro and in vivo tests to determine the toxicological effects, therapeutic dosage and to assess the physicochemical, chemical, and sensory properties of a developed food before stating its functionality. Complementarily, food scientists should never develop and attest in vivo functionality alone; rather, a highly active interconnection with related fields is required.
Article
Background Bioactive peptides have strong potential for use in functional food formulation for prevention and management of health conditions, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). Microalgae can be used as sustainable protein sources in the production of peptide-based functional foods for preventing or treating CVD. Scope and approach This review discusses the scientific knowledge and current trends in microalgae-derived peptides, including their chemical composition, production and potential impact in management of hypertension and oxidative stress. The prospects for commercial applications as functional food ingredients are also discussed. Key findings and conclusions There is high potential for the production of functional foods containing microalgae-derived peptides. Peptides that inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme, and those that have antihypertensive and antioxidant properties, all of which are important in ameliorating CVD risk factors, have been successfully produced from microalgae. Future research with regards to the microalgae-derived peptides will involve the development of large-scale commercial microalgae cultivation, enhancement of protein extraction and peptide release, understanding of matrix interactions of the peptides within food products, and in vivo studies in human to validate health benefits.
Article
Aim: Nuts are rich in unsaturated fatty acids as well as other bioactive constituents. The present study investigated the association between nut consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Middle Eastern population. Methods: The study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), in which 1984 participants (920 men and 1064 women) free of DM, aged≥20 years, were followed from phase III (2005-2008) to phase V (2011-2014). Dietary data were obtained from valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaires at baseline. Using multiple logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, with adjustments for age, gender, BMI, serum cholesterol and triglycerides, smoking and energy intake. Results: Study participants' means±SD of age and of BMI were 40.1±13.1 years and 27.0±4.8kg/m(2), respectively. The median±SE of their total daily consumption of nuts was 1.19±0.11 servings. After 6.2±0.7 years of follow-up, 150 cases of T2DM were confirmed. On comparing those who consumed ≥4 servings/week with those who consumed <1 serving/week, the age-/energy-adjusted OR of incident T2DM for total nut consumption was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.36-1.12; P for trend = 0.03). In a fully adjusted model, nut consumption was associated with a lower risk of T2DM, and the ORs (95% CIs) of risk for those consuming 2-3.99 and ≥4 servings/week of nuts were 0.51 (0.26-0.97) and 0.47 (0.25-0.90), respectively, compared with those consuming <1 serving/week (P<0.001 for trend). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that consuming ≥4 servings/week of nuts reduced the risk of T2DM compared with <1 serving/week.
Article
Background & aims: Limited data are available on the relationship of protein from different food sources with metabolic syndrome (MetS) or changes in its components. We aimed to prospectively examine the relationships of protein intakes from animal, plant and major food groups with incident MetS and changes in its components. Methods: 5324 participants from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, who were free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, hyperlipidaemia, elevated plasma glucose, elevated blood pressure and elevated waist circumference (WC) at baseline (1990-1994), were included in the present investigation. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated 121-item Food Frequency Questionnaire and MetS components were measured at baseline and follow-up (2003-2007). Results: We documented 459 new cases of MetS during a mean of 11.2 years' follow-up. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% CI) of incident MetS for the highest compared with lowest quartile of percentage energy intake from total, animal and plant protein were 1.46 (1.01-2.10), 1.67 (1.13-2.48) and 0.60 (0.37-0.97), respectively. Positive associations with incident MetS were seen for protein from chicken (OR (95% CI): 1.37 (1.00, 1.87)) and red meat (OR (95% CI): 1.47 (1.01, 2.15)), while inverse associations with incident MetS were observed for protein from grains (OR (95% CI): 0.62 (0.40, 0.97)), legumes and nuts (OR (95% CI): 0.74 (0.53, 1.04)). Each 5% increment in energy intake from animal protein was associated with a 0.97 cm (95% CI: 0.50, 1.45) increase in WC, a 0.97 mmHg (95% CI: 0.13, 1.82) increase in systolic blood pressure, and a 0.94 kg (95% CI: 0.57, 1.32) increase in weight over 11 years. However, an inverse association between plant protein and change in WC (-1.38 cm (95% CI: -2.68, -0.07)) and weight (-1.97 kg (95% CI: -3.00, -0.94)) was identified. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that higher plant protein and lower animal protein consumption may help to prevent MetS.