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... Participants in the main study were N = 2,549 secondary education mathematics teachers from 272 schools (44 % male) across Germany, who were sampled according to the PISA 2012 sampling frame (Prenzel et al., 2013). Detailed background data of the teacher questionnaires are available in Mang et al. (2018). ...
... Both studies used the scales described below, which were adapted from questionnaires published in medicine (Jette et al., 2003;Johnston, Leung, Fielding, Tin & Ho, 2003;Young & Ward, 2001). The complete item texts are available in Mang et al. (2018). ...
... Items were treated as categorical indicators (Brown, 2015). The latent variable of familiarity had a hierarchical structure encompassing research methods / statistics (Mang et al., 2018) and, thus, these subdimensions were included as item parcels (Little, Cunningham, Shahar & Widaman, 2002). Owing to the multilevel structure 1 Slight differences in descriptive statistics presented here and in Mang et al. (2018) are due to different handling of missing data. ...
Article
Teachers' reception of educational research is considered important for improving teaching and student learning. Yet, it is a challenging task requiring teachers to have access to scientific sources, the skill and time to find and exhaust such resources, and the capacity to interpret retrieved information. If such essential conditions are not met, teachers have hardly any chance to engage in research reception and, consequently, may question the value and relevance of research findings to their practice. Prior research has suggested that teachers are indeed critical of educational research findings and rarely refer to them. Based on data from the field trial ( N = 674) and main study ( N = 2,549) of a national extension study of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 in Germany, this study explored the role of (a) teachers' access to scientific sources, (b) perceived lack of skill and time to search for research findings, and (c) their familiarity with research methods/statistics as potential predictors of their appreciation of evidence-based practice, and perceived irrelevance of educational research findings. Structural equation models demonstrated that perceived lack of skill and time to find research findings, in particular, substantially affected participants' irrelevance perceptions. The more participants assessed their sourcing skill and time to be too constrained to engage in research reception, the more they judged research findings to be irrelevant to their practice. Though source access and familiarity with research methods/statistics indicated only small or even no effects, they strongly correlated with participants' perceived lack of sourcing skill and time. Better source access and greater familiarity were associated with less concern about one's skill and time resources to search for relevant research findings. These findings potentially underline the relevance of strengthening both teachers' access to scientific sources and individual capacities to understanding research contents.
... Focusing on achievement-related behaviors, Watt et al. (2019) found that students in a 'Positively engaged' group with high expectancies, interest, utility value, and low perceived cost reported the highest academic effort followed by students in a 'struggling ambitious' group with high positive motivational beliefs but high perceived cost. In this study, we focus on achievement-related behaviors in terms of work ethics, which is defined as an effortful and conscientious engagement in activities in a given domain (Mang et al., 2018). ...
... We based our latent profile analyses on motivational constructs assessed in Grades 9 and 10. Measures and data both stemmed from the PISA 2012 data set (Mang et al., 2018). The exact wording of all items is reported in Appendix A. ...
Article
This longitudinal study aimed to investigate how motivational transitions of adolescents in the domain of mathematics from Grades 9 to 10 were related to student-perceived mathematics teacher support and student-oriented teaching. Data were drawn from the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and its German national extension called PISA Plus 2012–2013. We used a subsample of 2605 students (51.0 % girls) from 198 classrooms. Using latent profile analyses, we identified three motivational patterns based on expectancy-value theory that were meaningfully associated with students' mathematics test scores and work ethics. Latent transition analyses showed that these patterns were mostly stable across time. Occurring changes were characterized by a decrease in mathematics motivation across time. Student-oriented teaching as reported by students in Grade 9 impeded maladaptive motivational transitions. Students with particularly low interest and utility value benefitted from teachers who direct their instruction at students' motivational characteristics.
... At the end of the survey, the student was asked to indicate their gender, age, and family language. Family language was operationalized via the following question (Mang et al., 2018): "Which language do you usually speak when you talk to the following people?" The student was asked to answer this question separately regarding "parents", "siblings", and "other relatives (e.g., grandparents, aunts, uncles)". ...
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Lower vocabulary in German is repeatedly reported for students with Turkish migration background attending school in Germany. We investigated whether in students of Turkish descent (a) learning vocabulary is impaired when the teacher activates the negative stereotype that students with Turkish family language learn less well and (b) whether a Turkish-origin teacher, as an ingroup expert model, can mitigate negative effects of the activation of the stereotype. In an experimental study, Turkish- and German-origin students (N = 182) living in Germany worked individually on a tablet on a vocabulary learning task instructed by a teacher in a video tutorial who introduced herself with either a Turkish or German name. Before the task, the teacher either mentioned that students in general (no stereotype activation) or students who speak Turkish in their families (stereotype activation) often have difficulties acquiring new vocabulary. A multiple-group regression analysis showed that Turkish-origin students learned significantly more under stereotype activation with the Turkish-origin teacher than in all other conditions. Results suggest that students are particularly motivated to learn when the teacher represents their ingroup targeted by negative stereotypes and openly addresses potential difficulties students of the stigmatized ingroup may encounter. We discuss the findings in light of the literature on stereotype threat and on the role of ingroup expert models.
... The scale Children's internet use was administered to children only. To assess the different uses of the internet, the scales ICT usage outside of school for entertainment and ICT usage outside of school for school-related tasks from the PISA questionnaire from 2012 (Mang et al., 2018) were used and modified to the field of internet inquiries. The instructions on these scales were as follows: "How often do you use the internet for the following activities outside of school?". ...
Article
Internet use is significant in the everyday lives of children and can be distinguished into different uses (e.g., entertainment-related, informative or school-related). When considering the literature on internet inquiries, the family as an informal place of learning is of particular importance. Although some predictors within the family (e.g., structural factors) are widely researched, comprehensive results on the influence of parental involvement, especially parental instruction as a form of parental support during information-related internet activities, on different internet uses are still lacking. Therefore, the study investigates (1) the relationship of parental role construction, self-efficacy, internet skills, and parental instruction in information-related internet use perceived by parents and children and (2) the relationship of parental role construction, self-efficacy, internet skills, parental instruction, and children's internet uses at home (entertainment-related, practical and school-or-learning-related). The mediation effects of parental instruction were also tested. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was answered by 361 German children and their parents. Structural equation modeling was applied to answer the research questions. We observed that children's perceived parental instruction was positively associated with children's practical and school-or-learning-related internet use. Parents' motivational factors were the strongest predictors for parents' perceived parental instruction The findings have significant implications for research and practice on how parents can be more active in fulfilling their role as supporters for children's internet use.
... Examples for reports about the dyadic relationship quality from the students' perspective are Koomen et al.'s Student Perception of Affective Relationship with Teacher Scale (2015) and Davis's Quality of the Student / Teacher Relationship Scale (2001). Examples for (b), judgments of the overall quality of relationships between teachers and students as reported from both perspectives, can be found in research on classroom climate and social support (e. g., Collie et al., 2012;Eder & Mayr, 2000;Hertel et al., 2014;Mang et al., 2018;Rauer & Schuck, 2003;Zullig et al., 2010). Examples for (c), reports from the students' perspective on the teacher's relationship with a group of students are Wubbels et al.'s Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (Wubbels & Levy, 1993) and Saldern and Littig's Teachers' Care Subscale (Bieg et al., 2011). ...
... Examples for reports about the dyadic relationship quality from the students' perspective are Koomen et al.'s Student Perception of Affective Relationship with Teacher Scale (2015) and Davis's Quality of the Student / Teacher Relationship Scale (2001). Examples for (b), judgments of the overall quality of relationships between teachers and students as reported from both perspectives, can be found in research on classroom climate and social support (e. g., Collie et al., 2012;Eder & Mayr, 2000;Hertel et al., 2014;Mang et al., 2018;Rauer & Schuck, 2003;Zullig et al., 2010). Examples for (c), reports from the students' perspective on the teacher's relationship with a group of students are Wubbels et al.'s Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (Wubbels & Levy, 1993) and Saldern and Littig's Teachers' Care Subscale (Bieg et al., 2011). ...
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Teacher-student relationships have been shown to be highly relevant for student outcomes, but they are also important for teachers. Teachers have a basic need for relatedness with their students and recent empirical evidence underlines the relevance of teachers' relationships with the students of a class. However, a validated instrument which specifically addresses the relational phenomenon between a teacher and the entire group of students within a class – which we define as teacher-class relationship – is yet missing. Thus, the goal of the present research was to develop and validate an instrument which captures the teachers' self-reported quality of the teacher-class relationship (the TCR scale). To do so, we adopted a mixed methods approach: In Study 1 (qualitative, N = 56), we analyzed interviews to explore the cognitive validity of the TCR items, and in Study 2 (quantitative, N = 209), we tested the psychometric quality of the TCR scale and its external validity in terms of correlative links with related constructs. Study 1 results showed that seven out of the original 13 developed items were highly cognitively valid in that the teachers associated main aspects of relationship quality with these items and answered them by referring predominantly to the whole class instead of individual students. Study 2 results confirmed that these seven items formed a unidimensional scale with high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .89). Furthermore, the TCR scale was significantly linked with teachers' class-specific teaching emotions and self-efficacy as well as with teachers' job-related burnout symptoms and emotional labor. We conclude that the TCR scale represents a reliable, valid and parsimonious instrument to measure the quality of teacher-class relationships. We hope that the existence of this scale fuels future research to further investigate teacher-class relationships and their connections with teachers' emotional and professional wellbeing.
... The responses took the form of a four-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree). This scale is well established in the German study context and was developed for the mathematics section of PISA 2012, a large-scale international study (Mang et al. 2018). An example item was "In mathematics, I learn quickly." ...
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Student participation and cognitive and emotional engagement in learning activities play a key role in student academic achievement and are driven by student motivational characteristics such as academic self-concept. These relations have been well established with variable-centered analyses, but in this study, a person-centered analysis was applied to describe how the different aspects of student engagement are combined within individual students. Specifically, we investigated how the number of hand-raisings interacts with student cognitive and emotional engagement in various engagement patterns. Additionally, it was analyzed how these engagement patterns relate to academic self-concept as an antecedent and achievement as an outcome. In an empirical study, high school students (N = 397) from 20 eighth-grade classrooms were surveyed and videotaped during one mathematics school lesson. The design included a pre- and post-test, with the videotaping occurring in between. Five within-student engagement patterns were identified by latent profile analysis: disengaged, compliant, silent, engaged, and busy. Students with higher academic self-concept were more likely to show a pattern of moderate to high engagement. Compared with students with low engagement, students with higher engagement patterns gained systematically in end-of-year achievement. These findings illustrate the power of person-centered analyses to illuminate the complexity of student engagement. They imply the need for differentiation beyond disengaged and engaged students and bring along the recognition that being engaged can take on various forms, from compliant to busy.
... Für die Schule wurden bereits Lernstrategieskalen im Zuge der PISA-Studie stärker für die Mathematik angepasst (OECD 2005;Mang et al. 2018 (Bühner 2011, S. 111-116). Zur Erhöhung der Validität wird außerdem die Beschriftung der einzelnen Antworten empfohlen. ...
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Lernstrategien haben für den Lernprozess eine hohe Bedeutung. Ihre Nutzung an der Hochschule ist immer wieder Gegenstand empirischer Untersuchungen. Allerdings existiert kein Instrument, das die Besonderheiten der Mathematik als Lerngegenstand und die dafür üblichen universitären Arbeitsweisen berücksichtigt. Wir wollen diese Lücke schließen und stellen dafür einen neuen Fragebogen vor, der anhand von acht quantitativen Erhebungen und zwei qualitativen Tests entwickelt und validiert wurde. Die Besonderheiten der Hochschulmathematik werden sowohl auf Ebene von Itemformulierungen als auch in neuen Skalen berücksichtigt. Das Instrument ist dennoch so allgemein gehalten, dass es mathematikspezifische Lernstrategien über verschiedene mathematikhaltige Studiengänge wie das Fachstudium, die Lehrerbildung sowie Ingenieurs- oder Wirtschaftswissenschaften abbilden kann.
Article
Zahlreiche Bildungssysteme haben in den letzten Jahrzehnten neue Steuerungsstrukturen etabliert, welche unter anderem mehr Entscheidungsmöglichkeiten, oft in Verbindung mit erhöhter Rechenschaftspflicht (Accountability), auf Schulebene vorsehen. In diesem Szenario verändern sich auch die Aufgaben- und Verantwortungsbereiche der Schulleitung. Nationale Strategien unterscheiden sich jedoch deutlich hinsichtlich ihrer Akzentuierung von Autonomie und Accountability. In diesem Beitrag wird der Zusammenhang zwischen Autonomie, Accountability und Schulleitungshandeln auf Systemebene mittels PISA 2015-Daten untersucht. Die Analysen deuten auf Interdependenzbeziehungen zwischen Accountability und Führungsstil, nicht jedoch zwischen Autonomie und Schulleitungshandeln hin.
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„Erziehung und Unterricht“ im Jahr 2020 beginnt mit einem Novum: Wir haben für diese Ausgabe Univ.-Prof. Dr. Stefan Brauckmann als Mitherausgeber gewinnen können. Mit Helga Braun in der Co-Koordination konnten renommierte Autorinnen und Autoren aus Wissenschaft und Forschung, aber auch Expertinnen und Experten der Führungs- und Beratungspraxis gewonnen werden. Seit Jahren wird nicht nur in Österreich über die Rolle und Aufgaben der Schulleitung äußerst kontrovers debattiert. Die Ansprüche und Anforderungen an die Profession Schulleitung sind gewachsen, Begriffe wie Leadership, Führung, evidenzbasiertes Qualitätsmanagement, Schul- und Unterrichtsentwicklung sind selbstverständlicher Sprachgebrauch geworden. Anliegen der Beiträge des hier vorliegende Themenheftes, in dem neben renommierten Schulleitungsforscherinnen und -forschern auch Expertinnen und Experten der Führungs- und Beratungspraxis zu Wort kommen, ist es deshalb vor allem • die Handlungsrelevanz und den Anwendungsbezug des erweiterten Führungsverständnisses und -anspruchs für das Schulleitungshandeln empirisch begründet sichtbar zu machen sowie • damit einhergehenden Begleitungs-, Beratungs- wie Unterstützungsbedarf festzustellen. Insgesamt erlauben es die hier versammelten Texte aus dem deutschsprachigen Forschungs-und Bildungsraum, das Schulleitungshandeln stärker in den systemischen Gesamtkontext einzubetten und so auch zu belegen, dass Vorschläge für eine neue Funktionsbestimmung der Schulleitung vor allem dannerfolgversprechend sind, wenn sie in Zusammenhang mit den Steuerungsprämissen eines Schulsystems und Ausgangsbedingungen vor Ort stehen. Nicht zuletzt soll das Heft mit seinem vielfältigen inhaltlichen Angebot allen jenen, die sich den zahlreichen Leitungsanforderungen im beruflichen Alltag zu stellen haben, eine Reflexionsfläche bieten und ggf. Entwicklungsbedarf aufzeigen. Es bietet sich darüber hinaus auch allen anderen Akteurinnen und Akteuren als eine Orientierungshilfe an, die Verantwortung für eine qualitative hochwertige Schul- und Unterrichtsentwicklung tragen oder noch tragen werden.
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Research dealing with various aspects of* the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) is reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In broad terms, the theory is found to be well supported by empirical evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain. Expectancy— value formulations are found to be only partly successful in dealing with these relations. Optimal rescaling of expectancy and value measures is offered as a means of dealing with measurement limitations. Finally, inclusion of past behavior in the prediction equation is shown to provide a means of testing the theory*s sufficiency, another issue that remains unresolved. The limited available evidence concerning this question shows that the theory is predicting behavior quite well in comparison to the ceiling imposed by behavioral reliability.
Article
Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. (21/2 p ref)
Chapter
Learning throughout the life span relies more and more on using information and communication technology (ICT) to acquire new knowledge and skills in both formal and informal learning environments. Thus, learning to use ICT and using ICT to learn have become major premises for successful participation in educational, professional, social, cultural, and civic life. To keep pace with the rapid development of ICT, people need to be able to update their ICT knowledge and skills continuously. A major conditioning personal characteristic that affects the development and adaptation of ICT skills in a self-regulated way is considered to be ICT engagement. This chapter describes the conceptual origins of this multifaceted construct. At the behavioral level it represents the use of ICT in various contexts, such as at home or at school. Most importantly, from a cognitive-motivational perspective it covers the factors that foster the self-determined and self-regulated use of ICT, such as interest in ICT, ICT self-concept, perceived autonomy in ICT use, and social relatedness in using ICT.