PreprintPDF Available

Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability, and Learning Styles

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

In EFL context, considering appropriate technique in teaching pronunciation is a pivotal issue since it could help students to learn how to pronounce English sounds easy. This study aimed to investigate the effect of tongue twister technique on pronunciation ability of students across different learning styles. This study involved 34 first-year English major students taking Intensive English course at Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, one of leading universities in Indonesia. The students in the experimental group were taught by using tongue twister, while those in the control group were taught by using repetition technique. The students were also grouped based on two types of learning styles, namely active and reflective learning styles referring to Felder and Silverman’s (1988) learning style model. The findings of the study showed that there was no significant difference in pronunciation ability between the groups. No significant difference was either found in pronunciation ability between students with active learning style and those with reflective learning style. In spite of the insignificant results, tongue twister is considered beneficial by the students as they perceived that practicing tongue twisters cultivated joyful learning and it helped them to improve their pronunciation, fluency, and motivation in learning English pronunciation. Tongue twister practice could complement the use of repetition technique to enhance students’ learning experience and learning outcome.
Content may be subject to copyright.
365
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume. 8 Number. 4 December 2017 Pp. 365-383
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol8no4.25
Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability, and Learning Styles
Fatchul Mu’in
English Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education
Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, Indonesia
Rosyi Amrina
English Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education
Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, Indonesia
Rizky Amelia
English Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education
Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, Indonesia
Abstract
In EFL context, considering appropriate technique in teaching pronunciation is a pivotal issue
since it could help students to learn how to pronounce English sounds easy. This study aimed to
investigate the effect of tongue twister technique on pronunciation ability of students across
different learning styles. This study involved 34 first-year English major students taking Intensive
English course at Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, one of leading universities in Indonesia. The
students in the experimental group were taught by using tongue twister, while those in the control
group were taught by using repetition technique. The students were also grouped based on two
types of learning styles, namely active and reflective learning styles referring to Felder and
Silverman’s (1988) learning style model. The findings of the study showed that there was no
significant difference in pronunciation ability between the groups. No significant difference was
either found in pronunciation ability between students with active learning style and those with
reflective learning style. In spite of the insignificant results, tongue twister is considered beneficial
by the students as they perceived that practicing tongue twisters cultivated joyful learning and it
helped them to improve their pronunciation, fluency, and motivation in learning English
pronunciation. Tongue twister practice could complement the use of repetition technique to
enhance students’ learning experience and learning outcome.
Keywords: active, learning styles, pronunciation, reflective, tongue twister
Cite as: Mu’in, F., Rosy Amrina, R., & Amelia, R. (2017). Tongue Twister, Students’
Pronunciation Ability, and Learning Styles. Arab World English Journal, 8 (4). DOI:
https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol8no4.25
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 8. Number 4. December 2017
Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability Mu’in, Amrina & Amelia
Arab World English Journal
www.awej.org
ISSN: 2229-9327
366
Introduction
Among the four language skills and other language components, pronunciation gets the least
attention to discuss. The attitudes towards foreign accents have generally changed from judgmental
to more tolerant (Tergujeff, p. 2013). In fact, the teaching of pronunciation takes part every year
in most English Departments curriculum at the university level. Some prior issues such as whether
pronunciation is worth teaching (Richards & Renandya, 2002, p.175), whether pronunciation can
be taught (Jones in Richards & Renandya, 2002, p. 179), and the importance of teaching
pronunciation to adult learners (Thompson & Gaddes, 2004) have put pronunciation in a settled
position in language teaching. Over the past 50 years, at least three primary orientations of
pronunciation teaching exist. These orientations are imitating sounds orientation, explicit
presentation and intensive practice with specific sounds orientation, as well as experiential
orientation (Murphy in Nunan, 2003, p.112-114).
This third orientation is the most common one used by teachers nowadays to teach
pronunciation. The basis of this orientation is on the communicative and task-based language
teaching since word as well as sentence stress, rhythm, and intonation become a priority (Murphy
in Nunan, 2003, p. 115, Harmer, 2007, p. 253, Brown & Lee, 2015, p. 374). Further, this priority
is immersed into a wide variety of existed techniques used in pronunciation teaching including
listen and repeat/drills, minimal pair practice, role play, teacher correction, phonemic script,
recording learners, using mirrors and diagrams of the mouth, listening tasks, and encouraging
learners to think of their pronunciation goals. However, there are some other things besides these
orientations and techniques that can even hinder and support students’ mastery of pronunciation.
Brown and Lee (2015, p. 375) listed six factors that affect pronunciation. Native language is the
first and the most influential factor. The other five factors are age, exposure, innate phonetic
ability, identity, and agency, as well as motivation and concern for good pronunciation.
Acquiring good pronunciation is teacher and students’ goal. Therefore, teacher spends time
considering appropriate ways of teaching pronunciation and developing students’ skill. Velázquez
and Ángel (2013) and Szyszka (2016) revealed that the majority of teachers use repetition
technique to facilitate the acquisition of English pronunciation and help students to become more
familiarized with the pronunciation more easily and quickly. In its most basic form, repetition
technique asks students to repeat individual words or utterances. As the teacher gives a model of
the language, the students repeat it either in unison or individually or both. The other researcher,
Khakim (2015) also found that applying repetition could improve students’ pronunciation ability.
Jones in Richards and Renandya (2002, p. 180) mentioned that although repetition is a means to
help articulation, it can be more meaningful, communicative, and memorable by including visual
representations and training in the awareness of kinesthetic sensation. However, apart from these
findings, repetition is a pronunciation technique that does not fully address some native language
interference challenges faced by the students.
The challenges in English sounds pronunciation are apparent. One of the challenges is that
students have to learn not only how to use their voice in a different way from their native language,
but also have to learn to make new movements with the organs of articulation in pronouncing the
English sounds (Orion, 1997, p. 24). In other words, there are some necessary movements which
are made to make some English sounds which are very similar and often confusing to pronounce.
The other challenge which is related to native language is that most students are reluctant to speak
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 8. Number 4. December 2017
Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability Mu’in, Amrina & Amelia
Arab World English Journal
www.awej.org
ISSN: 2229-9327
367
because of their foreign accent. Even though acquiring native-like pronunciation is not the main
goal to reach, the native speaker's pronunciation patterns reflect the commonly accepted by
particular speech communities (Murphy in Nunan, 2002, p. 112). Accordingly, Jones in Richards
and Renandya (2002, p. 180) emphasizes the attention to focus on the teaching methods that fully
address the issues of motivation and exposure to input from native speakers.
In responding to the challenges above, one technique namely tongue twister comes as a
technique that promotes native-like pronunciation provides exposure of certain different sounds,
and drives students’ motivation for good pronunciation. Harmer (2007, p. 256) mentions that
teacher can use tongue twister in working with difficult sounds. A previous study by Turumi,
Jamiluddin, and Salehuddin (2016) on tongue twister in the eighth grade of junior high school
showed that tongue twister is a promising technique to teach pronunciation. In addition, Zhang
(2013) also used tongue twisters to supplement beginning level CFL students’ pronunciation and
tone practice. Meanwhile, in the university context, Sitoresmi (2016) implemented tongue twisters
in the pronunciation class and the result was tongue twisters were useful to improve motivation,
class condition, and pronunciation ability. The definition of tongue twister itself is a text that
features one or a combination of sounds that are extremely difficult for the mouth and, of course,
tongue to control (Karker, 2000, p. 2 in Sitoresmi, 2016). Despite the difficulty, especially for
foreign learners, tongue twister is helpful to guide students to native-like pronunciation and help
students learn many minimal pairs for example in distinguishing phonemes /ʃ/ and /s / as well as
producing distinct and accurate [l] and [r] sounds. Unfortunately, tongue twister technique is less
popular than repetition at higher secondary level pronunciation teaching (Szyszka, 2016).
Considering the potential impacts of tongue twister on students’ pronunciation ability, this study
aimed to investigate the effect of tongue twister compared to repetition technique on students’
pronunciation ability.
Students’ success in learning English pronunciation is not only affected by the use of
appropriate teaching techniques. Given that pronunciation is a personal matter (Harmer, 2007, p.
252), the outcome of English pronunciation learning can also be affected by students’ individual
differences, such as intelligence, aptitude, personality, motivation, attitude, age of acquisition and
learning style (Saville-Troike, 2006; Brown & Lee, 2015). Among these differences, students
learning style is a prominent concern in this study in addition to the teaching technique employed
in the pronunciation classroom. Learning style is the preference individuals have for learning. In
pronunciation teaching, it is important to realize that students ultimately have their own control of
changes in pronunciation (Murphy, 2003, p. 115-117 in Nunan), so the way or strategy they prefer
for learning pronunciation would play important role in affecting the learning outcome.
Furthermore, when students’ learning styles were matched with teaching technique, positive
learning experience would possibly be created (Reid, 2005; Felder & Silverman, 1988).
The types of learning style involved in this study were active and reflective learning styles,
which postulated by Felder and Silverman (1988) in their learning style model. These learning
styles were selected due to their relevance to the pronunciation teaching and learning process,
which included listening activities, repetition, and tongue twister practice, in this study. Students
with active learning style theoretically are those who like trying things, understand something
better after they try it out, more easily remember what they have done and like working in groups
(Felder & Silverman, 1988). With these characteristics, the researchers assumed that students with
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 8. Number 4. December 2017
Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability Mu’in, Amrina & Amelia
Arab World English Journal
www.awej.org
ISSN: 2229-9327
368
active learning style might benefit from the tongue twister practice since they were guided to be
actively engaged in practicing tongue twister in pairs to improve their pronunciation. On the other
hand, students with reflective learning style are those who prefer to think about what they learn
quietly first and prefer working alone (Felder & Silverman, 1988). During tongue twister practice,
students with reflective learning style might feel more self-conscious and therefore reticent to try
tongue twister out and to take risk making mistakes. Nevertheless, students with reflective learning
style might benefit from listening activity and teacher’s models during the practice. In a nutshell,
active and reflective learning styles were taken into account in this study given that the
characteristics of each learning styles might interact with the pronunciation teaching technique and
in turn, result in a positive effect on students’ pronunciation ability.
Despite the relation between the characteristics of the active and reflective learning styles
to the pronunciation teaching and learning has been discussed, the role of the two types of learning
styles to students’ learning outcome actually remains unclear, especially in pronunciation. The
investigation on these types of learning styles in relation to students’ learning outcome is still rare.
Most of the researchers who are interested in these types of learning styles only focused on finding
the students’ learning styles, for instance, El-Hmoudova (2014); Aziza, Yib, Alwic & Jetd (2013);
Baldwin and Sabry (2010); Charlesworth (2008); and Judy & Moira (2007). One example of
research studies which investigated these learning styles in relation to students’ learning outcome
was Wichadee (2011) who focused on students’ reading comprehension. Furthermore, as there is
not any wider study on the effect of tongue twister across learning styles, this present study was
conducted to fill in the gap by examining the effect of tongue twister compared to repetition
technique across active and reflective learning styles. This study further attempted to find which
learning style benefit more from the use of tongue twister. The research questions are accordingly
formulated as follows:
1) Is there any difference in pronunciation ability between the students who are taught using
tongue twister and those who are taught using repetition?
2) Is there any difference in pronunciation ability between the active students and the
reflective students?
3) Is there any interaction between pronunciation teaching techniques and students’ learning
styles?
Research Method
Research Design
To answer the research questions, the 2x2 factorial quasi-experimental research design was
used in this study. Using this research design enabled the researchers to find not only the
independent effect of the pronunciation teaching techniques on students’ pronunciation ability but
also the simultaneous effect of the teaching techniques and learning styles involved in this study.
Based on the design, the independent variable was pronunciation teaching technique in the form
of tongue twister and repetition. The dependent variable was students’ pronunciation ability.
Students’ pronunciation ability in this study referred to their ability in pronouncing English
vowels. The attribute variable was learning style which comprised active and reflective learning
styles.
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 8. Number 4. December 2017
Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability Mu’in, Amrina & Amelia
Arab World English Journal
www.awej.org
ISSN: 2229-9327
369
Participants and Setting
This study involved 34 first-year students from two intact classes of Intensive English
course in English Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lambung
Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, Indonesia. The first class (Class A) was the experimental group who
consisted of 17 students. There were 11 female and 6 male students in the group. The second class
(Class B) was the control group who also consisted of 17 students. In terms of gender, the control
group has the equal number of female and male students to that of the experimental group.
Treatment
Tongue twister technique as the treatment in this study was applied in the experimental
group during Intensive English course. In the setting of the study, one of the learning objectives in
Intensive English course is that the students are expected to be able to pronounce English vowels
by comparing and contrasting English vowels in oral production correctly. Based on this objective,
the treatment focused on the pronunciation of English vowels. The list of the English vowels as
the learning topics and the materials of the vowels used in the experimental and the control groups
were adopted from Orion (1997). It can be seen in Table 1.
Table 1.The list of vowels as the topics used in this study
List of English vowels as the topics and
materials in this study
/i/ as in see
/ɪ/ as in sit
/eɪ/ as in pay
/ɛ/ as in met
/æ/ as in cat
/ɑ/ as in not
/aɪ/ as in buy
/aʊ/ as in now
/ə/ as in up
/ər/ as in sir
/ɔɪ/ as in boy
/ɔ/ as in all
/oʊ/ as in no
/u/ as in do
/ʊ/ as in book
The tongue twisters utilized in this study were adopted from Kisito (2006) and Hart (2008).
They were practiced by the students based on the vowels learned in the classroom. For instance,
when the students learned how to pronounce the vowels /i/ and /ɪ/, they practiced the tongue
twisters“The sheep on the ship slipped on the sheet of sleet.andThe keen king kissed the quick
queen on her green ring. As another example, when they learned how to pronounce the vowels/u/
and /ʊ/, they practiced the tongue twister You can bake a kooky cookie or stew a stupid duck. You
can look it all up in a cool cook book.” The practice of the tongue twisters combined and contrasted
not only two different vowels but also three or more different vowels in the middle of the treatment.
For instance, the students practiced reading aloud the tongue twister Betty Botter bought some
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 8. Number 4. December 2017
Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability Mu’in, Amrina & Amelia
Arab World English Journal
www.awej.org
ISSN: 2229-9327
370
butter, but she said “This butter’s bitter. If I put it in my batter, it will make my batter bitter.” to
practice pronouncing the vowels /ε/, /ɔ/, /ə/, /ɪ/, and /æ/. The use of tongue twisters was considered
beneficial for the students, for it is assumed that it helps them compare and contrasts the learned
vowels correctly in oral production. The samples of tongue twister texts used in this study can be
seen in Appendix A.
The implementation of the tongue twister in the experimental group started with the
introduction of the English vowels and demonstration of how to pronounce them in words by the
lecturer. The students listened to the lecturer and were given chance to repeat the vowels solely
and in words. At the next step, the students got the texts of tongue twisters which contained the
learned vowels.Before they practiced the tongue twisters, they listened to the tongue twister audio
and listened to their lecturer modeling the tongue twisters. Afterwards, the students were asked to
read the tongue twisters aloud several times along with the lecturer. At this moment, the students
did not get any correction since the lecturer only noted problem areas on the copy of the text. After
the problem areas were identified, the activity was continued by demonstrating line by line of the
tongue twister to produce the problematic vowels and the students were asked to repeat the line.
Subsequently, the students were asked to repeat the whole tongue twister slowly and then more
quickly. The students then worked in pairs to take turns practicing the tongue twister as quick as
possible without mistakes. The next meeting was started with the review of the vowels as well as
the tongue twisters which have been learned. The procedure from the modeling to pair practice
was repeated for the next vowels with different tongue twisters. The whole treatment was
conducted for14 meetings.
In contrast to the treatment in the experimental group, the control group practiced their
pronunciation by using repetition technique only. The meeting started by listening to the audio of
the vowels and repeating the vowels together. The students also listened to the lecturer
demonstrating how to pronounce a list of words which contained the vowels and repeated after
her. Moreover, the classroom activity involved identifying which vowels were located in certain
words and was continued by using repetition technique.
Instruments
To measure the students’ pronunciation ability, a pronunciation test was utilized. It was
constructed by the researchers based on the English vowels which were taught during the study.
The test consisted of 60 words and 14 sentences which comprised 40 assessed words. Each
correctly-pronounced word was scored 1 point, so the maximum score was 100 points. The
students were instructed to read aloud the words and sentences in maximum 5 minutes. The test
was administered after the treatment was finished.The test is shown in Appendix B.
The second instrument was learning style questionnaire used to find the students’ learning
style and classify it into active or reflective learning style. It was adopted from Felderand
Soloman’s (1997) Index of Learning Style questionnaire on the part of active-reflective
dimensions. The consideration of adopting the questionnaire was that it is widely considered as a
reliable instrument (Felder & Spurlin, 2005) with valid scales (Cook, 2005) and evidence of
construct validity (Litzinger, Lee, Wise & Felder, 2005). It consisted of 11 items. It was
administered prior to the treatment. The students were required to fill in the questionnaire by
selecting one of two options that applies to themselves. The first option in each item belongs to
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 8. Number 4. December 2017
Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability Mu’in, Amrina & Amelia
Arab World English Journal
www.awej.org
ISSN: 2229-9327
371
the characteristics of active learning style, while the second option in each item belongs to the
characteristics of reflective learning style. The scoring of the questionnaire was conducted based
on the guidelines by Felder and Soloman (1997). The questionnaire can be seen in Appendix C.
The third instrument employed in this study was a questionnaire of students’ perception of
the implementation of the tongue twister. The data from the questionnaire were used to either
support or clarify the effect of a tongue twister as viewed from the students’ perception. The
questionnaire consisted of 10 items with 4 Likert-scales. The students were asked to fill in the
questionnaire by selecting 4 options indicating their perception of the use of the tongue twister in
their class.The options ranged from scale 4 for “strongly agree” to scale 1 for “strongly disagree”.
The questionnaire is shown in Appendix D.
The data analysis primarily involved the students’ scores from the pronunciation test and
was performed by means of SPSS 18.0 version. The students’ scores were first analyzed by using
descriptive statistics. Following the descriptive statistics, the fulfillment of statistical assumptions
was investigated to determine which inferential statistics was used in the next analysis procedure
to analyze the data based on the research questions.
Results
Prior to the treatment, learning style questionnaire was administered to identify whether
the students had active or reflective learning styles. Based on the analysis of the students’ score
from the questionnaire, 6 students had active learning styles and 11 students had reflective learning
styles in the experimental group. In the control group, there were 8 students with active learning
style and 9 students with reflective learning style. Thus, holistically, 14 students had active
learning style and 20 students had reflective learning styles.
The students’ pronunciation scores were analyzed and organized into descriptive data
based on the groups. The descriptive data showed that the mean score from the experimental group
was 86.2 with standard deviation (SD) of 8.03, while the mean score from the control group was
81.8 with SD of 11.21. Thus, the experimental group had higher mean score than did the control
group with the difference of mean score of 4.4 points. The descriptive data of students’
pronunciation scores from both groups are displayed in Table 2.
Table 2.The descriptive data of students’ pronunciation scores
Group
N
Minimum
Maximum
Mean
SD
Experimental Group
(Class A)
17
68
96
86.2
8.03
Control Group (Class B)
17
52
93
81.8
11.21
The students’ pronunciation scores were also organized based on their learning styles. The
descriptive data of the scores showed that the mean scores from the active students and reflective
students holistically were 84.71 and 83.50, respectively. The rough difference in the mean score
between active and reflective students was 1.21. This finding revealed that the active students
obtained higher mean score than the reflective students did, but the difference was only a few
points. Similarly, in each group, the active students outperformed the reflective students.The
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 8. Number 4. December 2017
Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability Mu’in, Amrina & Amelia
Arab World English Journal
www.awej.org
ISSN: 2229-9327
372
students’ complete scores can be seen in Appendix E. The descriptive data of students’
pronunciation scores based on students’ learning styles are shown in Table 3.
Table 3.The descriptive data of students’ pronunciation scores based on their
learning styles
Group
Learning
Styles
N
Minimum
Maximum
Mean
SD
Both Groups
Active
14
65.00
93.00
84.71
8.18
Reflective
20
52.00
96.00
83.50
11.08
Experimental
Active
6
80.00
91.00
86.83
4.31
Reflective
11
68.00
96.00
85.91
9.68
Control
Active
8
65.00
93.00
83.13
10.22
Reflective
9
52.00
92.00
80.56
12.51
The fulfillment of statistical assumptions was examined in terms of homogeneity and
normality of the data. Levene’s test in SPSS 18.0 was used to test the homogeneity of the data.
Based on the analysis, the p-value from Levene’s test for the data of pronunciation scores from
both experimental and control groups was 0.211, while the p-value for the data based on the
students’ learning styles was 0.250. Therefore, the data were considered homogeneous since the
p-values were greater than .05 level of significance. Moreover, Shapiro Wilk's test was applied to
find if the distribution of the data was normal. Based on the test results, it was found that the data
from the experimental group were distributed normally (p-value .102 > .05). However, the data
from the control group and those based on the students’ learning styles were not distributed
normally (p-values .006, .011, .012 < .05). Given that only one statistical assumption was fulfilled,
the data analysis was continued by means of Mann-Whitney U test to find the answers to the
research questions.
The first research question dealt with the effect of tongue twister compared to repetition
technique on students’ pronunciation ability. Based on the result of Mann-Whitney U test, the
obtained p-value was .201 which was greater than .05 level of significance (p-value > sig .05).
Thus, the analysis result revealed that there was no significant difference in pronunciation ability
between the students taught by using tongue twister and those taught by using repetition technique.
The result of Mann-Whitney U test can be seen in Table 4.
Table 4.The result of Mann-Whitney U test on the difference in pronunciation scores between the
experimental and the control groups
Pronunciation scores
Mann-Whitney U
107.500
Wilcoxon W
260.500
Z
-1.278
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
.201
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 8. Number 4. December 2017
Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability Mu’in, Amrina & Amelia
Arab World English Journal
www.awej.org
ISSN: 2229-9327
373
The second research question was concerned with the effect of tongue twister compared to
repetition technique on students’ pronunciation ability across active and reflective learning styles.
The result of Mann-Whitney U test indicated that the obtained p-value was .902. Since it was
greater than .05 level of significance, it was concluded that there was no significant difference in
pronunciation ability between the active students and reflective students in both groups. The result
of Mann-Whitney U test computation for the second research question is presented in Table 5.
Table 5.The result of Mann-Whitney U test on the difference in pronunciation scores between the
active and reflective students
Pronunciation Scores
Mann-Whitney U
136.500
Wilcoxon W
241.500
Z
-.123
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
.902
The third research question was formulated to find if the interaction among the variables.
Two-way ANOVA analysis was undertaken to investigate the interaction and it resulted in a p-
value of .817 which was greater than .05 level of significance. It was interpreted that there was no
interaction between pronunciation teaching techniques and learning styles on students’
pronunciation ability. The result of two-way ANOVA for the third research question is shown in
Table 6.
Table 6.The result of Two-way ANOVA on the interaction between the variables
Source
Type III Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F
Sig.
Pronunciation Teaching
Techniques*Learning
Styles
5.483
1
5.483
.055
.817
The quantitative data were complemented with the qualitative data from students’
perception on the use of tongue twister in learning English pronunciation. Based on the results of
the questionnaire, the students generally indicated positive perception on the use of tongue twister.
Most of them (70.57%) strongly agreed that the use of tongue twister motivates them to learn how
to pronounce English vowels in words and sentences correctly, while the rest (29.41%) agreed
with this statement.They also considered that learning pronunciation with tongue twister gave them
excitement as shown by 52.94% of the students who strongly agreed and 47.06% agreed with this
idea. In terms of tongue twister effects toward the improvement of the students’ pronunciation
ability, there were 41.18% of the students showing their strong agreement and the rest (58.82%)
showing their agreement that the use of tongue twister provides them good pronunciation practice
in comparing and contrasting English vowels.The next finding showed that 47.06% of the students
strongly agreed and 52.94% agreed that learning English pronunciation by using and practicing
tongue twister helps them to pronounce English vowels in words and sentences correctly and more
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 8. Number 4. December 2017
Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability Mu’in, Amrina & Amelia
Arab World English Journal
www.awej.org
ISSN: 2229-9327
374
easily. Moreover, 52.94% showed their strong agreement on the benefit of the tongue twister in
improving their fluency in English and 47.06% showed their agreement on the same point.
The subsequent finding showed that practicing tongue twister in pairs was beneficial for
the students to learn and get feedback from each other since 47.06% of the students strongly agreed
and the other 52.94% agreed with the benefit of the pair practice. This finding is confirmed by the
next questionnaire item which was dominated by the students’ strong agreement (76.47%) on their
increased motivation to work collaboratively in pairs to pronounce English vowels correctly.
Furthermore, most of the students (70.59%) strongly agreed that the use of tongue twister made
them actively engaged in pronunciation practice. The last questionnaire item revealed an
interesting finding. Only 35.29% of the students showed their strong agreement to the better
learning experience provided by tongue twister implementation compared to repetition only. While
47.06% of the students agreed with this perception, 3 students (17.65%) disagreed that the use of
tongue twister gave them better learning experience for pronunciation aspect than repetition only.
All in all, the students in the experimental group regarded the practice of tongue twister beneficial
for the improvement of their English pronunciation and fluency.
Discussion
This study revealed the effect of tongue twister on students’ pronunciation ability across
learning styles. Previous researchers, Turumi, Jamiluddin, and Salehuddin (2016), Zhang (2013),
and Sitoresmi (2016) found that tongue twister contributed significant result in students’
pronunciation ability. In contrast, the finding for the first research question of this study showed
that there was not any significant difference on students’ pronunciation ability between the
students who were taught using tongue twister and those who were taught using repetition
technique. This contradictory result might be caused by quite similar procedures in both of these
techniques. Both in the implementation of repetition and tongue twisters, the students listen to the
teacher modeling how to pronounce the words and repeat them after the teacher. What makes them
different was that students in the experimental group used unique tongue twister texts to practice
pronouncing the learned vowels.In addition, the students were asked to read aloud the tongue
twister with different speed, namely from slowly and then more quickly. The students also worked
in pairs to take turns practicing the tongue twister as quick as possible without mistakes.Thus, this
study suggested that both tongue twister and repetition technique gave a positive impact on
students’ pronunciation ability. Furthermore, in some other previous studies, tongue twister
technique was used in analyzing speech errors (Frisch & Wright, 2002; Keller, Carpenter, & Just,
2003; Goldrick & Blumstein, 2004; Acheson & MacDonald, 2009). In other words, it is used to
work more on detail problems in pronunciation due to its segments from nearby syllables.
This study further revealed an insignificant difference in students’ pronunciation ability
across learning styles.It means that students with either active or reflective learning styles obtained
equal positive impact from the use of tongue twister. This finding could be explained through the
characteristics of each learning style which were accommodated by the procedure in implementing
tongue twister in pronunciation teaching and learning. As previously outlined in introduction part,
students with active learning style might learn pronunciation more easily as they tried the tongue
twister out together with their partners. They directly immersed in active collaborative practice
and could discuss with their partners. The activities they were engaged in definitely suited their
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 8. Number 4. December 2017
Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability Mu’in, Amrina & Amelia
Arab World English Journal
www.awej.org
ISSN: 2229-9327
375
learning style. On the other hand, reflective students might get more benefit when they had the
opportunity to listen to the audio of tongue twister and teacher’s models carefully. These activities
would help them understand how to pronounce the vowels well. Although reflective students
theoretically do not prefer trying things out and work in groups (Felder and Silverman, 1988), in
this study the reflective students only worked with one partner, so the tongue twister practice might
not demotivate them. Moreover, reflective students could also observe and learn from their partner
to read the tongue twister aloud correctly.In addition to the equal benefit as viewed from the
matching characteristics of the learning styles to the practice of tongue twister, the data from
students’ perception also confirmed that both the students, with active and reflective learning
styles, considered that practicing tongue twister helped them to improve their pronunciation.
The next important finding from this study was no interaction between pronunciation
teaching techniques and learning styles. In other words, the main effect of the tongue twister and
drilling techniques in this study did not rely on the students’ learning style as the attributive
variable. In spite of no interaction found, matching teaching technique and students’ learning style
remains worth trying to optimize the students’ learning experience (Reid, 2005; Felder &
Silverman, 1988). In the case of using tongue twister in pronunciation teaching and learning, this
study suggested that the optimal use of tongue twister with listening activities, teacher’s modeling,
and peer practice could accommodate the learning need of both active and reflective learning
styles.As it is seen from the questionnaire results, tongue twister technique, apart from its
insignificant result in this study, conformed Sitoresmi’s (2016) study to which he mentioned that
it aroused students’ motivation in pronunciation learning. Brown and Lee (2015) and Jones in
Richards and Renandya (2002) statement that motivation is one of the factors that affect
pronunciation was clarified. Therefore, tongue twister is worth using for it can enhance students’
motivation in learning pronunciation.
Furthermore, this study also verified Harmer’s (2007, p. 256) statement that tongue twister
is one of the beneficial techniques to work with two or more contrasting sounds. Even though
working with English sounds which were quite different from those in students’ native language,
learning pronunciation using tongue-twister made students felt much fun and enjoyment. It
motivates them for mastering good pronunciation in almost native-like pronunciation. More
importantly, among the five principles in teaching pronunciation mentioned by Murphy in Nunan
(2003, p. 115-117), tongue twister covers three of the five principles for teaching pronunciation
namely fostering intelligibility, keeping affective considerations firmly in mind, and avoiding
teaching individual sounds in isolation. First, the students learned difficult sounds in an easier way.
Second, the students’ interest increased high as they developed new pronunciation habits from this
tongue twister technique. The last, the students did not learn individual sounds in isolation as they
practiced the sounds in whole phrases, short sentences, and interactive classroom tasks. In the long
run, tongue twister technique gives the impact of making pronunciation teaching be more
interesting and enjoyable.
Conclusions
This current study reached several conclusions. First, no significant difference was found in
pronunciation ability between the students taught by using tongue twister and those taught by using
repetition technique. This suggests that both tongue twister and repetition could give positive
learning experience and enhance students’ learning outcome. Second, there was no significant
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 8. Number 4. December 2017
Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability Mu’in, Amrina & Amelia
Arab World English Journal
www.awej.org
ISSN: 2229-9327
376
difference in pronunciation ability between the active students and reflective students in both
groups. Third, there was no interaction between pronunciation teaching techniques and learning
styles on students’ pronunciation ability. However, despite these insignificant results, the students’
responded that they found learning pronunciation by using tongue twisters more interesting and
enjoyable. Its components successfully made pronunciation learning easier especially on some
difficult sounds, attracted students’ interest, and avoided teaching individual sounds in isolation.
There might appear one possible factor that contributes to the insignificant result of this study,
namely the number of reflective students. In the experimental group, the number of reflective
students was higher than that of the active students. This may influence the result of the difference
in pronunciation ability across the learning styles. The recommendations for further researchers
are to consider some overlap steps in both techniques and ensure an equal number of the learning
styles group before research conduct is undertaken.
About the Authors:
Fatchul Mu’in is a Lecturer in Literature/ Linguistics at Universitas Lambung Mangkurat,
Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. He earned his Master of Humanities from
Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia and Doctoral degree from Universitas Negeri
Malang, East Java, Indonesia.
Rosyi Amrina is a Lecturer in TEFL at Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, South
Kalimantan, Indonesia. She earned her Master of TEFL from Universitas Negeri Malang, East
Java, Indonesia.
Rizky Amelia is a Lecturer in TEFL at Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, South
Kalimantan, Indonesia. She earned her Master of TEFL from Universitas Negeri Malang, East
Java, Indonesia.
References
Acheson, D. J. & MacDonald, M. C. (2009). Twisting tongues and memories: explorations of the
relationship between language production and verbal working memory. Journal of Memory
and Language, 60, 329-350. Retrieved from http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de
/pubman/item/escidoc: 417548/component/ escidoc:417547/
Acheson&MacDonald_JML_2009.pdf
Aziza, Z., Yib, T.X., Alwic, S., & Jetd, C. N. (2013). Learning style preferences of pharmacy
students. The European Journal of Social & Behavioural Sciences (eISSN: 2301-2218),
819-835. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.154 05/FutureAcademy/ejsbs(2301-
2218).2012.4.14
Baldwin, L. & Sabry, K. (2010). Learning styles for interactive learning systems. Innovations in
Education and Teaching International, 40(4), 325-340. Retrieved from
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1470329032000128369
Brown, H. D. & Lee, H. (2015). Teaching by principles: an interactive approach to language
pedagogy (4th Ed). White Plains, NY: Pearson Education.
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 8. Number 4. December 2017
Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability Mu’in, Amrina & Amelia
Arab World English Journal
www.awej.org
ISSN: 2229-9327
377
Charlesworth, Z. M. (2008). Learning styles across cultures: Suggestions for educators. Education
+ Training, 50(2), 115-127.
Cook, D. (2005). Reliability and validity of scores from the index of learning styles. Academic
Medicine, 80, S97S101.
El-Hmoudova, D. (2014). Assessment of individual learning style preferences with respect to the
key language competences. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 171, 40-48.
Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.086
Felder, R. M. & Spurlin, J. (2005). Applications, reliability, and validity of the index of learning
styles. International Journal of Engineering Education, 21, 103 112.
Felder, R. M. & Silverman, L. K. (1988). Learning and teaching styles in engineering education.
Engineering Education, 78(7), 674-68. Retrieved from http://www.ncsu.edu/
felderpublic/PapersILS- 1988.pdf
Felder, R. M. & Soloman, B. A. (1997). Index of Learning Styles questionnaire. Retrieved from
https://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html
Frisch, S. A. & Wright, R. (2002). The phonetics of phonological speech errors: an acoustic
analysis of slips of the tongue. Journal of Phonetics, 30, 139-162. Retrieved from
http://www.cas.usf.edu/~frisch/ Frisch_Wright_02.pdf. doi:10.1006/jpho.2002.0176
Goldrick, M. & Blumstein, S. (2004). The bases of speech errors: local and non-local phonetic
traces. The 9th Conference on Laboratory Phonology. Retrieved from
www.labphon.org/LabPhon9/Abstract_PDF/goldrick.pdf
Harmer, J. (2007). The practice of English language teaching (4th Ed). Harlow, England: Pearson
Longman.
Hart, J. (2008). Tongue twister practice, Retrieved from http://www2.bakersfieldcollege.
edu/jhart/Main%20Page/ENSL%20B21%20and%20B22/Tongue%20Twister.htm
Jones, R. H. (2002). Beyond ‘listen and repeat’: pronunciation teaching materials and theories of
second language acquisition. In Jack, C. R and Willy, A. R (Eds.), Methodology in
Language Teaching. An Anthology of Current Practice, (pp. 178-187). Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Judy, G. & Moira, H. (2007). Skills, learning styles and success of first-year undergraduates. Active
Learning in Higher Education, 8(3), 259-273. Retrieved from
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1469787407081881
Keller, T. A., Carpenter, P. A., & Just. M. A. (2003). Brain imaging of tongue-twister sentence
comprehension: twisting the tongue and the brain. Brain and Language, 84, 189-203.
Retrieved from https:// pdfs.semanticscholar.org/
ca06/8a94b78a82a887f6ba6158bd76cac09f904a.pdf
Khakim, M. L. (2015). Improving students’ pronunciation ability through repetition of the drill
(sarjana’s thesis). Salatiga, State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga. Retrieved
from perpus.iainsalatiga.ac.id/ docfiles/fulltext/7248917683.pdf
Kisito, F. N. (2006). Tongue twisters for pronunciation. Retrieved from
http://www.downloadesl.com/tonguetwisters/easy/easytongue.html
Litzinger, T.A., Lee, S. H., Wise, J.C., & Felder, R.M. (2007).A psychometric study of the index
of learning styles. Journal of Engineering Education, 96(4), 309-319. Retrieved from
http://www4.ncsu.edu/ unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/ILSdir/ILS_Validation(JEE-
2007).pdf
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 8. Number 4. December 2017
Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability Mu’in, Amrina & Amelia
Arab World English Journal
www.awej.org
ISSN: 2229-9327
378
Murphy, J. (2003). Pronunciation. In David, N (Ed.), Practical English Language Teaching, (pp.
111-128). Singapore: Mc-Graw Hill.
Orion, G.F. (1997). Pronouncing American English: Sounds, stress, and intonation. Boston:
Heinle & Heinle Publisher.
Reid, G. (2005). Learning styles and inclusions. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.
Richards, J. C. & Renandya, W. A. (2002). Methodology in language teaching: an anthology of
current practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Saville-Troike, M. (2006). Introducing second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Sitoresmi, U. (2016). Tongue twisters in pronunciation class. ICTTE FKIP UNS 2015
Proceeding, 589-592. Retrieved from http://jurnal.fkip.uns.ac.id/
index.php/ictte/article/download/7673/5514
Szyszka, M. (2016). English pronunciation teaching at different educational levels: insights into
teachers perceptions and actions. Research in Language 14(2), 165180. Retrieved from
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/rela-2016-0007
Tergujeff, E. (2013). English pronunciation teaching in Finland (Dissertation). Retrieved from
https: //jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/bitstream/handle/123456789/41900/978-951-39-5322-
5_vaitos03082013.pdf?sequence=1
Thompson, T. & Gaddes, M. (2005). The Importance Teaching Pronunciation to Adult Learners.
Asian EFL Journal: Professional Teaching Articles Collection, 179 188. Retrieved from
http://www.asian-EFL-journal.com/PTA2005.pdf
Turumi, Y. L., Jamiluddin, & Salehuddin. (2016). Using tongue twister to improve the
pronunciation of grade VIII students. E-Journal of English Language Teaching Society,
4(2), 1-12. Retrieved from http: //jurnal.untad.ac.id/jurnal/index.php/ELTS/
article/view/6019/4773
Velázquez & Ángel. (2013). Beginner EFL Students’ Perceptions of the Methods and Techniques
Used to Teach pronunciation at a University Language School (Thesis). Marzo,
Universidad Veracruzana. Retrieved from http://cdigital.uv.mx/bitstream/
123456789/32914/1/monterodelangel.pdf
Wichadee, S. (2011). Developing the self-directed learning instructional model to enhance
English reading ability and self-directed learning of undergraduate students. Journal of
College Teaching & Learning, 8(12), 43-52. Retrieved from
http://www.cluteinstitute.com/ojs/ index.php/TLC/ article/viewFile/6620/6696
Zhang, S. (2013). Using tongue twisters to supplement beginning level CFL students’
pronunciation and tone practice. 5th Annual Proceedings on Pronunciation in second
language learning and teaching, 177-182. Retrieved from
https://apling.engl.iastate.edu/alt-content/.../05/PSLLT_5th_ Proceedings_2013.pdf
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 8. Number 4. December 2017
Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability Mu’in, Amrina & Amelia
Arab World English Journal
www.awej.org
ISSN: 2229-9327
379
Appendix A Samples of Tongue Twister Texts
Adopted from Kisito (2006) and Hart (2008) in This Study
/i/ /ɪ/
Keen king: The sheep on the ship slipped on the sheet of sleet. The keen king kissed the quick
queen on her green ring.
/ε/ /ɪ/ /eɪ/
Seven slick snails: Seven slick slimy snails, slowly sliding southward.
/ɪ//æ/
Big black bear: A big black bug bit the big black bear, but the big black bear bit the big black
bug back!
/æ/ /i/ /
clam cream can: How can a clam cram in a clean cream can?
/aɪ/, /aʊ/
Quite how
/ay/ Quite nice white mice
/aw/ How now brown cow
/aɪ/
Copyright: When you write copy you have the right to copyright the copy you write.
/ɑ/
Doctor doctoring: When a doctor doctors a doctor, does the doctor doing the doctoring doctor
as the doctor being doctored wants to be doctored or does the doctor doing the doctoring doctor
as he wants to doctor?
/ε/, /ɑ/, /ә/, /ɪ/, /æ/
Betty Botter bought some butter, but she said "This butter’s bitter. "If I put it in my batter, it will
make my batter bitter."
So, she bought some better butter, better than the bitter butter. When she put it in her batter, the
butter made her batter better.
/æ/, /ɑ/, /aʊ/, /ә/, /aɪ/
Gnats are not now gnawing on the nuts at night.
/ә//әr/
Peter piper: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper
picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, Where's the peck of pickled peppers
Peter Piper picked?
/ә/ /i/
Thirty three thieves: The thirty-three thieves thought that they thrilled the throne throughout
Thursday.
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 8. Number 4. December 2017
Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability Mu’in, Amrina & Amelia
Arab World English Journal
www.awej.org
ISSN: 2229-9327
380
/әr/
Whether the weather: Whether the weather be fine, or whether the weather be not.
Whether the weather be cold, or whether the weather be hot. We'll weather the weather whether
we like it or not.
ɪ/
Spoiled: The spoiled boy foiled the coy boy’s joy by purloining his toy.
/ɔ/
Spell New York: Knife and a fork, bottle and a cork, that is the way you spell New York.
I thought of thinking: I thought, I thought of thinking of thanking you.
I saw Susie: I saw Susie sitting in a shoe shine shop.
/oʊ/
Joe: Joe told a joke he wrote on his own.
I know that’s not the note that Noel wrote.
The coat from the coast cost more than most
/u/, /ʊ/
Food, book: Make some fun, funky food and with some luck
You can bake a kooky cookie or stew a stupid duck
You can look it all up in a cool cook book
Or you can find a good excuse why you shouldn’t have to cook.
Appendix B English Pronunciation Test used in This Study
Name : _______________
Class : _______________
Read aloud the following words and sentences carefully. Time allocation: max 5 minutes
A. Vowels in words
1
receive
11
royal
21
hot
31
knee
41
noise
51
mosque
2
build
12
awful
22
ice
32
milk
42
pause
52
rhyme
3
ate
13
soul
23
ouch
33
cave
43
sew
53
vowel
4
kettle
14
too
24
umpire
34
guess
44
youth
54
sofa
5
gas
15
push
25
urge
35
laugh
45
could
55
shirt
6
occupy
16
people
26
oyster
36
college
46
caesar
56
toy
7
height
17
women
27
holt
37
guide
47
minute
57
law
8
out
18
tale
28
pose
38
cloud
48
cake
58
vote
9
trouble
19
said
29
flute
39
precious
49
head
59
goose
10
church
20
bank
30
foot
40
heard
50
cattle
60
butcher
B. Vowels in Sentences
1. At least you can give me a list.
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 8. Number 4. December 2017
Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability Mu’in, Amrina & Amelia
Arab World English Journal
www.awej.org
ISSN: 2229-9327
381
2. The sheep are on the ship now.
3. I met my roommate yesterday.
4. Put the pepper on the paper.
5. He said he was sad.
6. There is a fat man with a rotten log.
7. Shut the door, or you’ll be shot.
8. We tried to keep silent for a while when he doubt what he found in this town.
9. It occured at this campus.
10. The worm is busy working.
11. We are annoyed by the voice.
12. Mr. Hoyle thought he had talked about the soil.
13. Paul bought a new note and a coat last week.
14. Choose the food which looks good.
Appendix C Learning Style Questionnaire
Active-Reflective Category (Felder & Soloman, 1997)
Name : _____________________________ (M/F)
Class : _____________________________
For each of the 11 questions below select either "a" or "b" to indicate your answer. Please choose
only one answer for each question. If both "a" and "b" seem to apply to you, choose the one that
applies more frequently.
1. I understand something better after I...
(a) try it out.
(b) think it through.
2. When I am learning something new, it helps me to...
(a) talk about it.
(b) think about it.
3. In a study group working on difficult material, I am more likely to...
(a) jump in and contribute ideas.
(b) sit back and listen.
4. In classes I have taken, ...
(a) I have usually gotten to know many of the students.
(b) I have rarely gotten to know many of the students.
5. When I start a homework problem, I am more likely to...
(a) start working on the solution immediately.
(b) try to fully understand the problem first.
6. I prefer to study...
(a) in a study group.
(b) alone.
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 8. Number 4. December 2017
Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability Mu’in, Amrina & Amelia
Arab World English Journal
www.awej.org
ISSN: 2229-9327
382
7. I would rather first...
(a) try things out.
(b) think about how I'm going to do it.
8. I more easily remember...
(a) something I have done.
(b) something I have thought a lot about.
9. I am more likely to be considered...
(a) outgoing.
(b) reserved.
10. When I have to work on a group project, I first want to...
(a) have "group brainstorming" where everyone contributes ideas.
(b) brainstorm individually and then come together as a group to compare ideas.
11. The idea of doing homework in groups, with one grade for the entire group
(a) appeals to me.
(b) does not appeal to me.
Appendix D
Students’ Perception Questionnaire on the Implementation of Tongue Twister
Name :______________________ (Male/Female)
Class : ______________________
Put a tick (√) on the column provided to indicate whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or
strongly disagree on each statement related to the implementation of tongue twister in learning
pronunciation during Intensive English Course.
Questionnaire items
Strongly
Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly
Disagree
1. The use of tongue twister motivates me
to learn how to pronounce English vowels
in words and sentences correctly.
2. The use of tongue twister makes
learning experience more fun.
3. The use of tongue twister provides good
pronunciation practice in comparing and
contrasting English vowels.
4. Learning English pronunciation by
using and practicing tongue twister helps
me to improve my pronunciation. It helps
me to pronounce English vowels in words
and sentences correctly.
5. Learning English pronunciation by
using and practicing tongue twister helps
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 8. Number 4. December 2017
Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability Mu’in, Amrina & Amelia
Arab World English Journal
www.awej.org
ISSN: 2229-9327
383
me to pronounce English vowels in words
and sentences more easily.
6. Using tongue twister is a good way to
improve fluency (kelancaran) in English.
7. Practicing tongue twister in pairs is
beneficial because my friend and I can
learn the pronunication and get
correction/feedback from each other.
8. The use of tongue twister motivates me
to work collaboratively to pronounce
English vowels correctly.
9. The use of tongue twister makes me
actively engaged in pronunciation practice.
10. The use of tongue twister gives me
better learning experience for
pronunciation aspect than the use of
drilling only (listen and repeat).
Appendix E
Students’ Pronunciation Scores from the Experimental and the Control Groups
Experimental Group
Control Group
No
Students
Score
Learning Style
No.
Students
Score
Learning
Style
1
FIM
94
Reflective
1
J
65
Active
2
LH
95
Reflective
2
PAD
85
Active
3
RCA
87
Reflective
3
Ays
92
Reflective
4
LIP
96
Reflective
4
PF
93
Active
5
HS
88
Reflective
5
N
88
Reflective
6
MA
68
Reflective
6
M
71
Reflective
7
MS
80
Active
7
AC
86
Reflective
8
ALA
90
Active
8
W
77
Reflective
9
AY
86
Active
9
ZFD
52
Reflective
10
HT
71
Reflective
10
LA
87
Active
11
VQM
84
Reflective
11
MAK
86
Active
12
MR
91
Active
12
DSS
70
Active
13
LL
84
Active
13
MRY
88
Reflective
14
RIL
90
Active
14
JR
93
Active
15
YHN
88
Reflective
15
M
88
Reflective
16
AY
95
Reflective
16
MAAK
86
Active
17
EK
79
Reflective
17
H
83
Reflective
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present paper is to reflect upon the place of pronunciation in English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching at different educational levels in Poland. To collect the data, an on-line survey was conducted among EFL professionals teaching at primary, lower secondary, and higher secondary schools in Poland. The questions focused on the respondents’ beliefs about pronunciation, teachers’ competences regarding pronunciation and pronunciation teaching, and the pronunciation teaching techniques they use. The results depict the most and least frequently used pronunciation teaching techniques at each of the three educational stages, and the beliefs of EFL teachers in Poland regarding pronunciation teaching.
Article
Full-text available
The Index of Learning Styles© (ILS) is an instrument designed to assess preferences on the four dimensions of the Felder-Silverman learning style model. The Web-based version of the ILS is taken hundreds of thousands of times per year and has been used in a number of published studies, some of which include data reflecting on the reliability and validity of the instrument. This paper seeks to provide the first comprehensive examination of the ILS, including answers to several questions: (1) What are the dimensions and underlying assumptions of the model upon which the ILS is based? (2) How should the ILS be used and what misuses should be avoided? (3) What research studies have been conducted using the ILS and what conclusions regarding its reliability and validity may be inferred from the data?
Thesis
Full-text available
This doctoral dissertation explores what English pronunciation teaching is like in the Finnish school context, from primary to upper secondary level. More specifically, this research looks into the extent to which pronunciation teaching corresponds to recent recommendations in the pronunciation teaching literature (communicative approach and suprasegmental orientation), and at the role of phonetic training in English pronunciation teaching in Finland. A further aim was to find out whether the English as an International Language (EIL) approach is taken into account in the choice of pronunciation model. To attain a good cross-sectional view of the topic, a mixed methods research design was chosen. The research task was divided into four sub studies, each of which used different data and research methods. Thus, the study comprises a textbook analysis, a survey for teachers, a classroom observations study, and a learner interview study. The results of the sub studies are presented in the four original papers on which this dissertation is based. The results show that the recent recommendations for pronunciation teaching are not fully applied in practice in English pronunciation teaching in Finnish schools. Instead of focusing on suprasegmental features of speech, such as rhythm and intonation, the teaching mainly concentrates on individual sounds. Using communicative tasks that explicitly focus on pronunciation is rare and phonetic training plays only a minor role in the teaching. The relevant phonetic symbols seem to be taught at the primary level, but thereafter are only sparsely used in teaching. The results also indicate increasing influence of the EIL approach on the choice of pronunciation model.
Article
Full-text available
The paper focuses on the assessment of individual learning style preferences of students of two different disciplines, Management of Tourism and Applied Informatics, at Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove. The Felder-Silverman learning styles inventory was administered to students in Professional English language course in the Blackboard learn environment to monitor and check students’ proficiency of key language competences. Descriptive statistics identified that students do vary in their preference for particular learning style with a great variety of learning style preferences distributed among the sample groups of students. A large number of the students showed mild preference to Active, Visual and Sequential learning styles. On the other hand, there is a large group of students displaying a strong preference to Sensing learning style dimension. The key language competences defined by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) are tested in the computer-based environment with a special view on studentś individual learning styles.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – This paper seeks to present research findings on the relationship between culture and learning styles, as defined by Honey and Mumford in a Higher Education setting. Design/methodology/approach – The research was conducted with first semester students studying in an International Institute of Higher Education. A questionnaire administered to students (n=113) of Indonesian, Chinese and French origin was analysed in order to compare their learning style preferences. This was followed by a detailed item-by-item analysis of their responses to the same questionnaire. Findings – In the first instance, the data support a relationship between learning styles preferences and cultural background at the outset of a programme of Higher Education. Subsequent analysis provides insight into the nature of these differences. Research limitations/implications – The generalizability of the research findings is limited owing to the nature of the sample. Practical implications – Educators in both Higher Education and business settings can draw on these research findings. It is suggested that allowing incoming students to explore learning style differences will enhance their understanding of how they go about learning as well as possibly influence their learning outcomes. Parallels have been drawn with incoming international employees. Originality/value – These findings have relevance for educators, both in Higher Education and in industry, concerned with how to best develop international graduates and managers.
Chapter
Introducing Second Language Acquisition - by Muriel Saville-Troike December 2016
Article
The purposes of this study were to develop the instructional model for enhancing self-directed learning skills of Bangkok University students, study the impacts of the model on their English reading comprehension and self-directed learning ability as well as explore their opinion towards self-directed learning. The model development process consisted of a review of literature, the design of the learning model, and evaluation of its effectiveness by experts validation and implementation of the model in the classroom. The research instruments included 1) the Honey and Mumfords Learning Style Questionnaire used to divide the students into four groups: activist, reflector, theorist, and pragmatist, 2) self-directed learning readiness scale created by Guglielmino, 3) a reading comprehension test, and 4) an opinion questionnaire towards self-directed learning. Over 12 weeks, the designed Self-directed Learning Instructional Model was employed with 120 students enrolled in Fundamental English I course in the first semester of 2010 academic year. Then the data were analyzed by mean, standard deviation, t-test, and One-way Analysis of Variance. Regarding the effectiveness of instructional model, the experts accepted that the model was appropriate. From implementing the model in class, it was found that the English reading proficiency mean scores of the post-test of students in four learning styles were significantly higher than those of the pre-test (p
Article
This paper explores the learning styles profile of undergraduate learners as part of a research project concerned with the design of an interactive learning system (ILS). Whilst it has been argued that an ILS has the potential to produce a high‐quality learning environment that actively and purposefully engages learners, in most cases the design does not take into account actual studies of learners' different learning styles or empirical knowledge of their learning preferences. In this paper we argue that a more learner‐oriented approach to ILS design should be employed in order to achieve the creation of more effective interactive learning systems. The paper describes and discusses a study we have made of the learning‐style profile of a cohort of undergraduate learners at a UK university. Some suggestions are then made about how these findings might be embedded within the design of interactive learning systems. Our approach is based on a newly formulated ‘balanced’ learning design model called ‘BLADE’.