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Anti-Aging Effects of Monomethylsilanetriol and Maltodextrin-Stabilized Orthosilicic Acid on Nails, Skin and Hair

Authors:

Abstract

Chemical form of silicon determines its absorption and bioavailability: particulate and polymerized forms exhibit minimal oral bioavailability, while monomers (maltodextrin-stabilized orthosilicic acid, M-OSA) and organic compounds (monomethylsilanetriol, MMST) may hypothetically be highly absorbed. This study aimed to investigate the dermatological effects of oral ingestion of silicon, either solid (M-OSA-SiliciuMax® Powder) or liquid (MMST, SiliciuMax® Liquid) on the skin, hair and nails of healthy volunteers, through a clinical trial (Registry number 2,032,724. Full protocol at Plataforma Brasil website). Patients were randomized to receive 5 mg of elemental Si, either M-OSA or MMST (group 1 and 2, n = 17 each) or placebo (group 3, n = 17) twice a day for 150 days. Clinical and patients' subjective evaluations were conducted. Multispectral face imaging and hair mineral analysis were also performed. Use of M-OSA and MMST provided significant (p < 0.05) betterment of facial wrinkles and UV spots. Changes were also observed at the end of the study in skin texture and length of eyelashes. Hair aluminum levels decrease with the treatments. Self-reported questionnaire indicated good satisfaction with both M-OSA and MMST. Continuous use of both M-OSA and MMST can provide improvements on skin parameters, as well as act as a detox agent for aluminum.
cosmetics
Article
Anti-Aging Effects of Monomethylsilanetriol and
Maltodextrin-Stabilized Orthosilicic Acid on Nails,
Skin and Hair
Anderson Oliveira Ferreira 1,2,3,Érika Santos Freire 3, Hudson Caetano Polonini 1,2,4,*ID ,
Paulo JoséLopes Cândido da Silva 3,4, Marcos Antônio Fernandes Brandão1,2,3
and Nádia Rezende Barbosa Raposo 1,3
1BF-Fox Technologies, Juiz de Fora 36010-532, MG, Brazil; anderson@ortofarma.com.br (A.O.F.);
marcosbrand2012@gmail.com (M.A.F.B.); nadiacritt@gmail.com (N.R.B.R.)
2Ortofarma Laboratory, Matias Barbosa 36120-000, MG, Brazil
3Núcleo de Pesquisa e Inovação em Ciências da Saúde (NUPICS), Universidade Federal de Juiz de
Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora 36036-900, MG, Brazil; erikasfreire@hotmail.com (É.S.F.);
pjcandido@gmail.com (P.J.L.C.d.S.)
4Faculdade de Ciências Médicas e da Saúde de Juiz de Fora (Suprema), Juiz de Fora 36033-003, MG, Brazil
*Correspondence: hudson@ortofarma.com.br; Tel.: +55-32-3273-3560
Received: 22 May 2018; Accepted: 25 June 2018; Published: 2 July 2018


Abstract:
Chemical form of silicon determines its absorption and bioavailability: particulate and
polymerized forms exhibit minimal oral bioavailability, while monomers (maltodextrin-stabilized
orthosilicic acid, M-OSA) and organic compounds (monomethylsilanetriol, MMST) may
hypothetically be highly absorbed. This study aimed to investigate the dermatological effects of
oral ingestion of silicon, either solid (M-OSA–SiliciuMax
®
Powder) or liquid (MMST, SiliciuMax
®
Liquid) on the skin, hair and nails of healthy volunteers, through a clinical trial (Registry number
2,032,724. Full protocol at Plataforma Brasil website). Patients were randomized to receive 5 mg
of elemental Si, either M-OSA or MMST (group 1 and 2, n= 17 each) or placebo (group 3, n= 17)
twice a day for 150 days. Clinical and patients’ subjective evaluations were conducted. Multispectral
face imaging and hair mineral analysis were also performed. Use of M-OSA and MMST provided
significant
(p< 0.05
) betterment of facial wrinkles and UV spots. Changes were also observed at the
end of the study in skin texture and length of eyelashes. Hair aluminum levels decrease with the
treatments. Self-reported questionnaire indicated good satisfaction with both M-OSA and MMST.
Continuous use of both M-OSA and MMST can provide improvements on skin parameters, as well
as act as a detox agent for aluminum.
Keywords: orthosilicic acid; monomethylsilanetriol; aging; nail care; skin care; hair care
1. Introduction
Silicon (Si) is ubiquitous in nature and constitutes the second most abundant element in the
Earth’s crust; in the human body, it is the third most abundant trace element [
1
,
2
]. However it is
not normally found in free form in nature, occurring mainly complexed with oxygen and/or other
elements (halogens, aluminum), forming crystalline silica (SiO
2
, quartz), amorphous silica (SiO
2·
nH
2
O,
opal) and silicates (kaolin, talc, feldspars, asbestos, clays, mica) [
3
]. In addition, this element is present
in tissues of all living organisms. In particular, its higher concentrations in the human body can be
found in the skin, as well as mucous membranes and connective tissues [4].
Although it is not yet formally recognized as an essential mineral, its importance in human
nutrition and aesthetics has been cumulatively evidenced for decades. There is evidence that the body
Cosmetics 2018,5, 41; doi:10.3390/cosmetics5030041 www.mdpi.com/journal/cosmetics
Cosmetics 2018,5, 41 2 of 15
levels of this element tend to decrease after the age of 30, and this process is more pronounced in
postmenopausal stages for women [5].
Considering its major deposits in the body, this progressive reduction of Si throughout the years
can be of sheer importance for dermatology. Data from the literature show that this decrease can affect
the synthesis of collagen by the fibroblasts, as well as the activations of dermal collagenase—in this
sense, improvement in collagen type I synthesis are one of the alleged benefits of Si supplementation [
6
].
Additionally, other benefits found in literature are: (i) promotion of the synthesis of elastin; (ii) stimulus
for nail hardness; (iii) increase of resistance and thickness of hair fiber; and (iv) preservation of blood
vessel elasticity [
6
11
]. These effects are important because skin ageing involves decrease in collagen,
glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans, together with degeneration of elastic fibers [
6
]. Deprivation of
Si was also shown to affect the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans in bone and cartilage [12].
Although the eminent benefits of Si, it is important to take into account its chemical form during
oral administration, as it determines its absorption and bioavailability. Si occurs naturally mainly as
silicon dioxide (SiO
2
) or as silicic acids derived from the hydration of this oxide, while orthosilicic acid
[Si(OH)
4
] is the simplest and the major chemical form of water soluble Si (and it is found mainly in
beverages) [
13
]. In addition, the presence of the orthosilicic acid is known as the biological form of
silicon in humans and animals and plays a major role in the release of silicon into living cells [
2
,
4
,
14
16
].
Despite the fact that Si is mainly absorbed from our diet as orthosilicic acid, when present in higher
concentrations (it is stable only in concentrations lower than
104M
=10 mg/L
) and with no addition
of stabilizers to prevent self-association, this form of silicon polymerizes and forms silica (SiO
2
)
which allows very limited bioavailability (absorption ranging from 1% to 20%) [
17
]. Therefore,
only monomeric orthosilicic acid and its small oligomers are soluble and can efficiently cross the
intestinal barrier providing greater bioavailability.
In this search for a stable, high bioavailable form of Si, a number of molecules have been developed.
Barel et al. [
6
] evaluated the oral intake of orthosilicic acid stabilized by choline during 20 weeks,
and the results showed a significant positive effect on surface and mechanical properties of skin, and on
brittleness of hair and nails. Kalil et al. [
18
] for their turn, reported recently the effects of orthosilicic acid
stabilized by hydrolyzed marine collagen in a daily dose of 600 mg in a small population; they found
positive results in skin rejuvenation in terms of firmness, hydration, and skin texture.
In this study, we focused on two different forms of Si: orthosilicic acid stabilized by maltodextrin
(M-OSA) and monomethylsilanetriol (MMST). M-OSA is a new orthosilicic acid formulation stabilized
by a hydrolyzed maltodextrin complex. Maltodextrin would act as a natural molecular support,
complexing orthosilicic acid, increasing its stability as well as resulting in a final product with the
presence of monomeric OSA and its small soluble and bioavailable oligomers. MMST is available as
diluted solution and contain only unpolymerized forms of MMST (monomers and oligomers). MMST is
an amphiphilic, and highly permeable organosilicon molecule [Si(OH)
3
CH
3
] that shows stability even
at concentrations above 20 mM at room temperature and possesses rapid/high absorption and no
adverse effects have been reported [
16
,
17
]. After its intestinal absorption, MMST is converted into
biologically active orthosilicic acid [17].
In this sense, we investigated the oral intake of these two forms of Si (M-OSA and MMST) and
their effects on nails, skin and hair through a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study in
human subjects.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Setting and Population
This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in healthy subjects. The study
involved 51 women, ranging in age from 40 to 60 years (M = 49.6,
±
6.4, normal distribution according
to Shapiro-Wilk test), and with phototypes described in Table 1. They were divided into three groups
(n= 17 per group; allocation rate = 1:1:1): (G1) control (placebo: capsules containing maltodextrin);
Cosmetics 2018,5, 41 3 of 15
(G2) treated with M-OSA (SiliciuMax
®
Capsules, Fagron, São Paulo, Brazil) containing 5 mg of
elemental silicon every 12 h; (G3) treated with MMST (SiliciuMax
®
Liquid, Fagron, São Paulo, Brazil)
(1 dosing cup containing 5 mg of elemental silicon every 12 h). Treatments were to be taken 15 min
before breakfast and then 12 h after. The duration of the intervention was five months, with analyzes
at baseline (T0), 3 months (T3) and 5 months (T5) after the beginning of the treatment.
Table 1. Baseline characteristics of the groups.
Characteristic G1 G2 G3
Age (M ±SD) 48.5 ±5.1 52.8 ±5.9 47.6 ±7.1
Phototype (n, %)
III 8, 47.0 5, 29.4 7, 41.2
IV 8, 47.0 11, 64.7 8, 47.0
V 1, 6.0 1, 5.9 2, 11.8
Photodamage (n, %)
Light 9, 52.9 1, 5.9 7, 41.2
Moderate 7, 41.2 15, 88.2 9, 52.9
Severe 1, 5.9 1, 5.9 1, 5.9
Skin oiliness (n, %)
Dry 2, 11.8 1, 5.9 0, 0.0
Normal 9, 52.9 10, 58.8 10, 58.8
Oily 6, 35.3 6, 35.3 7, 41.2
Wrinkles (n, %)
Fine 4, 23.6 2, 11.8 6, 35.3
Medium 10, 58.8 7, 41.2 6, 35.3
Deep 3, 17.6 8, 47.0 5, 29.4
Presence of spots (n, %)
17, 100.0 17, 100.0 17, 100.0
M = mean. SD = standard deviation. G1 = control (placebo). G2 = treated with maltodextrin-stabilized ortoshilic
acid. G3 = treated with monomethylsilanetriol.
Before treatment, each patient undergone a clinical examination with the dermatologist to evaluate
the general state of health and to verify suitability to the study. Eligibility criteria were: women
considered healthy after clinical examination and who did not use any mineral supplementation during
the study neither would perform any aesthetic procedure throughout the study. Exclusion criteria
were: women not considered healthy after clinical examination; women using mineral supplements;
women who have allergy/intolerance to silicon or any component of the supplements; women who
were not willing to join the use of the supplement for the study period (5 months); women who had
used silicon for at least three months prior to the start of the study; women following dermatological
or cosmetic treatment or anti-wrinkle therapy including injections of collagen, hyaluronic acid and
botulinum toxin botox, chemical or laser peels, or treatment with retinoic acid or hydroxy acids.
Patients who have deliberately exposed themselves to the sun at critical times (10 a.m. to 4 p.m.) for
tanning were withdrawn from the study. All procedures were conducted at the Federal University of
Juiz de Fora. Patients and the dermatologist were blinded throughout the whole study. A pharmacist
(H.C.P.) generated the random sequence and enrolled the participants. The random allocation sequence
was computer generated: a list of continuous study numbers was generated with a random allocation
to treatment 1 or 2 or 3. Study numbers were consecutive and given to patients by the staff at inclusion.
The dermatologist explained the trial to the patient and obtained the patient’s consent, as well as
conducted the clinical examination. Staff gave the treatments according to sequence number, with no
mention of the groups on the label.
2.2. Clinical Evaluation at Baseline
Clinical evaluation of the skin was performed by a blinded dermatologist, who determined
Fitzpatrick skin type and evaluated sun damage (1—not present; 2—light; 3—moderate; 4—severe),
oiliness (1—dry skin; 2—normal skin; 3—oily skin), wrinkles (1—fine; 2—medium; 3—deep) and spots
(1—present; 2—absent).
Cosmetics 2018,5, 41 4 of 15
2.3. Transonychial Water-Loss Evaluation
Water-loss on hand and foot nails were determined on a Vapometer (Delfin Technologies,
Kuopio, Finland) at T0, T3 and T5. The equipment calculated the evaporation rate from the nails from
the increase of relative humidity in the measurement chamber.
2.4. Skin Multispectral Imaging Evaluation
Baseline photos were taken of each patient, and an initial analysis was conducted with the Visia
complexion analysis system (Canfield Imaging Systems, Fairfield, NJ, USA). Each patient was placed
with the chin resting on the support of the equipment and the photos were taken from three angles:
frontal, left hemiface and right hemiface. The parameters evaluated were: spots, pores, wrinkles,
texture, porphyrins, UV spots, red areas, brown spots, volume and length of eyelashes and TruSkin
Age
®
(Fairfield, NJ, USA) (a parameter calculated by the software which determines the patient’s
overall skin condition and age). Follow-up images were taken at T3 and T5 with the patient at the
exact same position as in baseline.
2.5. Hair Mineral Analysis
250 mg hair samples collected at baseline and T5 next to the scalp (approximately 4 cm) were
submitted to mineral analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in an 7700x
spectrometer (Agilent, Tokyo, Japan). Samples were washed Triton X-100 detergent 1:200 aqueous
solution in ultrasonic bath for 5 min and then rinsed with Milli-Q water. This procedure was repeat
three more times and then the samples were rinsed with high-purity acetone, filtered, rinsed twice
with Milli-Q water, rinsed twice with high-purity acetone and then let to rest in a Class II biological
safety cabinet until completely dry. The dry sample was digested in closed-vessels with 2.5 mL of
Suprapur
®
(Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) nitric acid 65% and 1 mL of Suprapur
®
hydrogen peroxide
30% at 70
C until completely dissolved. The remaining liquid was then diluted to 25 mL with Milli-Q
water and then injected into the nebulizer of the spectrometer by a peristaltic pump. Analyses were
conducted under an argon plasma flux of 15 mL/min at 26.00 MHz with 40 s of sample uptake at
0.3 rps and using a helium collision cell to selectively attenuate all polyatomic interferences based on
their size.
Standard curves were used to quantify the following elements: Si, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Mn Cr, V,
Mo, B, Li, P, Se, Sr, S, Co, Fe, Ge, Rb, W, Al, Sb, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Pd, Hg, Tl, Ag, Ni, Sn, Ti, Te and Zr.
2.6. Subjective Evaluation
A structured self-reported questionnaire answered by each patient at T3 and T5 was used to
patient’s satisfaction with the treatment. Patients were requested to give a rate from 1 to 10 concerning
the possible improvements in the following parameters: skin (hydration; homogeneity of skin tone;
number of darkened areas; color intensity of darkened areas; wrinkles/lines of expression in the
region of the lips; wrinkles/express lines in the forehead; wrinkles/expression lines in the eye
region; general appearance; softness; signs of aging; lightness/luminosity; bleaching effect; bleaching
speed; uniformization of skin imperfections; oiliness; desquamation; acne), hair (general appearance;
hydration; nutrition; softness; vitality; aging signs; lightness; oiliness; dandruff) and nails (general
appearance; resistance; growth; yellowing; stains; texture).
2.7. Statistical Analysis
First, in order to evaluate the homogeneity of the sample, the three groups were compared in
the pre-test (T0), through Analysis of Variance (ANOVA One-Way) followed by Bonferroni Post Hoc
Test. Afterwards, ANOVA was performed for repeated measurements (transonychial water-loss,
skin multispectral imaging evaluation, and subjective evaluation). In all of these analyzes, the variable
“Group” was considered as an intergroup factor. The “Time” variable was taken as the intragroup
Cosmetics 2018,5, 41 5 of 15
factor, divided into three levels: pre-test (T0), three-month follow-up (T3) and five-month follow-up
(T5), characterizing the measures of each of the variables in different periods. For hair mineral analysis,
as the participants were only evaluated in T0 and T5, t-tests for paired samples were performed.
In order to verify if there was difference in the means between the groups after the treatment, ANOVA
One-Way was performed. For all parameters, p< 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
3. Results and Discussion
Baseline characteristics of the groups are presented in Table 1. This sample was divided equally
into three groups: G1, G2 and G3. G1 was enrolled as the control group, G2 was to use M-OSA and
G3 was to use MMST. No changes to trial outcomes after the trial commenced occurred nor losses of
participants or exclusions after randomization. Patients were recruit on April 2017, and follow-up was
conducted from May to October 2017, when the period of the study ended.
In order to evaluate the homogeneity of the sample, the three groups were compared at T0.
For the dermatological parameters and hair mineral analysis (Tables S1 and S2), in the majority of the
evaluated items, the groups did not present at the beginning of the study any statistically significant
differences (although it seems to occur in a first look, without statistical analysis). However, in the
evaluation of left pore size, users of MMST and M-OSA differed significantly (p= 0.029); Significant
differences (p= 0.045) were also observed for the Truskin
®
test (left); specifically, the difference was
observed between the MMST and M-OSA groups. As groups were not homogeneous at baseline,
so this was considered during statistical analysis.
3.1. Transonychial Water-Loss Evaluation
Regarding nail hydration (Table S3), the results indicated significant differences in the time factor;
however, in the group factor and in the time x group interaction no significant differences were found.
Considering the contrasts, it was observed that there were significant differences between the first
application and the following two applications (T3 and T5) both among users of M-OSA and of
MMST. However, significant differences were also found between the same times in the control group.
Similar results were also observed with respect to hydration of the nails of the hand. In this sense,
it appears that the effects are more prone to have occurred due to possible seasonal effects once it
started in April (Autumn in Brazil) and ended in September (Spring).
3.2. Skin Multispectral Imaging Evaluation
First, considering the high number of parameters and determinations, non-significative results
are expressed in Table S4. For significant results, one can refer to Figure 1. A typical imaging from the
multispectral evaluation can be found in Figure 2.
Cosmetics 2018, 5, x FOR PEER REVIEW 5 of 14
follow-up (T5), characterizing the measures of each of the variables in different periods. For hair
mineral analysis, as the participants were only evaluated in T0 and T5, t-tests for paired samples were
performed. In order to verify if there was difference in the means between the groups after the
treatment, ANOVA One-Way was performed. For all parameters, p < 0.05 was considered statistically
significant.
3. Results and Discussion
Baseline characteristics of the groups are presented in Table 1. This sample was divided equally
into three groups: G1, G2 and G3. G1 was enrolled as the control group, G2 was to use M-OSA and
G3 was to use MMST. No changes to trial outcomes after the trial commenced occurred nor losses of
participants or exclusions after randomization. Patients were recruit on April 2017, and follow-up
was conducted from May to October 2017, when the period of the study ended.
In order to evaluate the homogeneity of the sample, the three groups were compared at T0. For
the dermatological parameters and hair mineral analysis (Tables S1 and S2), in the majority of the
evaluated items, the groups did not present at the beginning of the study any statistically significant
differences (although it seems to occur in a first look, without statistical analysis). However, in the
evaluation of left pore size, users of MMST and M-OSA differed significantly (p = 0.029); Significant
differences (p = 0.045) were also observed for the Truskin® test (left); specifically, the difference was
observed between the MMST and M-OSA groups. As groups were not homogeneous at baseline, so
this was considered during statistical analysis.
3.1. Transonychial Water-Loss Evaluation
Regarding nail hydration (Table S3), the results indicated significant differences in the time
factor; however, in the group factor and in the time x group interaction no significant differences
were found. Considering the contrasts, it was observed that there were significant differences
between the first application and the following two applications (T3 and T5) both among users of M-
OSA and of MMST. However, significant differences were also found between the same times in the
control group. Similar results were also observed with respect to hydration of the nails of the hand.
In this sense, it appears that the effects are more prone to have occurred due to possible seasonal
effects once it started in April (Autumn in Brazil) and ended in September (Spring).
3.2. Skin Multispectral Imaging Evaluation
First, considering the high number of parameters and determinations, non-significative results
are expressed in Table S4. For significant results, one can refer to Figure 1. A typical imaging from
the multispectral evaluation can be found in Figure 2.
Control M-OSA MMST
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
T0
T5
*
*
-3.5%
-25.8%
-24.4%
Wrinkles (score)
Control M-OSA MMST
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
T0
T5
*
*
-2.2%
-34.8%
-24.7%
UV spots (score)
Figure 1. Skin multispectral imaging data for parameters that showed significative results. *
Statistically significant difference from T0. G1 = control (placebo). G2 = maltodextrin-stabilized
orthosilic acid. G3 = monomethylsilanetriol. T0 = baseline. T5 = 5 months of study.
Figure 1.
Skin multispectral imaging data for parameters that showed significative results. * Statistically
significant difference from T0. G1 = control (placebo). G2 = maltodextrin-stabilized orthosilic acid.
G3 = monomethylsilanetriol. T0 = baseline. T5 = 5 months of study.
Cosmetics 2018,5, 41 6 of 15
Cosmetics 2018, 5, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 14
Figure 2. Typical photograph from skin multispectral imaging evaluation. A = Spots; B = Wrinkles; C
= Texture; D = Pores; E = UV spots; F = Brown spots; G = Red spots; H = Porfirines.
Considering the contrasts in the evaluation of wrinkles, it was observed that there were
significant differences between the baseline and the two follow-ups, both in G2 and G3, showing that
there was a detectable effect on wrinkles betterment. The effect can be attributable to the use of M-
OSA and MMST, as no statistically significant differences were found in the participants in the control
group.
As what regards UV spots, significant differences were found in the time factor between
averages of UV spots (Figure 1). Specifically, the contrasts indicated significant differences on the G2
group between T0 and T5 and between T3 and T5. Among the users in group G3, the results showed
significant differences between all the times, i.e., both M-OSA and MMST provided improvement on
UV spots and on wrinkles.
For the other factors considered, we have found two situations. For skin texture, size of the pores,
length of the eyelashes and cutaneous porphyrins, significative differences were found, but these did
occur both for the treatments and for the control—again, this can be related to seasonal effects, once
the study was conducted over two seasons. For the other parameters (red areas, brown spots,
eyelashes volume and TruSkin Age
®
), non-significant differences were found in any of the analyses
performed (Table S3).
3.3. Hair Mineral Analysis
In the group of participants who used the M-OSA (G2), a statistically significant difference was
observed for aluminum (Al), which decreased from 5.34 µg g
1
at T0 to 4.96 µg g
1
at T5 (Figure 3 for
significative results, and Tables S5–S8 for complete results). Silicon (Si) also showed a statistically
significant difference, from 80.07 µg g
1
at T0 to 85.18 µg g
1
at T5. Finally, in relation to the group of
participants who MMST (G3), there was a statistically significant difference for aluminum (Al), which
decreased from 6.82 µg g
1
at T0 to 6.55 µg g
1
at T5. Although the statistical tests did not show
significant difference in the Si levels in the MMST group, one can verify its increment from baseline
to the final timepoint, which is compatible with the effects observed (in both groups).
Figure 2.
Typical photograph from skin multispectral imaging evaluation.
A
= Spots;
B
= Wrinkles;
C= Texture; D= Pores; E= UV spots; F= Brown spots; G= Red spots; H= Porfirines.
Considering the contrasts in the evaluation of wrinkles, it was observed that there were significant
differences between the baseline and the two follow-ups, both in G2 and G3, showing that there was
a detectable effect on wrinkles betterment. The effect can be attributable to the use of M-OSA and
MMST, as no statistically significant differences were found in the participants in the control group.
As what regards UV spots, significant differences were found in the time factor between averages
of UV spots (Figure 1). Specifically, the contrasts indicated significant differences on the G2 group
between T0 and T5 and between T3 and T5. Among the users in group G3, the results showed
significant differences between all the times, i.e., both M-OSA and MMST provided improvement on
UV spots and on wrinkles.
For the other factors considered, we have found two situations. For skin texture, size of the pores,
length of the eyelashes and cutaneous porphyrins, significative differences were found, but these did
occur both for the treatments and for the control—again, this can be related to seasonal effects, once the
study was conducted over two seasons. For the other parameters (red areas, brown spots, eyelashes
volume and TruSkin Age
®
), non-significant differences were found in any of the analyses performed
(Table S3).
3.3. Hair Mineral Analysis
In the group of participants who used the M-OSA (G2), a statistically significant difference was
observed for aluminum (Al), which decreased from 5.34
µ
g g
1
at T0 to 4.96
µ
g g
1
at T5 (Figure 3
for significative results, and Tables S5–S8 for complete results). Silicon (Si) also showed a statistically
significant difference, from 80.07
µ
g g
1
at T0 to 85.18
µ
g g
1
at T5. Finally, in relation to the group
of participants who MMST (G3), there was a statistically significant difference for aluminum (Al),
which decreased from 6.82
µ
g g
1
at T0 to 6.55
µ
g g
1
at T5. Although the statistical tests did not show
significant difference in the Si levels in the MMST group, one can verify its increment from baseline to
the final timepoint, which is compatible with the effects observed (in both groups).
Cosmetics 2018,5, 41 7 of 15
Figure 3.
Significative results from hair mineral analysis, as a function of time in the
groups. Elements determined as
µ
g per g of hair. * Statistically significant difference from T0.
M-OSA = maltodextrin-stabilized
ortoshilic acid. MMST = treated with monomethylsilanetriol.
T0 = baseline. T5 = 5 months of study.
3.4. Subjective Evaluation
The participants’ perception of changes in the skin, hair and nails was assessed through a
self-efficacy questionnaire. To evaluate these aspects, the respondents used a scale with values between
1 and 10, in which 1 is considered that there was no improvement and 10 that there was excellent
improvement. The results of these analyzes are presented in Table 2. In relation to the control group,
only the yellowing of the nails showed a statistically significant difference at T3 and T5. For G2,
there was a statistically significant difference for skin oiliness, amount of darkened areas in the skin,
speed of whitening of the skin, and nail stains. In relation to G3, a statistically significant difference
was observed for the number of darkened areas of the face, wrinkles/lines of expression of the lips,
wrinkles/forehead expression lines, hair vitality, and yellowing of the nails. It is worth noting that
mean comparison tests were performed for all the variables of the self-efficacy questionnaire, and the
results can be seen in the Tables S9–S12.
Table 2.
Participants’ perception of changes in the skin, hair and nails after treatments
(intra-group comparison).
Group Parameter T3 (M ±SD) T5 (M ±SD) p
G1 (n= 17) Nails
Yellowing 0.88 ±1.73 5.13 ±3.68 0.03
G2 (n= 17)
Skin
Oiliness 3.50 ±3.07 6.00 ±3.12 0.02
Darkened areas 4.40 ±2.84 7.30 ±1.49 0.02
Whitening velocity 3.90 ±2.69 6.60 ±2.63 0.02
Nails
Stains 3.30 ±3.71 6.20 ±3.05 0.03
G3 (n= 17)
Skin
Darkened areas 3.88 ±2.42 7.63 ±2.20 0.04
Wrinkles/Expression lines (lips) 4.00 ±2.78 6.11 ±2.03 0.03
Wrinkles/Expression lines (forehead) 4.50 ±3.27 6.90 ±1.73 0.01
Hair
Vitality 6.67 ±2.61 8.58 ±1.00 0.03
Nails
Yellowing 3.33 ±4.56 8.22 ±2.68 0.05
Scores ranged from 1 to 10 (1—no improvement and 10—excellent improvement). Perception of
improvement should be based on the baseline by the volunteers.
Cosmetics 2018,5, 41 8 of 15
M = mean. SD = standard deviation. G1 = control (placebo). G2 = treated with
maltodextrin-stabilized ortoshilic acid. G3 = treated with monomethylsilanetriol. T3 = 3 months
of study. T5 = 5 months of study.
The difference between the groups regarding the questionnaire of perceived self-efficacy was
assessed and the significant results at the end of the study (T5) are presented in Figure 4(complete
results are presented in Tables S9–S12). Bonferroni Post Hoc tests indicated that, for the general
appearance of the skin, the participants of the MMST group (G3) differed significantly (p= 0.02)
from the control group; the same was true for the variable skin hydration (p= 0.02). Regarding the
homogeneity of the skin, the participants of the M-OSA group (G2) differed significantly from the
participants in the control group (p= 0.05). Concerning the intensity of the color of the darkened areas
the participants of the MMST group (G3) differed significantly from the participants in the control
group (p= 0.01). For the variable amount of darkened areas, a significant difference was observed
among G1 and G2 (p= 0.002) and G3 (p= 0.0002). For the skin imperfections, the participants in G3
differed significantly from the participants in the control group (p= 0.04). The luminosity skin variable,
presented a significant difference between the participants of the G3 and the participants in the control
group (p= 0.03).
Regarding the variables that assessed hair related issues, a significant difference was observed
between the participants of G3 and the participants in the control group for the variables: hydration
(
p= 0.02
); nutrition (p= 0.02); softness (p= 0.04); vitality (p= 0.01); luminosity (p= 0.01); and dandruff
(p= 0.03). No significant differences were found between the participants in the G2 group and
participants in the control group.
Cosmetics 2018, 5, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 14
The difference between the groups regarding the questionnaire of perceived self-efficacy was
assessed and the significant results at the end of the study (T5) are presented in Figure 4 (complete
results are presented in Tables S9–S12). Bonferroni Post Hoc tests indicated that, for the general
appearance of the skin, the participants of the MMST group (G3) differed significantly (p = 0.02) from
the control group; the same was true for the variable skin hydration (p = 0.02). Regarding the
homogeneity of the skin, the participants of the M-OSA group (G2) differed significantly from the
participants in the control group (p = 0.05). Concerning the intensity of the color of the darkened areas
the participants of the MMST group (G3) differed significantly from the participants in the control
group (p = 0.01). For the variable amount of darkened areas, a significant difference was observed
among G1 and G2 (p = 0.002) and G3 (p = 0.0002). For the skin imperfections, the participants in G3
differed significantly from the participants in the control group (p = 0.04). The luminosity skin
variable, presented a significant difference between the participants of the G3 and the participants in
the control group (p = 0.03).
Regarding the variables that assessed hair related issues, a significant difference was observed
between the participants of G3 and the participants in the control group for the variables: hydration
(p = 0.02); nutrition (p = 0.02); softness (p = 0.04); vitality (p = 0.01); luminosity (p = 0.01); and dandruff
(p = 0.03). No significant differences were found between the participants in the G2 group and
participants in the control group.
Skin general appearance
Control M-OSA MMST
0
2
4
6
8
10
+32.7% +49.6%
Score
Skin hydration
Control M-OSA MMST
0
2
4
6
8
+46.2%
+65.1%
Score
(a) (b)
Homogeneity of skin color
Control M-OSA MMST
0
2
4
6
8
+58.7% +44.7%
Score
Darkened areas-intensity
Control M-OSA MMST
0
2
4
6
8
+85.6%
+115.6%
Score
(c) (d)
Figure 4. Cont.
Cosmetics 2018,5, 41 9 of 15
Cosmetics 2018, 5, x FOR PEER REVIEW 9 of 14
Darkened areas-quantity
Control M-OSA MMST
0
2
4
6
8
10
+107.8%
+140.2%
Score
Skin imperfections
Control M-OSA MMST
0
2
4
6
8
+56.3% +67.1%
Score
(e) (f)
Skin luminosity
Control M-OSA MMST
0
2
4
6
8
+34.7%
+58.7%
Score
Hair hydration
Control M-OSA MMST
0
2
4
6
8
10
+15.9%
+52.8%
Score
(g) (h)
Hair nutrition
Control M-OSA MMST
0
2
4
6
8
10
+26.9%
+57.7%
Score
Hair softness
Control M-OSA MMST
0
2
4
6
8
10
+27.5%
+52.4%
Score
(i) (j)
Hair vitality
Control M-OSA MMST
0
2
4
6
8
10
+24.2%
+58.1%
Score
Hair aging signals
Control M-OSA MMST
0
2
4
6
8
+81.2% +96.6%
Score
(k) (l)
Figure 4. Cont.
Cosmetics 2018,5, 41 10 of 15
Cosmetics 2018, 5, x FOR PEER REVIEW 10 of 14
Hair luminosity
Control M-OSA MMST
0
2
4
6
8
10
+22.8%
+64.8%
Score
Dandruff
Control M-OSA MMST
0
2
4
6
8
10
+200.0%
+344.4%
Score
(m) (n)
Figure 4. Comparison of means of self-efficacy questionnaire variables as a function of group at the
end of the study (T5). (a) skin general appearance; (b) skin hydration; (c) homogeneity of skin color;
(d) darkened areas—intensity; (e) darkened areas—quantity; (f) skin imperfections; (g) skin
luminosity; (h) hair hydration; (i) hair nutrition; (j) hair softness; (k) hair vitality; (l) hair aging
signals.; (m) hair luminosity; (n) dandruff. All parameters listed showed significance differences
between both treatments and the control.
3.5. Discussion
Silicon as an element (Si) was discovered in 1823 by the Swiss chemist Jacob Berzelius, who
isolated it from potassium fluorosilicate (K2SiF6) and named it from the Latin silex (“quartz”).
Although the focus of this work is on its dermatological use, Si is one of the most used elements by
humankind, including its use as a semiconductor in electronic components, and as the main
component in ceramics, building materials, glass, silicones and other product [19,20]. Its importance
in human health has been reported from Louis Pasteur, who was aware of the antiseptic,
antimicrobial and antifermentative properties of silicates and predicted that silicon would play a
significant role in the treatment of various diseases [21]. However, until a few decades ago the
medical emphasis given to Si was directed primarily at the concern about the potential toxicity of its
particulate insoluble chemical forms (silicates and crystalline silica), which could cause urolithiasis
when ingested orally and especially pneumoconioses (silicosis, asbestosis) caused by inhalation of
airborne particles from occupational exposure [19,22,23]. However, more recent experiments and
studies employing bioavailable and non-toxic forms of silicon have increasingly contributed to its
establishment as a quasi-essential element and/or as a therapeutic adjuvant, emphasizing its
structural role in connective tissue and a possible metabolic importance [3,19,24].
Nowadays, silicon-based compounds exist in a high number of commercial products. There is
also a current burden of using it for dermatological purposes. Different trademarks and forms to
stabilize it are present in the market. In fact, Kalil et al. [18] affirm that one of the diverse Si
supplements in the most prescribed oral product for skin rejuvenation in Brazil. However, there is
still little evidence on its effects on skin, hair and nails, and the mechanics on the differences found
for the many sources of this mineral.
The main point on using Si is its low bioavailability and fixation in the body, reason why there
are so many different silicon supplements, each one using a different mechanism to promote better
absorption. In general terms, there appear to be two distinct steps involved in biodistribution of
dietary silicon after oral absorption: first, the rapid urinary excretion for most of the ingested silicon;
[9,15,25] the other step would consist of tissue storage and/or metabolism for the minor part of the
ingested Si, proportional to physiological balance [25]. In a human study using Si radioactive,
Popplewell et al. [25]. demonstrated that 90% of circulating orthosilicic acid was rapidly excreted
without any form of cellular processing. Afterwards, Pruksa et al. [26] reported that ingestion of a
dose of soluble dietary silicon by healthy subjects resulted in the same amount being excreted within
24 h. In relation to MMST, it is kwon that there is a rapid majority urinary excretion, but the storage
Figure 4.
Comparison of means of self-efficacy questionnaire variables as a function of group at
the end of the study (T5). (
a
) skin general appearance; (
b
) skin hydration; (
c
) homogeneity of skin
color; (
d
) darkened areas—intensity; (
e
) darkened areas—quantity; (
f
) skin imperfections; (
g
) skin
luminosity; (
h
) hair hydration; (
i
) hair nutrition; (
j
) hair softness; (
k
) hair vitality; (
l
) hair aging signals.;
(
m
) hair luminosity; (
n
) dandruff. All parameters listed showed significance differences between both
treatments and the control.
3.5. Discussion
Silicon as an element (Si) was discovered in 1823 by the Swiss chemist Jacob Berzelius, who isolated
it from potassium fluorosilicate (K
2
SiF
6
) and named it from the Latin silex (“quartz”). Although the
focus of this work is on its dermatological use, Si is one of the most used elements by humankind,
including its use as a semiconductor in electronic components, and as the main component in ceramics,
building materials, glass, silicones and other product [
19
,
20
]. Its importance in human health has been
reported from Louis Pasteur, who was aware of the antiseptic, antimicrobial and antifermentative
properties of silicates and predicted that silicon would play a significant role in the treatment of
various diseases [
21
]. However, until a few decades ago the medical emphasis given to Si was
directed primarily at the concern about the potential toxicity of its particulate insoluble chemical forms
(silicates and crystalline silica), which could cause urolithiasis when ingested orally and especially
pneumoconioses (silicosis, asbestosis) caused by inhalation of airborne particles from occupational
exposure [
19
,
22
,
23
]. However, more recent experiments and studies employing bioavailable and
non-toxic forms of silicon have increasingly contributed to its establishment as a quasi-essential
element and/or as a therapeutic adjuvant, emphasizing its structural role in connective tissue and a
possible metabolic importance [3,19,24].
Nowadays, silicon-based compounds exist in a high number of commercial products. There is also
a current burden of using it for dermatological purposes. Different trademarks and forms to stabilize
it are present in the market. In fact, Kalil et al. [
18
] affirm that one of the diverse Si supplements in the
most prescribed oral product for skin rejuvenation in Brazil. However, there is still little evidence on
its effects on skin, hair and nails, and the mechanics on the differences found for the many sources of
this mineral.
The main point on using Si is its low bioavailability and fixation in the body, reason why there
are so many different silicon supplements, each one using a different mechanism to promote better
absorption. In general terms, there appear to be two distinct steps involved in biodistribution of dietary
silicon after oral absorption: first, the rapid urinary excretion for most of the ingested silicon [
9
,
15
,
25
];
the other step would consist of tissue storage and/or metabolism for the minor part of the ingested Si,
proportional to physiological balance [
25
]. In a human study using Si radioactive,
Popplewell et al.
[
25
].
demonstrated that 90% of circulating orthosilicic acid was rapidly excreted without any form of cellular
processing. Afterwards, Pruksa et al. [
26
] reported that ingestion of a dose of soluble dietary silicon by
healthy subjects resulted in the same amount being excreted within 24 h. In relation to MMST, it is
Cosmetics 2018,5, 41 11 of 15
kwon that there is a rapid majority urinary excretion, but the storage of minor part of Si occurs for
an extended period—and then, there is the bioconversion (metabolism) of MMST to orthosilicic acid
(dietary silicon) [17].
To corroborate the importance of the chemical form of silicon, Sripanyakorn et al. [
16
] studied the
comparative absorption of silicon, supplemented as MMST and six other sources which contained high
silicon content (non-alcoholic beer, bananas, green beans, orthosilicic acid solution, choline stabilized
silicon supplement, colloidal silica and trisilicate of magnesium). The study showed that silicon uptake,
based on urinary excretion, was higher for MMST (64% of the dose) and for non-alcoholic beer (60% of
the dose), followed by green beans (44%), orthosilicic acid (43%), choline stabilized silicon supplement
(17%), bananas and magnesium trisilicate (4%) and colloidal silica (1%). Peak plasma concentration
occurred in about 30 min for MMST and green beans, 1.5 h for orthosilicic acid and non-alcoholic
beer, 2 h for the choline stabilized silicon supplement and colloidal silica and 4 h for magnesium
trisilicate. Monomeric silicates were rapidly absorbed, while particulate silicates presented a decrease
in absorption with increased polymerization. The authors concluded that MMST silicon was very well
absorbed, presenting higher absorption when compared to the other silicon sources studied.
Similarly, the bioavailability of silicon from M-OSA was previously evaluated by Boquéand
Arola [
27
] and the results showed an approximate oral bioavailability of 30% in terms of elemental
silicon. Therefore, the results of this study showed that the absorption of silicon from M-OSA was in
percentage terms higher than the values obtained in the study by Spripanyakorn et al. [
16
] for OSA
stabilized on choline, magnesium trisilicate and colloidal silica (respectively 16%, 4% and 1%).
In our study, we used two different forms of Si: M-OSA and MMST. Specifically, we have used
the commercial products SiliciuMax
®
Powder and SiliciuMax
®
Liquid, respectively, used after quality
control tests (assay). M-OSA and MMST did produce an increase in mean hair Si content, but for MMST
this did not reach statistical significance. Jugdaohsingh et al. [
17
] also studied the metabolism of MMST
in a 4-week supplementation study, using the blood and urine as biological matrices. Their data showed
that 4 weeks of MMST supplementation significantly increased total serum silicon concentrations with
median 272
µ
g/L versus baseline median of 173
µ
g/L (
p= 0.0002
) or placebo median of 191
µ
g/L
(
p= 0.003
). In urine, total silicon concentrations after silicon supplementation for 4 weeks resulted
in an average of 17.0 mg/L versus baseline of 8.5 mg/L (p= 0.008) or placebo median of 7.8 mg/L
(p= 0.007).
We have chosen hair as the biological matrix because of its widespread applications in
toxicological, clinical, environmental and forensic investigations [
28
]. It also reflects long-term
exposition, and not the momentary status of a given element within the body, as occurs with the blood.
It has a particular interest in the biomonitoring of heavy metals, as it is a vehicle for excretion of such
substances because the metal cations are able to bind to the sulphur present in the keratin of the hair
matrix [
29
,
30
]. In this sense, a related result was found for the use of M-OSA and MMST, as both
treatments reduced, after 5 months, the hair levels of aluminum. Magnesium and phosphorus also
showed different levels among the three groups, but the effect could not be related to the treatments
themselves, only to time. On the contrary, aluminum reduction was actually correlated directly to the
consumption of M-OSA and MMST. This effect is in accordance with the literature: epidemiological
studies already suggested that silicon can prevent the absorption of aluminum and/or increase its
excretion [
31
34
]. Indeed, in nature, silicon readily forms complexes with aluminum and therefore,
aluminosilicates are the most prevalent form of silicates [
3
]. Reduction of aluminum levels in the
body is of sheer importance because of its neurotoxicity, mainly in Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis,
and because we live and in a world in which is virtually impossible not to be exposed to such
element [
35
,
36
]. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of the aluminum detox
activity for M-OSA and MMST.
Other important result found in our study was the reduction of facial wrinkles and UV spots—the
link between sun exposure and hyperpigmentation is clear from the literature, as what occurs in
melasma [
37
]. Recent studies with organic Si stabilized by other chemical forms also shows similar
Cosmetics 2018,5, 41 12 of 15
results. For example, Kalil et al. [
18
] showed that in a small population, the use of OSA stabilized by
hydrolyzed collagen (daily dose = 600 mg) provided positive results on firmness, hydration and skin
texture. However, these results were found during the clinical evaluation by the dermatologist, not by
multispectral imaging evaluation, although they have used the same device as the one used in this
study. No changes in wrinkles or UV spots was found, which corroborated the hypothesis that the
chemical form of stabilization the Si really affects its effects on human body.
Barel et al. [
6
] also evaluated the effects of OSA on skin, nails and hair, but using a molecule
stabilized with choline (Si daily dose = 10, during 20 weeks, in 50 women with photodamaged skin).
They have assessed the effects of this supplement using a corneometer (to measure skin hydration),
a reviscometer (for visco-elastic properties of the skin) and a visiometer (for microrelief/roughness),
and also biochemical parameters in serum. They found out an increase in serum Si concentration,
and positive effects on skin surface and skin mechanical properties, and on nail fragility, but no
mention to wrinkles or UV spots was made.
With concerns to our results, together with the proven effects directly related to Si consumption,
skin texture and eyelashes length also changed throughout the study for all groups. These effects can
be attributable to the role that Si plays on collagen synthesis (it stimulates type I collagen synthesis),
on enzyme activation and cross-linking in connective tissues, and on the increase of elastic fibers
density [
7
,
9
,
21
]. The reduction of collagen, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, as well as the
degradation of elastic fibers, are key factors on the skin aging, which can be observed as sagging.
In addition to that, Si also was shown to provide important connections among hyaluronic acid,
proteoglycans and water [
38
]. All of these data are strong points that corroborates the findings of our
study on the betterment of facial skin parameters. What also corroborates the analytical results is the
patients’ self-reported satisfaction with the treatment, in scale of 1–10. Comparison between control
x treatments showed a higher number of parameters well evaluated for the ones who used MMST
instead of M-OSA. But in a general manner both treatments were able to provide satisfaction in the
volunteers in hair, nail and skin parameters.
To our knowledge, this is the first clinical study on both M-OSA and MMST to evaluate the
parameters here described, which adds evidence to what is already in literature for these substances.
As future perspectives, one envisions a continuity of this work with a higher follow-up period and a
greater sample population, as these were two limitations of the study. Histopathological evaluations
are also recommended, as well as the use of enhanced tools to allow the visualization of the results on
hair and nail quality.
4. Conclusions
Orthosilicic acid stabilized by maltodextrin (M-OSA) and monomethylsilanetriol (MMST) both
provide betterment on facial wrinkles and UV spots and decrease of hair aluminum levels. In addition,
overall grades given by the patients to the treatments show that they are suitable products for the
market. These data altogether account for positive results regarding dermatology clinical practice for
both products.
Supplementary Materials:
The following are available online at http://www.mdpi.com/2079- 9284/5/3/41/s1:
Table S1: Baseline results for the dermatological parameters evaluated (multispectral imaging and transonychial
water-loss). Comparison between the groups to check for homogeneity of sample. Table S2: Baseline results for
the hair mineral analysis. Comparison between the groups to check for homogeneity of sample. Table S3:
Transonychial water-loss results from foot and hand nails. Table S4: Comparison of the dermatological
parameters evaluated (multispectral imaging) between pre- and post-testing. Non-significant results. Table S5:
Comparison of means for chemical variables (hair mineral analysis), according to groups at zero and five months
(T0 and T5, respectively): control group (placebo). Table S6: Comparison of means for chemical variables
(hair mineral analysis), according to groups at zero and five months (T0 and T5, respectively): group treated
with maltodextrin-stabilized orthosilic acid (SiliciuMax
®
capsules). Table S7: Comparison of means for chemical
variables (hair mineral analysis), according to groups at zero and five months (T0 and T5, respectively): group
treated with monomethylsilanetriol (SiliciuMax
®
Liquid). Table S8: Comparison of the means of the variables
between the groups for the results of hair mineral analysis. Table S9: Comparison of the means of the variables
Cosmetics 2018,5, 41 13 of 15
between the groups for the self-reported questionnaire. Table S10: Comparison of means for chemical variables
(self-reported questionnaire), according to groups at zero and five months (T0 and T5, respectively): control group
(placebo). Table S11: Comparison of means for chemical variables (self-reported questionnaire), according to
groups at zero and five months (T0 and T5, respectively): group treated with maltodextrin-stabilized orthosilic
acid (SiliciuMax
®
capsules). Table S12: Comparison of means for chemical variables (self-reported questionnaire),
according to groups at zero and five months (T0 and T5, respectively): group treated with monomethylsilanetriol
(SiliciuMax®Liquid).
Author Contributions:
Conceptualization, A.O.F., M.A.F.B.; Methodology, H.C.P., N.R.B.R.; Investigation, E.S.F.,
P.J.L.C.d.S.; Data Curation, H.C.P.; Writing-Original Draft Preparation, H.C.P.; Writing-Review & Editing, N.R.B.R.,
A.O.F. and M.A.F.B.; Supervision, H.C.P., N.R.B.R.
Funding: SM Empreendimentos Farmaceuticos Ltd. a funded this study.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access
article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution
(CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
... However, several methodologies applicable to in vitro and in vivo studies are currently available to demonstrate the beneficial effects of the substances contained in these products on the skin, such as hydration improvement, protection against ultraviolet (UV) radiation or the reduction in wrinkles and spots. As examples of methodologies, we can mention the measurement of gross and net elasticity of the skin using the equipment Cutometer ® , the evaluation of erythema and melanin with the use of a Mexameter ® , the evaluation of wrinkle depth using a three-dimensional microtopography imaging system (PRIMOS 3D lite) or the Visia ® equipment, among others, which will be mentioned in this review [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. ...
... Silicon is present in the human body in small traces that, with ageing, begin to show a decrease in its levels; thus, its supplementation is recommended to provide skin benefits. Its supplementation has been associated with an improvement on the synthesis of collagen and elastin [9,84]. This compound is found in an accumulative form in the horny layer and in the hair fiber cuticle, since it can contribute to the improvement of the hair strands, stimulating growth and making them more resistant. ...
... This compound is found in an accumulative form in the horny layer and in the hair fiber cuticle, since it can contribute to the improvement of the hair strands, stimulating growth and making them more resistant. In vivo studies have shown that the compound improves hair thickness and reduces the loss of elasticity of the capillary thread, promotes nail hardness, in addition to assisting in the skin barrier function and increasing the synthesis of collagen and elastin, preventing premature skin aging [9,[84][85][86]. ...
Article
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Skin health is not only significantly affected by ageing, but also by other lifestyle-related factors, such as sun exposure, exercise and eating habits, smoking or alcohol intake. It is known that the cutaneous tissue can exhibit visible signs of senescence, in the form of, for example, dull complexion, loss of firmness, or changes in pigmentation. Consumers attempt to improve skin health and appearance not only by cosmetic products, but also with the consumption of food supplements. Recently, there has been an increase in the amount of food supplements with claims that are related to skin and hair health. Nevertheless, the literature is still scarce in evidence of the efficacy of this type of products. Considering this scenario, we aim in this review to assemble studies and methodologies that are directed at the substantiation of the cutaneous health claims of food supplements. For example, we reviewed those that were indicative of antioxidant properties, improvement in pigmentation disorders, increased hydration or protection against the damages caused by ultraviolet radiation.
... Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element on Earth, present in water, plants and animals [134] and it has semi-metallic properties. In nature, it is not normally found in free form but is usually present as a chemical compound of silicon dioxide, a complex compound, or silicon silicate [135,136]. The silicon present in food is solubilized in the acidic environment of the stomach, becoming easily absorbed orthosilicic acid (OSA) [134]. ...
... The silicon present in food is solubilized in the acidic environment of the stomach, becoming easily absorbed orthosilicic acid (OSA) [134]. Si is mainly absorbed from the diet [135,137] (Table 1). Another important source of silicon used in dietary supplements is horsetail (Equisetum arvense) [134]. ...
... Orthosilicic acid (OSA) stimulates fibroblasts to secrete collagen type I [140]. Si also promotes the synthesis of elastin and GAGs, helps to preserve blood vessel elasticity, and increases the resistance and thickness of nail and hair fibers [135]. Barel et al. demonstrated that the oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid for 20 weeks had a significant positive effect on the surface and mechanical properties of skin. ...
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Human skin is continually changing. The condition of the skin largely depends on the individual’s overall state of health. A balanced diet plays an important role in the proper functioning of the human body, including the skin. The present study draws attention to bioactive substances, i.e., vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, polyphenols, and carotenoids, with a particular focus on their effects on the condition of the skin. The aim of the study was to review the literature on the effects of bioactive substances on skin parameters such as elasticity, firmness, wrinkles, senile dryness, hydration and color, and to define their role in the process of skin ageing.
... Although it is not yet formally recognized as an essential mineral, its importance in nutrition and human health has been cumulatively evidenced for decades. For instance, there is clinical evidence of its positive role on skin surface and skin mechanical properties, as well as on brittleness of hair and nails [4], on bone and connective tissue health [5], on skin rejuvenation [6,7], on facial growth and UV spots [7], on hair growth [8] and in the detoxification of aluminum [7]. In spite of this, it is known that the chemical form of the mineral determines its absorption and bioavailability. ...
... Although it is not yet formally recognized as an essential mineral, its importance in nutrition and human health has been cumulatively evidenced for decades. For instance, there is clinical evidence of its positive role on skin surface and skin mechanical properties, as well as on brittleness of hair and nails [4], on bone and connective tissue health [5], on skin rejuvenation [6,7], on facial growth and UV spots [7], on hair growth [8] and in the detoxification of aluminum [7]. In spite of this, it is known that the chemical form of the mineral determines its absorption and bioavailability. ...
... Although it is not yet formally recognized as an essential mineral, its importance in nutrition and human health has been cumulatively evidenced for decades. For instance, there is clinical evidence of its positive role on skin surface and skin mechanical properties, as well as on brittleness of hair and nails [4], on bone and connective tissue health [5], on skin rejuvenation [6,7], on facial growth and UV spots [7], on hair growth [8] and in the detoxification of aluminum [7]. In spite of this, it is known that the chemical form of the mineral determines its absorption and bioavailability. ...
Article
Objetive: Organic silicon has been linked to positive effects on the skin rejuvenation, mainly by the oral route. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to assess whether monomethylsilanetriol (MMST, a source of organic silicon) can deliver silicon to the epidermis and dermis, when applied topically in a cream. Once the hypothesis was confirmed, the present study also evaluated whether the product was toxic to keratinocytes; additionally, its possible antioxidant activity was assessed. Methods: The ex vivo skin permeation profile was determined using human skin in Franz-cells equipment; cytotoxicity was assessed using HaCaT keratinocytes. Antioxidant capacity was determined as scavenging activity, measured according to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil free radical method. Results: The permeation percentage was almost 60% of the applied MMST, with a large quantity of drug found in the viable epidermis and dermis. The cell viability assay showed no significant difference in the percentage of viable keratinocytes among the treated groups at the doses used. In terms of antioxidant activity, the IC50 value obtained was 2,400 μg mL-1 . Low antioxidant activity, negligible toxicity for keratinocytes, and a significative percentage of permeation were observed. Conclusion: We provide evidence that MMST applied topically can deliver silicon to the skin in biorelevant levels for cosmetic purposes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Ferreira et al. [15] investigated the dermatological effects of oral silicon ingestion of two forms: maltodextrin-stabilized silicic acid (powder) and monomethylsilanetriol on a group of women aged 40-60. As a result of the research, a decrease in aluminum content, a reduction in wrinkles and skin discoloration was observed, which was comparable when using both preparations. ...
... As a result of the research, a decrease in aluminum content, a reduction in wrinkles and skin discoloration was observed, which was comparable when using both preparations. It was also shown that silicon in the form of OSA (orthosilicic acid) stimulates prolyl hydroxylase activity, and thus the synthesis of type I collagen [15,16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Silicon (Si) is an element necessary for the proper functioning of the body. It affects cell viability, osteoblast differentiation, blood vessel elasticity, type I collagen synthesis, as well as the condition of the skin, hair, and nails. It is also considered an antiatherosclerotic agent. The silicon content in the human body is 6 – 7 g, and the only absorbable form is orthosilicic acid. The average daily requirement of the body for this element is in the range of 20 to 40 mg, whose diet does not fully provide. In addition, the silicon content in the body decreases with age, so there is a need for its supplementation. There are many liquid, gel, and spray diet supplements available that vary in concentration and silicon compound. The aim of the research was to determine the content of orthosilicic acid in liquid diet supplements. Thirteen preparations were selected for the study, in which concentration of available silicon was determined by a spectrophotometric method. This method was based on reaction in the acidic environment of dissociated silicon with ammonium molybdate. Among the selected products, the highest concentration of available silicon form was obtained for pharmaceuticals composed of choline stabilized orthosilicic acid, which is in the range of 50-2000 ppm. However, its concentration in preparations containing monomethylsilanetriol (MMST) did not exceed 50 ppm. Keywords: chemical sciences, orthosilicic acid, Uv-Vis spectroscopy
... Também foram realizadas imagens de face e análise mineral do cabelo. Uso de M-OSA e MMST fornecido mostrou melhoria significativa (p<0,05) das rugas faciais e manchas UV [23]. ...
... Este mineral estimula a síntese de colágeno tipo I e de glicosaminoglicanos, o que leva ao aumento da atividade da enzima prolina-hidroxilase e à estabilização do ácido hialurônico. Estudos demonstram que ocorre uma redução do silício no organismo a partir dos 25 a 30 anos e que sua reposição pode promover aumento da longevidade, assim como impacto na pele [23,24]. Associado à vitamina C, o silício aumenta a síntese de ácido hialurônico e proteoglicanos, além de reduzir o processo de destruição da matriz dérmica por intermédio das metaloproteinases [25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The presence of silicon in the body is an important factor for the production of collagen, and its deficiency is associated with the reduction of peripheral resistance in the walls of blood vessels, due to the loss of its elasticity, thus influencing the dermis and adjacent tissues. Objective: Was to evaluate the presence of silicon in the composition of foods and in oral supplementation. Material and Method:A bibliographic review was performed in the health databases MEDLINE, LILACS and SCIELO, using the descriptors in Health Sciences (DeCS): diet, dietary supplements, silicon in portuguese and english, considering the period from june 2010 to june 2020. Results: 34 studies were found, 11 were included and 23 were excluded because they did not meet the eligibility criteria. According to the literature it was observed that this compound is more present in foods of plant origin than those of animal origin and that its replacement is essential when it comes to aging of the epidermis acting on the skin, hair and nails. Conclusion: The results of this review described that silicon is present in several foods and available in oral supplementation, which can be used to prevent skin aging. However, more randomized clinical trials are needed to assess the relationship between consumption of silicon source foods and increased collagen synthesis and health benefits.
... The study used organic silicon G5® (MMST) produced by LLR-G5 and showed that the absorption of silicon was high (about 60% in general and up to 70% in some subjects). The absorption of organic silicon G5® as Fig 4 shows, is considerably higher than the other known silicon supplements, at least four times higher than the other known forms of integration [5][6][7][8][9]. Organic silicon G5® is not only very easily absorbed by the organism, but is also metabolized as biological silicon ("orthosilicic acid") (*) ...
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Full-text available
Numerous evidence and clinical trials have been published in recent years on the role of silicon for the maintenance of general well-being and of bones in particular. However, no study has so far investigated which fundamental contribution to health could provide silicon when taken with other trace elements in cases, very frequent, of their insufficient contribution. In this work we present a preliminary open-air study on a group of patients, using an original and innovative formulation containing organic SI G5 plus other trace elements, for the prevention and treatment of osteoarticular diseases of various origins.
... Early diagnosis of dysplasia includes clinical genealogy methods and detailed analysis of the patient's and family's anamnesis [10]. Another group of methods is biochemical and molecular genetic examinations [11]. Primary methods, however, are those that recognize early stages of dysplasia based on the patient's phenotype, as they are less expensive and require a shorter time interval. ...
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Undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia is one of the most common diseases of nowadays, which does not fit into the group of hereditary syndromes. This condition is diagnosed in 20–50% of the population at any age. The study aimed to correct the facial soft tissues of patients with undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia through the cosmetic procedure of calcium hydroxylapatite injection. In 2018, a 36-year-old patient addressed the beauty salon with signs of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia, such as severe asymmetry of the face, infraorbital and nasolabial sulci, and thin and easily folding skin. Signs were observed from the age of 22, i.e., for 14 years. The therapy was performed using special features of the correction of facial soft tissue changes in patients with connective tissue dysplasia (CTD) using calcium hydroxylapatite-based products (Radiesse®, Merz North America, Inc., USA). Particular attention is given to the need for early correction to prevent premature skin aging related to this condition. After 14 days, a significant improvement of the patient’s skin condition was noted after the passing of two procedures. Her condition was estimated as consistent with T1-2P0G0A1Zh1 P1M1K1 and corresponded to grade I age-related changes in the superficial soft tissues. The performed treatment showed high efficacy in case of mild connective tissue dysplasia diagnosis. The results showed that when collecting information from anamnesis, the diagnostic criteria for dysplasia should be considered. If the criteria are met, the cosmetological correction with collagen stimulators becomes possible.
... Silicon was also reported to be necessary in the formation of glycosaminoglycans in bone and cartilage due to its structural role in the cross-linking of glycosaminoglycan in the connective tissue. Reduction of collagen, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans as well as the degradation of elastic fibers are key factors affecting skin aging (Ferreira et al. 2018). Silicon may play a protective role in atherosclerosis through its effects on blood vessel-associated glycosaminoglycans and collagen integrity and function via its crosslinking capacity (Carlise 1984). ...
Article
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Kwaśny M., Putko P., Dziedzic E.A., Dąbrowski M. 2020. Can the silicon content in hair be an indicator of atherosclerosis risk? AbstrAct Silicon is the second most prevalent element in the Earth's crust and the third most abundant trace element in the human body. Silicon compounds counteract the crystallization of minerals in the urinary tract, impede the deposition of lipid plaques in the walls of blood vessels and through their presence prevent the absorption of calcium compounds, which reduce the elasticity of blood vessels and may cause diseases of the circulatory system. The article presents the results of studies on the level of silicon and magnesium in the hair of patients with athero-sclerosis (N=137, age 60-94) and the control group of healthy people (N=242, age 20-80). The measured silicon content by ICP-OES in healthy people decreases with age, especially after 40 years of age, and ranges from 43.3±7.8 to 22.4±8.4 µg g-1. The average level of silicon in patients with atherosclerosis is much lower and ranges from 14.0±6.7 to 7.9±4.9 µg g-1 , depending on the age range. However, a wide spread of Si values is observed in every age group, even in the group of healthy military students living for several years in the same conditions and using the same diet. Among the patients, there is a group with Si levels below 10 µg g-1 , a value that does not appear in healthy people, even those aged 70-80. Due to the presence of a concentration range of 10-20 µg g-1 among all tested samples, the Si content in the hair cannot be unequivocally considered a certain atherosclerosis marker, although particularly low Si content below 10 µg g-1 should be a clear signal heralding a disease. In such patients, there is also a significantly reduced level of magnesium (5-15 µg g-1) compared with the norms adopted in Poland (25-35 µg g-1).
... This was similar to another trial where betterment of facial wrinkles was reported following monomethylsilanetriol and maltodextrinstabilized orthosilicic acid. 21 There was a significant rise in the skin hydration in the present study after 8 months. This was in contrast to the study by Calomme et al where no significant difference was seen after 20 weeks of ch-OSA ® administration. ...
Article
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p class="abstract"> Background: Ageing is a continuous process and efforts are being made to reverse or rather slow the process. It is evident through changes in the skin, hair and nails. Due to changes in these, aesthetic appearance is compromised. Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid (ch-OSA®) has shown results in improving skin, hair and nail health. The aim of the present study was to assess these effects in the Indian population taking oral ch-OSA®. Methods: Randomly selected 39 participants were assigned to 4 groups to study alopecia, hair quality, skin health and nail health. Ch-OSA®was administered for 5 months. Assessment was made at baseline, 2, 3 and 5 months. After this ch-OSA®was stopped and further assessment was made at 8 months. Results: There was a significant improvement in terms of all the 11 parameters related to alopecia and hair quality from baseline to 8 months (p<0.001). Most of the participants reported grade-1 skin wrinkling at 5 or 8 months. Skin hydration also improved significantly after the ch-OSA<sup>®</sup> administration. Greater percentage of participants reported of reduced roughness and dyschromia at the end of the study. Nail parameters were also significantly improved. No side-effect was reported by the participants throughout study. Conclusions: Oral intake of ch-OSA<sup>®</sup> showed significant beneficial effects on the health of hair, skin and nails with good tolerability.</p
Chapter
In modern society, people use various kinds of personal care products for quality of life in daily life. Personal care products (PCPs) are widely used by people of all ages. The products such as deodorants, facial moisturizers, or creams are used on a daily basis. Cosmetic products contain a wide range of chemicals to which we exposed every day. Over the past 50 years, the increase in cosmetic use has a direct link with the increase in endocrine disorders such as breast, prostate, and testicular cancers; diabetes; obesity; and reproductive problems. Considerable amounts of PCPs are utilized each day, resulting in large quantities of chemical substances that could potentially reach environmental compartments, particularly water, and also soil and air. After the use of PCPs, a significant amount of these products goes down the drain and enters the “wastewater–sewage plant–receiving water” route. As a result, they may ultimately end up in the aquatic environment. This is not only true for typical rinse-off products such as shampoos, shower gels, and toothpastes but also for leave-on products such as hair care products and makeup. Cosmetics pose the most pressing ecological problems compared to pharmaceuticals because they are used in larger quantities and throughout the course of life and, being intended for external application, are not subjected to metabolic transformation; therefore, they are introduced unaltered into the environment in large amounts during washing, showering, or bathing. Since relatively little is known about the fate and the toxicity of PCPs released into the environment, increasing attention is being placed on their occurrence, persistence, and potential threat to ecosystems and human health.
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In this paper, I have summarized the experimental and largely clinical evidence that implicates aluminum as a primary etiological factor in Alzheimer’s disease. The unequivocal neurotoxicity of aluminum must mean that when brain burdens of aluminum exceed toxic thresholds that it is inevitable that aluminum contributes toward disease. Aluminum acts as a catalyst for an earlier onset of Alzheimer’s disease in individuals with or without concomitant predispositions, genetic or otherwise. Alzheimer’s disease is not an inevitable consequence of aging in the absence of a brain burden of aluminum.
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Background: Organic silicon plays an important role in dermal structure by promoting neocollagenesis. Thus, the supplementation of silicon in a highly bioavailable form can be used for skin rejuvenation. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate skin changes associated with the use of ortho-silicic acid stabilized by hydrolyzed collagen. Patients/methods: Patients were randomized to receive 600 mg of ortho-silicic acid stabilized by hydrolyzed collagen (group 1, n = 11) or placebo (group 2, n = 11) to be taken 15 minutes before breakfast for 90 days. Clinical, photographical, and patients' subjective evaluations were conducted. Results: A total of 22 patients were included. Clinical evaluations demonstrated changes in skin texture, firmness, and hydration statistically superior in group 1. Brightness, firmness, and overall appearance showed trends for a difference favoring group 1 according to patients' subjective evaluations. Objective images showed no statistical differences. No side effects, hypersensitivity, or systemic symptoms were observed in group 1. Treatment satisfaction in group 1 reached 80%. Conclusions: Ortho-silicic acid stabilized by hydrolyzed collagen in a daily dose of 600 mg showed positive results in skin rejuvenation according to clinical evaluation in firmness, hydration, and skin texture. Further studies with larger and representative samples should be conducted to confirm our results.
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Accumulating evidence suggests a role for silicon in optimal connective tissue health. Further proof of its importance/essentiality may be provided by studies involving imposed depletion followed by 29Si challenge to estimate metabolic balance. Prior to conducting these expensive studies, we first established the variance of estimating normal Si excretion versus intake using a single oral dose of typical dietary Si, orthosilicic acid. Healthy volunteers were recruited from Loei Rajabhat University, separated into two matched groups (three males and three females/group) and maintained on a standardized diet for the three study days. One group ingested 500 ml water containing orthosilicic acid (28.9 mg Si) and the other group received 500 ml water alone, all on a fasted stomach. Blood samples and total urine and faeces were collected over the 48 h post-dose period and 24 h before-hand (baseline) and analysed for silicon by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Serum Si analysis confirmed the ready absorption of silicon from the orthosilicic acid solution. Mean total urinary and faecal Si excretions over the 24 h post-dose period accounted for 57 +/- 9.5% and 39 +/- 9.4% of the ingested dose, respectively. Thus in total 96.3 +/- 5.8% of the ingested dose was recovered in faecal plus urinary excretions over the 24 h post-dose period. We report that in healthy subjects (presumably in Si balance), the ingestion of a soluble dose of dietary Si results in the same quantity (within analytical error) being excreted within 24 h. It is currently not known if this all originated from the dose solution or if there was some exchange with the body Si pool but, given the low variance in these silicon balance data, isotopic studies are now merited.
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Although exogenous contamination and unreliable reference values have limited the utility of scalp hair as a biomarker of chemical elements exposure, its use in toxicological, clinical, environmental and forensic investigations is growing and becoming more extensive. Therefore, hair elemental analysis is reviewed in the current manuscript which spans articles published in the last 10 years. It starts with a general discussion of history, morphology and possible techniques for elemental analysis, where inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is clearly highlighted since this technique is leading quantitative ultra-trace elemental analysis. Emphasis over sampling, quality assurance, washing procedures and sample decomposition is given with detailed protocols compiled in tables as well as the utility of hair to identify human gender, age, diseases, healthy conditions, nutrition status and contamination sites. Isotope ratio information, chemical speciation analysis and analyte preconcentration are also considered for hair. Finally, the potential of laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) to provide spatial resolution and time-track the monitoring of elements in hair strands instead of conventional bulk analysis is spotlighted as a real future trend in the field.
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Silicon is required for normal growth and development in the chick when a low silicon diet is fed in a trace element controlled environment. Day-old deutectomized cockerels fed a purified amino acid diet showed significantly retarded growth and development within 2 to 3 weeks. Chicks fed the same diet plus a silicon supplement showed 50 percent higher growth and normal development. Silicon meets the criteria for an essential trace element.
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Convincing evidence that silicon is a bioactive beneficial trace element continues to accumulate. The evidence, which has come from human, animal, and in vitro studies performed by several laboratories, indicate that silicon in nutritional and supra nutritional amounts promotes bone and connective tissue health, may have a modulating effect on the immune or inflammatory response, and has been associated with mental health. A plausible mechanism of action for the beneficial effects of silicon is the binding of hydroxyl groups of polyols such that it influences the formation and/or utilization of glycosaminoglycans, mucopolysaccharides, and collagen in connective tissue and bone. In addition, silicon may affect the absorption, retention or action of other mineral elements (e.g., aluminum, copper, magnesium). Based on findings from both animal and human experiments, an intake of silicon of near 25 mg per day would be a reasonable suggestion for an adequate intake that would assure its nutritional benefits. Increased intakes of silicon through consuming unrefined grains, certain vegetables, and beverages and cereals made from grains should be recognized as a reasonable dietary recommendation.
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Silicon is the second most abundant element in nature behind oxygen. As a metalloid, silicon has been used in many industrial applications including use as an additive in the food and beverage industry. As a result, humans come into contact with silicon through both environmental exposures but also as a dietary component. Moreover, many forms of silicon, that is, Si bound to oxygen, are water-soluble, absorbable, and potentially bioavailable to humans presumably with biological activity. However, the specific biochemical or physiological functions of silicon, if any, are largely unknown although generally thought to exist. As a result, there is growing interest in the potential therapeutic effects of water-soluble silica on human health. For example, silicon has been suggested to exhibit roles in the structural integrity of nails, hair, and skin, overall collagen synthesis, bone mineralization, and bone health and reduced metal accumulation in Alzheimer's disease, immune system health, and reduction of the risk for atherosclerosis. Although emerging research is promising, much additional, corroborative research is needed particularly regarding speciation of health-promoting forms of silicon and its relative bioavailability. Orthosilicic acid is the major form of bioavailable silicon whereas thin fibrous crystalline asbestos is a health hazard promoting asbestosis and significant impairment of lung function and increased cancer risk. It has been proposed that relatively insoluble forms of silica can also release small but meaningful quantities of silicon into biological compartments. For example, colloidal silicic acid, silica gel, and zeolites, although relatively insoluble in water, can increase concentrations of water-soluble silica and are thought to rely on specific structural physicochemical characteristics. Collectively, the food supply contributes enough silicon in the forms aforementioned that could be absorbed and significantly improve overall human health despite the negative perception of silica as a health hazard. This review discusses the possible biological potential of the metalloid silicon as bioavailable orthosilicic acid and the potential beneficial effects on human health.
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Pigmentation disorders include a large number of heterogeneous conditions that are usually characterized by altered melanocyte density, melanin concentration, or both, and result in altered pigmentation of the skin. Some of these disorders are extremely common (melasma, vitiligo), whereas others are rare. In this contribution, we review the most common pigmentation disorders that appear on the face. These lesions, even though mostly asymptomatic, have a great impact on a patient's quality of life.