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Seismic Fragility Assessment of Reinforced Concrete High-rise Buildings

using the Uncoupled Modal Response History Analysis (UMRHA)

Muhammad Zain

National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan, zainaltaf@hotmail.com

Naveed Anwar

Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Thailand, nanwar@ait.asia

Fawad A. Najam

Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Thailand, fawad.ahmed.najam@ait.ac.th

Tahir Mehmood

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Wah Cantt, Pakistan, tahirmeh@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:

In this study, a simplified approach for the analytical development of fragility curves of high-rise RC buildings is

presented. It is based on an approximate modal decomposition procedure known as the Uncoupled Modal

Response History Analysis (UMRHA). Using an example of a 55-story case study building, the fragility

relationships are developed using the presented approach. Fifteen earthquake ground motions (categorized into 3

groups corresponding to combinations of small or large magnitude and source-to-site distances) are considered for

this example. These ground motion histories are scaled for 3 intensity measures (peak ground acceleration, spectral

acceleration at 0.2 sec and spectral acceleration at 1 sec) varying from 0.25g to 2g. The presented approach resulted

in a significant reduction of computational time compared to the detailed Nonlinear Response History Analysis

(NLRHA) procedure, and can be applied to assess the seismic vulnerability of complex-natured, higher mode-

dominating tall reinforced concrete buildings.

Keywords: Seismic Risk Assessment, UMRHA, NLRHA, Fragility Relationships, High-rise RC Buildings

1. INTRODUCTION

Due to social and business needs, most of the population migrates towards the urban areas resulting in

an increased risk associated with structural collapse/failures. The need and complexities of high-rise

buildings are also rapidly increasing in densely populated urban areas. New approaches are emerging to

tackle the risks associated with design and construction of structures, such as Consequence-Based

Engineering (CBE). CBE is gaining popularity in structural engineering community which enables the

engineers to explicitly account for the uncertainty and risk aspects in their practice by employing the

probabilistic safety assessments. The ability of CBE to cover more than case-by-case scenarios to

mitigate future losses is one of the major attractions offered by this approach. Vulnerability (usually

described in terms of fragility relationships) demonstrates the probability that at certain level of intensity

of ground motion damage will occur. Therefore, fragility assessment is one of the integrated portions of

CBE and it represents the vulnerability information in the form conditional probability of exceedance

of particular damage states for particular given seismic intensity, as shown in equation 1. Fragility

relationships can be employed to perform both pre-earthquake planning, as well as for the post-

earthquake loss estimation.

(1)

The fragility relationships (also known as hazard-vulnerability relationships) also serve as one of the

best available means to select the most suitable and appropriate retrofitting strategies for structural

systems. Different approaches are employed by various researchers to derive these relationships which

can be classified into four major categories: (1) Empirical Fragility relationships: these are generated by

employing the statistical analysis of the data obtained from previous earthquakes. (2) Judgmental

Fragility Curves: such curves are primarily based upon the experts’ opinions. (3) Analytical Fragility

Curves: these curves can provide the most reliable results if sufficient data from past earthquakes is

available. However, there is still a margin of uncertainty involved due to limitations and uncertainties

in modelling the nonlinear response of RC structures. Since these curves are developed by simulating

the expected nonlinear behaviour of the structure itself, they demand a huge computational effort and

resources. (4) Hybrid Fragility Curves: these curves are made through the combination of the other two

or three types of fragility curves. The process of fragility derivation consists of thorough evaluation of

the uncertainties which are classified into two major categories, aleatory and epistemic. The former one

indicates the uncertainties associated intrinsically with the system i.e. the uncertainties involved in the

ground motions, while the later one characterizes the uncertainties that are mostly due to the deficiency

and lack of knowledge and data about the structural properties and behaviour (Gruenwald, 2008).

Various researches have proposed simplified methodologies for developing the analytical fragility

relationships, but most of the studies have focused on low-rise and mid-rise structures. Relatively less

work has been carried out to develop fragility curves for high-rise structures. Jun Ji et al. (2007)

presented a new methodology for developing the fragility curves for high-rise buildings by making a

calibrated and efficient 2D model of the original structure using genetic algorithms, considering the

PGA, Sa at 0.2 sec, and Sa at 1.0 sec as the seismic intensity indicators. High-rise buildings are very

complex structural systems, composed of many structural and non-structural components. The seismic

response of high-rise structures remains convoluted as the many vibration modes other than the

fundamental mode participate significantly in their seismic response. Among various numerical analysis

procedures for evaluating seismic performance of high-rise buildings, the Nonlinear Response History

Analysis (NLRHA) procedure has been widely considered and accepted as the most reliable and accurate

one. However, the procedure is computationally very expensive, and it does not provide much physical

insight into the complex inelastic responses of the structure. Nonlinear Static procedures (NSP) on the

other hand, accounts only for the response contribution of fundamental vibration mode and are not

considered suitable for evaluating higher-mode dominating structures. In this study, a simplified

procedure called the “Uncoupled Modal Response History Analysis (UMRHA)” (Chopra, 2007)

procedure is used as tool to develop the fragility curves for high-rise buildings. In UMRHA, the

nonlinear response contribution of individual vibration modes are computed and combined into the total

response as explained in next section.

2. BASIC CONCEPT OF THE UNCOUPLED MODAL RESPONSE HISTORY ANALYSIS

(UMRHA) PROCEDURE

The UMRHA procedure (Chopra, 2007) can be viewed as an extended version of the classical modal

analysis procedure in which the overall complex dynamic response of a linear Multi-Degree-of-Freedom

(MDOF) structure is considered as a sum of contributions from only few independent vibration modes.

The response behavior of each mode is essentially similar to that of a Single-Degree-of-Freedom

(SDOF) system governed by a few modal properties. Strictly speaking, this classical modal analysis

procedure is applicable to only linear elastic structures. When the responses exceed the elastic limits,

the governing equations of motion become nonlinear and consequently, the theoretical basis for modal

analysis becomes invalid. Despite this, the UMRHA procedure assumes that even for inelastic

responses, the complex dynamic response can be approximately expressed as a sum of individual modal

contributions (assuming them uncoupled). The number of modes included in the analysis are selected

based on cumulative modal mass participation ratio of more than 90%. The governing equation of

motion of SDOF subjected to a horizontal ground motion can be written as:

(2)

Where and

; and are the natural vibration frequency and the damping

ratio of the ith mode, respectively. Equation (2) is a standard governing equation of motion for inelastic

SDOF systems. To compute the response time history of from this equation, one needs to know

the nonlinear function . A reversed cyclic pushover analysis is performed for each important

mode to identify this nonlinear function . The cyclic pushover analysis for the ith mode can

be carried out by applying a force vector with the ith modal inertia force pattern

(where

is the mass matrix of the building and is the ith natural vibration mode of the building in its linear

range. The relationship between roof displacement, obtained from the cyclic pushover (denoted by

)

and is approximately given by

(3)

where

is the value of at the roof level. The relationship between the base shear and

under this modal inertia force distribution pattern is given by

(4)

By this way, the results from the cyclic pushover analysis are first presented in the form of cyclic base

shear ()—roof displacement (

) relationship, and then transformed into the required

relationship. At this stage, a suitable nonlinear hysteretic model can be selected, and its parameters can

be tuned to match with this relationship. The response time history of as well as

can then be calculated from the nonlinear governing equation (2). The response of each mode belongs

to the ith vibration mode and can be generally represented by . By summing the contributions from

all significant modes, the total response history is obtained as follows.

(5)

where is the number of significant vibration modes.

3. METHODOLOGY AND STRUCTURAL MODELING

A UMRHA-based methodology is intended to include higher mode effects in the process of developing

the fragility relationships. Computational effort is always considered as one of the major concerns in

seismic fragility analysis. The current methodology focuses towards the reduction of the computational

effort by proposing a theoretically close, yet simpler method (UMRHA) to replace full nonlinear

response history analysis (NLRHA). A 55 story core-wall high-rise building, located in a seismically

active area (Manila, Philippines) is selected for application of presented methodology. Full 3D nonlinear

finite element model (shown in figure 1) was created in PERFORM 3D (CSI, 2000) employing the

concepts of capacity-based design (all the primary structural members are not allowed to undergo shear

failure). The whole core wall and link beams are modeled as nonlinear, while the other components are

kept linear. Complete hysteretic behaviors (F-D Relationships) were assigned to all nonlinear structural

components as well as materials to explicitly account for stiffness degradation and hysteretic damping.

Table 1 and Figure 1 show the major characteristics of the selected building in terms of geometry and

material properties of key structural elements, respectively.

Table 1: Material properties of key structural elements

Member

Nominal Concrete

Strength, psi (MPa)

Columns and Shear Walls

Lower Basement to 11th Level

10000 (69)

12th Level to 21st Level

8500 (59)

21st Level to Roof Deck Level

7000 (48)

Beams, Girders, and Slabs

Foundation to 40th Level

6000 (41)

40th Level to Roof Deck Level

5000 (34)

Figure 1. The 3D analytical model of a 55-

story case study building (CSI, 2000)

Figure 3 shows the proposed methodology in the form of a flow chart. The procedure requires to perform

both monotonic and reversed cyclic pushover analyses to identify strong/weak direction and damage

states of building, and to develop complete hysteretic behaviors for equivalent single-degree-of-freedom

(SDOF) systems, respectively. For case study building, the procedure is validated by comparing

Podium Plan Area = 92m x 54m

Tower Plan Area = 40m x 39m

Total Height = 163m

Number of Stories = 55

Typical Story Height = 2.9m

First Story Height = 4.7m

displacement histories obtained from UMRHA and NLRHA (presented in section 6). Selected ground

motions are applied to full analytical model as well as to all equivalent SDOF systems. The SDOF

displacement histories (obtained in terms of spectral displacement) are converted back to actual

displacements and are added linearly to obtain a complete displacement history.

For the case study structure, equivalent SDOF systems are created for the first four modes (shown in

figure 3) providing the modal mass participation ratio of more than 90%. A computer program

RUAUMOKO 2D (Carr, 2004), developed at University of Canterbury, is used for the solving SDOF

systems. It provides a convenient interface and allows user to assign and control a reasonably large

number of hysteretic behaviors to various nonlinear components.

Figure 2. First 4 mode shapes of the considered building in weaker direction

Figure 3. Proposed methodology for analytical fragility assessment of high-rise buildings.

4. UNCERTAINTY TREATMENT

Probabilistic nature of seismic fragilities is greatly influenced by the uncertainties (aleatory or epistemic)

and assumptions involved in the process. Wen et al. (2003) describes the aleatory uncertainty as the one

Mode 1, T = 4.67 sec Mode 2, T = 1.12 sec Mode 3, T = 0.51 sec Mode 4, T = 0.30 sec

Reference structure selection

Static pushover analysis for 1st

modes in both directions

Static pushover analysis for higher

modes in selected direction

Reverse cyclic pushover analysis

for determining base shear vs. roof

drift relationship

Definition of limit states Selection of damage measure

Uncertainty modeling

Construct equivalent SDOF

systems for all considered modes

F–D relationship for equivalent SDOF system

Perform NLRHA for all

combinations of SDOF systems

Perform nonlinear response history analysis

(NLRHA) for structure using a suit of ground

motions and compare results with combined

response obtained from the UMRHA procedure

Validation of procedure, if desired

Intensity measure definition and

scaling

Post-processing of response data

Development of fragility curves

Calculation of direct sampling probabilities

Check for material uncertainty

Ground motion selection and scaling

Check weaker direction of structure

Combine modal results to

determine overall response

Uncoupled modal response history

analysis (UMRHA) framework

which can be explicitly recognized by a stochastic model, whereas those which exist in the model itself

and its parameters, are epistemic. In this case, aleatory uncertainties represent the uncertainty associated

with the ground motions (existing intrinsically in the earthquakes), while epistemic uncertainties

represent the existence of ambiguity in the structural capacity itself (mainly due to the lack of knowledge

and possible variation in construction process). The current study focuses towards the consideration of

both types of uncertainties involved in the seismic fragility assessment by considering 15 ground

motions and varying the materials’ strengths.

4.1 Material Uncertainty

The intrinsic variability of material strengths is also one of the major sources of uncertainty involved in

the seismic fragility assessment. In this study, the compressive and tensile strengths of concrete, as well

as, the yield strength of steel are considered as random variables. The studies by Ghobarah et al. (1998)

and Elnashai et al. (2004) employed statistical distributions to define the uncertainty involved in the

yield strength of steel. There seem to be a consent in terms of employing normal and log-normal

distributions to elaborate the variability in the yield strength of steel with coefficient of variation (COV)

ranging from 4% to 12%. Bournonville et al. (2004) evaluated the variability of properties of reinforcing

bars, produced by more than 34 mills in U.S. and Canada. The current study employs the research

outcome from Bournonville et al. (2004). The mean and COV for the yield point are 480 MPa and 7%

respectively, while the mean value and COV for the ultimate strengths are 728 MPa and 6% respectively.

The intrinsic randomness concrete strength can be captured using experimental data. Hueste et al. (2004)

studied the variable nature of concrete strength, including the experimental results from the testing of

higher strength concretes. The current study utilizes the results reported by Hueste et al. (2004).

4.2 Selection of ground motions accelerograms

Bazzuro and Cornell (1994) suggested that seven ground motions are sufficient for covering the aspect

of uncertainty from the earthquakes while the recent Tall Building Initiatives (TBI) Guidelines (2010)

also recommends the same number of ground motions. Some researchers also have demonstrated the

use of simulated ground motion histories e.g. Andrew et al. (2004) used simulated histories for fragility

derivation using single specific criteria (compatibility of ground motions with the site-specific response

spectrum). Shinozuka (2000b) also used the simulated ground motions by Hwang and Huo (1996) for

developing the analytical fragility curves for bridges. Jun Ji et al. (2009) presented new criteria for

ground motion selection based on earthquake magnitude, soil conditions and source-to-site distance.

Table 2. Selected ground motion records

Category

Earthquake

Magnitude

Distance to Rupture

Soil at Site

1

Chi-Chi, Taiwan

7.6

7.30

Stiff

Imperial Valley

6.5

2.50

Soft

Kobe, Japan

6.9

1.20

Soft

Loma Prieta, USA

6.9

5.10

Stiff

Northridge

6.7

17.5

Stiff

2

Aftershock of Friuli EQ, Italy

5.7

10.0

Soft

Alkion, Greece

6.1

25.0

Soft

Anza (Horse Cany)

4.9

20.0

Soft

Caolinga

5.0

12.6

Stiff

Dinar, Turkey

6.0

1.02

Soft

3

Chi-Chi, Taiwan

7.6

39.3

Soft

Kobe, Japan

6.9

89.3

Stiff

Kocaeli, Turkey

7.4

76.1

Stiff

Kocaeli, Turkey

7.4

78.9

Soft

Northridge

6.7

64.6

Soft

In this study, 15 ground motion records (organized in to 3 categories) are selected following the same

criteria as proposed by Jun Ji et al. (2009) i.e earthquake magnitude, site soil conditions and source-to-

site distance. The larger magnitude earthquake histories usually contain several peaks compared to

moderate and small earthquakes mostly causing the structure to undergo a significant extent of

nonlinearity. The source-to-site distance influences the filtration of frequency fractions during the

process of wave propagation, while soil conditions are mainly held responsible for the amplification or

dissipation of seismic waves. Based on these considerations, the selected ground motions are divided

among 3 categories each corresponding to an adequate variation in the magnitude, distance to source,

and soil conditions i.e Near-source and Large-magnitude, Near-source and Moderate-magnitude, and

Distant-source and Large-magnitude. The selected ground motions and their properties, with reference

to their categories, are enlisted in the table 2.

5. DEFINITION OF LIMIT STATES AND SEISMIC INTENSITY INDICATORS

The definition of limit states of the structure is a fundamental component in seismic fragility assessment.

For high-rise buildings, there is no universally acceptable and consistently applicable criterion to

develop a relationship between damage and various demand quantities. Several researchers have

proposed different performance limit states of buildings, usually classified in two major categories

(qualitative and quantitative). In qualitative terms, HAZUS (1999) provides four limit states of building

structures (Slight, Moderate, Major, and Collapse). Smyth et al. (2004) and Kircher et al. (1997) also

used four damage states; slight, moderate, extensive, and collapse. Whereas, the quantitative approach

describes the damage states in terms of mathematical representations of damage, depending upon some

designated and specific structural responses. Different researchers have employed different damage

indicators for representing damage at local and global levels. Shinozuka et al. (2000a) used ductility

demands as damage indicators for prescribed damage states. Guneyisi and Gulay (2008) used inter-story

drift (ISD) ratio to develop the fragility curves. Although many others have used damage indicators

related to energy and forces, but ISD is the most frequently used parameter and can correlate adequately

with both the non-structural and structural damage. This study also employs ISD ratios as the seismic

response (damage) indicator and defines the two limit states of case study building based on study

conducted by Jun Ji et al. (2009). The first one is “Damage Control”, and the second is “Collapse

Prevention”. Qualitative definitions of the considered limit states are provided in table 3.

Table 3. Definitions of considered limit states

Level

Limit State

Definition

Limit State 1

(LS 1)

Damage Control

The very first yield of longitudinal steel reinforcement, or the

formation of first plastic hinge.

Limit State 2

(LS 2)

Collapse

Prevention

Ultimate strength/capacity of main load resisting system.

A nonlinear static pushover analysis for first 4 modes in weaker direction was conducted for full 3D

nonlinear model. The definitions of the prescribed limit states are then applied to the results of the

pushover analysis to obtain the quantitative definitions of limit states in terms of ISD ratios. It should

be noted that limit states of case study building are defined for each mode separately to include the

higher modes effects on the selected damage criteria. Another essential step in the fragility analysis is a

proper selection of an intensity measure to relate structural performance. An adequate intensity measure

would correlate well between the structural response and the associated vulnerability (Wen et al., 2004).

In earlier studies, peak ground acceleration (PGA) was one of the frequently used seismic intensity

indicator. Other widely used measures involve Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI), Arias Intensity (AI),

and Root Mean Square (RMS) Acceleration (Singhal and Kiremidjian, 1997). Some studies include

spectral acceleration (Sa) as intensity measure at fundamental period of structure (Kinali and

Ellingwood, 2007), Sa at 0.2 sec and Sa at 1.0 sec. In this study, PGA, Sa at 0.2 sec and Sa at 1.0 sec

are considered as seismic intensity measures considering the idea that PGA alone may not serve as an

accurate intensity indicator to correlate theoretically computed structural damage with observed

performance (Sewell, 1989).

6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This section presents the results obtained from UMRHA and NLRHA with the view to develop fragility

curves for the case study tall building. However, first the effect of uncertainties in material strengths

will be presented to check the sensitivity of results.

6.1 Effect of Material Strength Uncertainties

It is preferable to concentrate on dominant factors that can play an influential role in the probabilistic

variation of the response; therefore, the results’ sensitivity prior to performing the complete UMRHA is

checked, and only that type of uncertainty is considered that can cause a significant variation in the

building response. The sensitivity of the results in response of the variation in material strengths requires

complete analytical simulations. Ibarra and Krawinkler (2005) described that the uncertainty in ductility

capacity and post-capping stiffness generate the principal additional contributions to the dispersion of

capacity, especially near the collapse. The former one is more important when P- effects are large. The

study further suggested that the record-to-record variability is also the major contributor to total

uncertainty.

Figure 4. Sensitivity of roof drift (%) to variation in material properties when the model was subjected to a

ground motion history

In the case of high-rise structures, it may not be suitable to conduct Monte Carlo simulation as it requires

a large number of analyses for reasonably accurate results, and a run time of each analysis is around 40

hours for 3D structural model. In this study, 5 pairs of material strengths (concrete and steel) are selected

and the results are presented here based on “worst-case-scenario”. Figures 4 and 5 show the sensitivity

of the results in response to the variation of material properties, when 3D analytical model was subjected

to the application of a ground motion history and the first modal pushover analysis respectively. The

steel strength is mean (µ) + 1 standard deviation (), while the concrete strength is mean (µ) - 1 standard

deviation (). This pair of strength is selected considering that high steel strength attracts more

earthquake forces, and the reduction in concrete quality decreases the shear capacity. The results show

that even with this much variation in material strengths, the response of building does not vary

significantly. Thus, the material uncertainty can be treated as an epistemic uncertainty.

Figure 5. Sensitivity of first modal monotonic

pushover curve from variation in material properties

Figure 6. Envelope of reversed cyclic pushover curve

for the first mode of the case study building

6.2 Fragility Derivation

For case study tall building, dynamic response histories were determined using both NLRHA and

UMRHA procedures to validate the methodology. Before UMRHA, a reversed cyclic pushover analysis

for all 4 modes was conducted to obtain global hysteretic behavior which was converted later to an

idealized force-deformation model to construct equivalent SDOF systems. As an example, figure 6

shows the envelope of cyclic pushover curve for the first mode in weaker direction. Table 4 shows some

-2

-1

0

1

2

0 5 10 15 20 25

Roof Drift (%)

History of Actual Structure - "μ" Values

History of Actual Structure, Steel Strength = μ + 1ϭ, Conc. Strength = μ -1ϭ

Time (sec)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

Mode 1, Steel Strength = μ + 1ϭ, Conc. Strength = μ - 1ϭ

Mode 1 - "μ" Material Values

Roof Drift (%)

Base Shear (x103KN)

-80,000

-60,000

-40,000

-20,000

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

-2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

Base Shear (KN)

Roof Drift (%)Roof Drift (%)

of the important properties of equivalent SDOF systems determined from idealized force-deformation

model. Selected ground motions were then applied to each of the SDOF system (representing each

mode) and the individual response was linearly added to obtain overall displacement histories. Figure 7

shows the comparison of roof drift (%) history obtained from NLRHA of 3D analytical model and from

UMRHA. It can be seen that UMRHA response is reasonably matching with NLRHA. After getting a

reasonable degree of confidence on UMRHA validation, each ground motion history is scaled to eight

intensity levels (PGA, Sa at 0.2 sec and Sa at 1.0 sec) ranging 0.25g to 2.0g, with the increment of 0.25g.

In UMRHA, for each of equivalent SDOF system, 120 dynamic analyses are conducted making total

number of analyses as 480 for each seismic intensity measure. A total of 1440 analyses are conducted

to consider first 4 modes.

Table 4. Important characteristics of SDOF systems

Properties

Mode 1

Mode 2

Mode 3

Mode 4

1.50286

0.811329

0.604722

0.731589

(mm)

490

395

310

200

(mm/sec2)

722.495

9073.197

49174.89

72711.33

Figure 7. Comparison between roof drift history of 3D analytical model from NLRHA and UMRHA

Once the results are obtained, the quantitative definitions of limit states are applied to assess the levels

of structure's performance subjected to ground motions with a particular intensity. When a computed

value approaches or surpasses the distinctly defined limit states (in any of the considered vibration

mode), that particular event is counted in the sample to compute the probabilities. This process of

probability calculation is performed for each limit state at each specific level of intensity (determined

by dividing the number of ground motions causing that specific limit state by the total number of

considered ground motions). Figure 8 shows the peak roof drift values for all three ground motion

categories against all considered levels of PGA. The random nature of peak dynamic response can be

seen for all 15 ground motions highlighting the importance of considering aleatory uncertainties in

seismic fragility analysis. Similar relationships were developed for other two intensity measures (Sa at

0.2 sec and Sa at 1.0 sec) and converted later to generalized fragility curves (as shown in figure 9). A

lognormal distribution is assumed to develop generalized fragility curves governed by equation 6 below.

(6)

Where describes the probability of exceedance of a specific limit state of the building at a

particular intensity measure with an explicit intensity, whereas represents the standard normal

cumulative distribution function, and and are the controlling parameters, which represent the

slope of the curve and its median, respectively. Nonlinear curve-fitting techniques are utilized to make

an optimized estimation of the controlling parameters for each of the fragility curves. Figure 9 shows

the developed lognormal fragility relationships of the considered building at the intensity measures of

PGA, Sa at 0.2 sec, and Sa at 1.0 sec along with the direct sampling probabilities. The values of

controlling parameters are enlisted in table 5.

Table 5. Lognormal distribution parameters for fragility relationships

Limit State

PGA

Sa at 0.2 sec.

Sa at 1.0 sec.

LS 1

-0.3991

0.6390

0.3490

0.7990

-0.1624

0.6310

LS 2

0.6420

0.5799

1.3754

0.8015

0.9385

0.8450

-2

-1

0

1

2

0 5 10 15 20 25

Roof Drift (%)

History of Actual Structure History Obained from UMRHA

Time (sec)

Figure 8. Peak (and mean) roof drift values for all 3

ground motion categories

Figure 9. Developed fragility curves for the case

study building for defined intensity measures*.

*Solid lines represent the developed lognormal functions, and the dots show the directly calculated sampling probabilities.

7. CONCLUSIONS

In this study, a simplified approach based on the UMRHA procedure is proposed for the development

of analytical fragility curves of high-rise RC buildings. The methodology is executed on a 55 story case

study building to demonstrate the process. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study:

a) The damage limit states are generally defined only on the basis of first-mode pushover analysis

which are not able to account for the chances of secondary nonlinearity (e.g. secondary plastic hinge

developments) for the high-rise structures having significant response contribution from higher

vibration modes. The presented approach offers an advantage of defining the limit states, including

high-modes of vibrations and is expected to be more reliable compared to simplified methodologies

based on the damage limit states definitions for only first vibration mode.

b) Uncertainties arising from both seismic demand and structural capacity are evaluated and it is

concluded that the random nature of ground motion should be given due consideration while

developing generalized fragility functions.

c) Computational effort and cost is always an ever-growing challenge for analytical assessment of

seismic risk to existing and new buildings. The NLRHA procedure for one high-rise building

subjected to one ground motion record takes around 30 hours of computation time of a 3.4 GHz

processor and 4.0 GB RAM desktop computer. The processing of computed dynamic responses into

the required format takes another 4 to 5 hours. For the UMRHA procedure, it takes around one hour

0

0.25

0.5

0.75

1

1.25

1.5

00.25 0.5 0.75 11.25 1.5 1.75 2

Series1

Series2

Series3

Series4

Series5

mean

0

0.25

0.5

0.75

1

1.25

00.25 0.5 0.75 11.25 1.5 1.75 2

Series1

Series2

Series3

Series4

Series5

Series6

0

1.5

3

4.5

6

7.5

9

00.25 0.5 0.75 11.25 1.5 1.75 2

Series1

Series2

Series3

Series4

Series5

Series6

Chi

-Chi, Taiwan

Imperial

Valley, USA

Kobe,

Japan

Loma

Prieta, USA

Northridge,

USA

Mean

PGA (g)

Peak Roof Drift (%)

Aftershock

of Friuli EQ, Italy

Alkion,

Greece

Anza

(Horse Cany), USA

Caolinga

, USA

Dinar,

Turkey

Mean

Chi

-Chi, Taiwan

Kobe,

Japan

Kocaeli,

Turkey

Kocaeli,

Turkey

Northridge,

USA

Mean

PGA (g)

PGA (g)

Peak Roof Drift (%)

Peak Roof Drift (%)

Ground Motions Category 1

Ground Motions Category 2

Ground Motions Category 3

0

0.25

0.5

0.75

1

00.25 0.5 0.75 11.25 1.5 1.75 2

LS 1 - LogNorm

LS 2 - LogNorm

LS1 1 - Direct

LS 2 - Direct

0

0.25

0.5

0.75

1

00.25 0.5 0.75 11.25 1.5 1.75 2

LS 1 - LogNorm

LS 2 - LogNorm

LS 1 - Direct

LS 2 - Direct

0

0.25

0.5

0.75

1

00.25 0.5 0.75 11.25 1.5 1.75 2

LS 1 - LogNorm

LS 2 - LogNorm

LS 1 - Direct

LS 2 - Direct

PGA (g)

Sa at 0.2 sec (g)

Fragility

Fragility

Fragility

LS 1 - Direct

Sa at 1.0 sec (g)

to complete cyclic pushover analyses for three vibration modes, 10 minutes for the analysis of three

equivalent nonlinear SDOF systems, and 20 minutes for transforming and processing computed

responses into the final format. This low computational effort for the UMRHA (compared to the

NLRHA) may allow us to explore the nonlinear responses of tall buildings to a reasonably high

number of ground motions in a convenient and practical manner.

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