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Abstract

In this paper, I argue that we can better understand the relationship between social structure and materiality by combining qualitative analysis of practices in shared physical space with statistical analysis. Drawing on the two-mode approach, I treat social and material structures together with the relationship between them as a two-level socio-material network. In a mixed method study, formalized ethnographic data on such networks in five European artistic collectives are subjected to multilevel exponential random graph modelling. It sheds light on how different kinds of interpersonal ties condition the engagement of individuals with similar materiality over time.

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... Scientific collaboration is defined as "the working together of researchers to achieve the common goal of producing new scientific knowledge" (Katz and Martin, 1997). We will adopt Basov's model (Basov, 2018) of socio-material network analysis to focus on how researchers from different disciplines and institutions use analog and digital tools to collaborate between them. We identify the relations between analog and digital tools and its affordance, just like interpersonal links constitute the texture of the social. ...
... We identify the relations between analog and digital tools and its affordance, just like interpersonal links constitute the texture of the social. Basov (2018) argues that network analysis usually observes specific structures of social links. In his study, he presents a model to capture the engagement between individuals from different collectives and materiality. ...
... This three-mode network of objects' usage connects participants to analog and digital items, capturing the connection between these three orders characterized by two one-mode networks: social ties and links between analog and digital objects. Then, we can examine "socio-material networks" (see Figure 1) that contain the three types of relations: (1) social links, (2) relations between items as they are shared and collocated in the analog and digital space, and (3) relations between actors and items they use in their practices (Basov, 2018) and affordances. Such an extension permits a representation of network designs presenting how socially linked actors use analog and digital items and, in this way, together involve with material structure. ...
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In this paper, we argue that we can better understand the relationship between social interaction and materiality by linking qualitative analysis of analog and digital practices, adopting Basov's model of socio-material networks. Our research questions turn about the interrogation of how social links distress the usage of analog and digital objects by researchers. We consider scientific networks with the relationship between researchers and their tools as a three-level social material network. It sheds light on how different types of researchers position their engagement with analog and digital materiality over time and its affordance and emotional attachment. This study contributes to the understanding of researchers' practices that involve new and old techniques and specific and not-specific tools.
... Like symbolic culture, material culture should be considered as a structure having an 'equal weight' to social structure, analytically distinguished from social ties. This argument is at the basis of the twolayer socio-material extension (Basov, 2018) of the two-mode socio-material framework (Mohr and White, 2008). Here, we apply dual thinking not only to relations between material culture and social structure, but also between material and symbolic culture. ...
... Even more importantly, a full-scale Verstehende network analysis cannot conclude with manual interpretation of structural data, as it also implies an explanatory search for regularities across the mapped socio-cultural patterns. Since this paper focuses on data collection, we refer interested reader to some of the works where our data on artistic collectives are analyzed seeking insights into the fundamental principles of socio-cultural microdynamics, such as the effects of culture on social ties and vice versa (Basov, 2018(Basov, , 2020. The 2018 work applies statistical network modeling to socio-material networks, while ethnographic materials enable sensible interpretation of the findings. ...
... Analysis of the mechanism of cultural homophily shows that common symbolic culture (joint affiliations with symbolic sign-to-sign associations) stimulates collaboration ties between individuals, even if they occupy dissimilar social positions (Basov, 2020). Collaboration ties, in turn, stimulate joint usage of the same physical objects (especially if individuals' career trajectories are similar), but discourage getting embedded into common material contexts, as individuals divide work tasks and prefer to distinguish from their collaborators (Basov, 2018). Meanwhile, friendship ties between individuals in similar social positions are positively affected by similarities in the signs they use (Basov, 2020). ...
Article
What social ties are and how they operate depends on the cultural context constitutive of their meaning. Pursuing an explanatory account for the cultural embeddedness of social ties, we draw on Verstehende sociology and rely on in-depth insight into subjective perceptions developed by social network actors throughout their practice to represent symbolic and material contexts of social ties structurally. We put forward a new mixed data collection and processing approach that ethnographically maps interconnected three-layer socio-cultural networks of individuals, signs, and material objects. Opening cultural contexts to application of formal and statistical techniques, this approach allows for an 'interpretive explanation' of social ties. Illustrating the approach with our own longitudinal study of five European art groups, we discuss the peculiarities of three-layer socio-cultural data collection and processing, the new discoveries enabled, the challenges encountered, the solutions we came up with, and the utility of this approach for conducting 'Verstehende network analysis' in various fields of application.
... In order to account not only for the field-imposed culture, but also for the local culture emerging from practice (see Bourdieu, 1990;Mohr and Neely, 2009: 220;Basov et al., 2018), this paper aligns with the rapidly expanding mixed method movement in network analysis (Fuhse and Mützel, 2011;Bellotti, 2014;Domínguez and Hollstein, 2014;Bellotti, 2016;Ibrahim and Crossley, 2016;Basov, 2018). It does so in at least two ways. ...
... Simultaneously, like any ERGMs but networks. This is done by 'fixing' semantic and concept usage networks in the model estimations (see also Basov, 2018). This function is featured by MPNet to "treat one or more of the three networks involved in the two-level network as fixed and exogenous" (Wang et al., 2014: 20). ...
... 4 Compare, for instance, with Block (2015), who finds the tendency against three-cycles to be spurious if one controls for reciprocity in friendship networks. Similarly, previous results of socio-material MERGMs on art collectives, confirm this for friendships and, in addition, show the same for collaborations (Basov, 2018). In the current models, however, while it still holds the same in the 'social' models, when I include the effect of culture in the 'full' and even in the 'socio-cultural' models, it appears that triangles remain significant only in the collaboration networks but not in the friendship networks. ...
Preprint
This paper utilizes a mixture of qualitative, formal, and statistical socio-semantic network analyses to examine how cultural homophily works when field logic meets practice. On the one hand, because individuals in similar field positions are also imposed with similar cultural orientations, cultural homophily reproduces objective field structure in intersubjective social network ties. On the other hand, fields are operative in practice and to accomplish pragmatic goals individuals who occupy different field positions often join in groups, creatively reinterpret the field-imposed cultural orientations, and produce cultural similarities alternative to the position-specific ones. Drawing on these emergent similarities, the cultural homophily mechanism might stimulate social network ties between members who occupy not the same but different field positions, thus contesting fields. I examine this ambivalent role of cultural homophily in two creative collectives, each embracing members positioned closer to the opposite poles of the field of cultural production. I find different types of cultural similarities to affect different types of social network ties within and between the field positions: Similarity of vocabularies stimulates friendship and collaboration ties within positions, thus reproducing the field, while affiliation with the same cultural structures stimulates collaboration ties between positions, thus contesting the field. The latter effect is visible under statistical analysis of ethnographic data, but easy to oversee in qualitative analysis of texts because informants tend to flag conformity to their positions in their explicit statements. This highlights the importance of mixed socio-semantic network analysis, both sensitive to the local context and capable of unveiling the mechanisms underlying the interplay between the cultural and the social.
... In particular, video-based research may assist in responding to the call for a more comprehensive approach to research design in the study of social networkone that combines qualitative and quantitative methods in new and innovative ways (Edwards, 2010;Basov, 2018). Video data offer a distinctive approach to collecting rich real-time data that might subsequently support quantitative social network analysis (Christianson, 2018;Nassauer and Legewie, 2018). ...
... Elements of relational materiality and multimodality are also central to our understanding of creative production processes in the arts. In the case described by Basov (2018), for example, different artists share physical spaces, material objects, and ideas. Groups of artists in these commune-like organizations "are usually informal and changeable in structure, flexible in the establishment and severing of social ties" (Basov, 2018: 182). ...
Article
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Some of the constitutive features of social relations fade from view when information naturally produced by sequential social interaction is translated into network ties. Building on core concepts and ideas developed within conversation analysis, in this paper we argue that this happens because the sequential, multimodal and embodied character of social relations can be fully understood only with reference to the sequential constrains that are generated by – and at the same time shape the micro-dynamics of social interaction. We suggest that the translation of social interaction into social networks precludes analysis of the multiple interfaces that sustain social relations (multimodality), and the material resources around which social relations are organized (embodiment). We highlight audio-visual recording as a data collection technology that facilitates storage, retrieval, and analysis of complex information on social relations that is typically absent from social network data. An illustrative video-supported case study based on the observation of social and task-related interaction among members of surgical teams provides the empirical context that supports and motivates our general reflection on network data collection strategies and technologies to study social interaction. The analysis highlights the need for social networks research to return to the study of social relations.
... First, we expand the social exchange perspective on materiality by looking at how objects can be analyzed in their own right through a network approach in absence of observable socio-material practices and ties among actors. This complements both the "duality" approach to materiality and the conventional focus on practices in the study of sociomateriality (Basov, 2018). We conceptualize networks of objects as traces of institutional logics in organizational settings (Gondal & McLean, 2013). ...
... In this study, we contributed to the socio-material networks perspective that looks at objects and social relations as mutually constituted (Basov, 2018;Schweizer, 1993) by suggesting that objects and their arrangements can be analyzed in their own right in the absence of directly observable social relations. We conceptualize objects, and their arrangements, as traces of social and institutional dynamics (Gondal & McLean, 2013) that are connected through the meanings attached to them by organizational stakeholders and the various institutional logics they represent. ...
Article
What can scholars learn from looking at how objects are interrelated in concrete social settings? We argue that even in the absence of directly observable materially-mediated relations between individuals, objects offer “traces” of institutional dynamics. More specifically, meaning-laden objects offer a window on the dynamics and intermingling of institutional logics. Accordingly, we explore a research setting where objects occupy an eminent position—élite art museums such as the MoMA in New York, Tate Modern in London, and the Pompidou in Paris. We first explain how the staging of permanent exhibitions offers an understanding of the institutional logics at play in this type of organizations. Then, using a social network analysis perspective, we show how the state, market, and aesthetic logics influence the selection of the artists who have produced the artworks under consideration and how they are staged.
... This is done by 'fixing' semantic and concept usage networks in the model estimations. This function is featured by MPNet to "treat one or more of the three networks involved in the two-level network as fixed and exogenous" (Wang et al., 2014: 20; see also Basov, 2018). I produce separate models for the two types of social ties: friendships and collaborations. ...
... (MI, interview) 4 Compare with Block (2015), who finds the tendency against three-cycles to be spurious if one controls for reciprocity in friendship networks. My previous results of socio-material MERG modeling of art collectives confirm Block's findings for friendships and, in addition, show the same for collaborations (Basov, 2018). In the current results, however, while it still holds the same in the Social models, when I include the effect of culture in the Full and even in the Socio-cultural models, it appears that triads remain significant only in the collaboration networks but not in the friendship networks. ...
Article
This paper utilizes a mixture of qualitative, formal, and statistical socio-semantic network analyses to examine how cultural homophily works when field logic meets practice. On the one hand, because individuals in similar field positions are also imposed with similar cultural orientations, cultural homophily reproduces 'objective' field structure in intersubjective social network ties. On the other hand, fields are operative in practice and to accomplish pragmatic goals individuals who occupy different field positions often join in groups, creatively reinterpret the field-imposed cultural orientations, and produce cultural similarities alternative to the position-specific ones. Drawing on these emergent similarities, the cultural homophily mechanism might stimulate social network ties between members who occupy not the same but different field positions, thus contesting fields. I examine this ambivalent role of cultural homophily in two creative collectives, each embracing members positioned closer to the opposite poles of the field of cultural production. I find different types of cultural similarities to affect different types of social network ties within and between the field positions: Similarity of vocabularies stimulates friendship and collaboration ties within positions, thus reproducing the field, while affiliation with the same cultural structures stimulates collaboration ties between positions, thus contesting the field. The latter effect is visible under statistical analysis of ethnographic data, but easy to oversee in qualitative analysis of texts because informants tend to flag conformity to their positions in their explicit statements. This highlights the importance of mixed socio-semantic network analysis, both sensitive to the local context and capable of unveiling the mechanisms underlying the interplay between the cultural and the social.
... The former provides a wealth of complex, multifaceted data and contextual understanding whilst the latter renders its patterns, interdependencies, and structures intelligible. The complementarity of ethnography and formal network analysis is supported by subsequent longitudinal studiesof symbolic interactionism using literary criticism records (de Nooy, 2009); migrants' personal networks as they adapt abroad (Lubbers et al., 2010); social influence and discourse similarity in student workgroups (Saint-Charles and Mongeau, 2018); and structure and materiality in artists' collectives (Basov, 2020(Basov, , 2018. ...
Article
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Data collection in social network research has advanced to include online questionnaires, digital metadata mining of internet sites, and the use of remote-sensing technologies. Some scholars however call for more attention to nuanced understandings of ties and contexts in studies of social structure and relationships, evoking practices that characterise the field’s foundational works. This article’s two studies reference these earlier efforts, drawing on ethnography and primary data collection. Both were undertaken in conflict-affected eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and broadly aimed to refine understandings of public authority and governance. Such research strives to inform humanitarian interventions to support social structures and actors which benefit their communities – however unexpected and unconventional. The first study (2016) employed a novel link-tracing design to examine personal support networks entwining purportedly hostile sub-populations, from combatants to unaffiliated civilians. The second (2018−20) focussed on access to essential social services across different governance arrangements, areas dominated by tenuous alliances of domestic or foreign militias and other actors. Leveraging an egocentric network design, it yielded multilevel relational network chain data. Each study was rife with obstacles related to accessing participants, sampling, reliability, and validity. We reflect on this network collection experience, foregrounding the interdependence between trust and data quality brought into stark relief by the setting’s instability and insecurity. This interdependency impacts all social network research, especially when it involves precarious contexts or sensitive topics.
... The translation of data from the original domain into the multilevel representation is not dependent on the specific content of the network data and we have suggested how the approach might be applied in other contexts. Examples include sociosemantic networks (Basov, 2020), socioecological networks (Bodin et al., 2016), and sociomaterial networks (Contractor et al., 2011;Basov, 2018), all of which are explicitly multilevel. Other examples include data collection paradigms that assume repeated observations on networks such as multiplex networks and cognitive social structures. ...
Preprint
We consider data with multiple observations or reports on a network in the case when these networks themselves are connected through some form of network ties. We could take the example of a cognitive social structure where there is another type of tie connecting the actors that provide the reports; or the study of interpersonal spillover effects from one cultural domain to another facilitated by the social ties. Another example is when the individual semantic structures are represented as semantic networks of a group of actors and connected through these actors' social ties to constitute knowledge of a social group. How to jointly represent the two types of networks is not trivial as the layers and not the nodes of the layers of the reported networks are coupled through a network on the reports. We propose to transform the different multiple networks using line graphs, where actors are affiliated with ties represented as nodes, and represent the totality of the different types of ties as a multilevel network. This affords studying the associations between the social network and the reports as well as the alignment of the reports to a criterion graph. We illustrate how the procedure can be applied to studying the social construction of knowledge in local flood management groups. Here we use multilevel exponential random graph models but the representation also lends itself to stochastic actor-oriented models, multilevel blockmodels, and any model capable of handling multilevel networks.
... To substantiate our theoretical argument and test our method, we analyze meaning structures and interpersonal relations in artistic collectives: groups of creatives engaging in collective production and representation of artworks (see also Basov and Brennecke 2017;Basov 2018Basov , 2019. Artistic collectives are a suitable case in point. ...
Article
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This paper proposes a mixed-method sociosemantic network analysis of meaning structures in practice. While social and institutional fields impose meaning structures , to achieve practical goals, field participants gather in groups and locally produce idiocultures of their own. Such idiocultures are difficult to capture structurally; hence, the impact of practice on meaning structures is underrated. To account for this impact, we automatically map local meaning structures-ensembles of semantic associations embedded in specific social groups-to identify the focal elements of these meaning structures, and qualitatively examine contextual usage of such elements. Employing a combination of ethnographic and social network data on two St. Petersburg art collectives, we find the seemingly field-imposed meaning structures to be instantiated differently, depending on group practice. Moreover, we find meaning structures to emerge from group practice and even change the field-wide meaning structures.
... To substantiate our theoretical argument and test our method, we analyze meaning structures and interpersonal relations in artistic collectives: groups of creatives engaging in collective production and representation of artworks (see also Basov and Brennecke 2017;Basov 2018Basov , 2019. Artistic collectives are a suitable case in point. ...
Preprint
This paper explores meaning structures in the social practice of small groups. While social and institutional fields impose meaning structures, they are put to practice (emerge) in the context of specific activities that take place within a field. Collaborating in small groups, field participants form such practical contexts. It enables playing on gaps and overlaps among imposed meaning structures and joint creation of emergent meaning structures that define them as a social group. Difficult to capture, emergent meaning structures are largely disregarded by institutional and field perspectives on meaning structures. As a consequence, the importance of collective practice to meaning structures is underrated.We investigate imposed and emergent meaning structures in artistic collectives. The field of contemporary art does not impose its meaning structure explicitly, so meaning structures that emerge in artistic practice are relatively free to vary across social groups. In particular, we study two St. Petersburg collectives of artists, who intensely interact with each other and engage in joint creative work and exhibitions. We show that these collectives elaborate their own meaning structures within the framework of field-specific meaning structures, blending meanings corresponding to the different fields and field positions occupied by members of the collective.The duality of semantic and social structure is central to the notion of meaning structures. We use word collocations in natural language as semantic structure and interaction ties as social structure in a mixed methods socio-semantic network analysis. In this approach, social networks help to understand semantic networks.
... The data set on organizational collaborations was kindly provided by R. Pinto, University of Algarve. 2. For a recent alternative technique to analyze such networks, also known as "multiplex," see Wang, 2013, andBasov andBrennecke, 2017. ...
Article
The literature suggests that the success of innovation clusters is based on personal networks that connect members of scientific, educational, and business organizations, stimulating more formalized cross-boundary collaborations between the three sectors. But it is still unclear if such organizational collaborations actually correspond with these personal ties and which aspects of personal communication are most strongly associated with organizational collaborations. To investigate these issues, the authors applied network analysis to study an innovation cluster in Algarve, Portugal. They found that cross-boundary organizational collaborations corresponded with personal ties. Moreover, they found that collaborations appeared to correlate most strongly with emotional attachments between individuals.
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Chapter
Exponential random graph models (ERGMs) are increasingly applied to observed network data and are central to understanding social structure and network processes. The chapters in this edited volume provide a self-contained, exhaustive account of the theoretical and methodological underpinnings of ERGMs, including models for univariate, multivariate, bipartite, longitudinal and social-influence type ERGMs. Each method is applied in individual case studies illustrating how social science theories may be examined empirically using ERGMs. The authors supply the reader with sufficient detail to specify ERGMs, fit them to data with any of the available software packages and interpret the results.
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The social and cultural duality perspective suggests dual ordering of interpersonal ties and cultural similarities. Studies to date primarily focus on cultural similarities in interpersonal dyads driven by principles such as homophily and contagion. We aim to extend these principles for sociocultural networks and investigate potentially competing micro-principles that generate these networks, taking into account not only direct dyadic overlap between interpersonal ties and cultural structures, but also the indirect interplay between the social and the cultural. The empirical analysis utilizes social and semantic network data gathered through ethnographic studies of five creative organizations around Europe. We apply exponential random graph models (ERGMs) for multiplex networks to model the simultaneous operation of several generative principles of sociocultural structuring yielding multiplex dyads and triads that combine interpersonal ties with meaning sharing links. The results suggest that in addition to the direct overlap of shared meanings and interpersonal ties, sociocultural structure formation is also affected by extra-dyadic links. Namely, expressive interpersonal ties with common third persons condition meaning sharing between individuals, while meaning sharing with common alters leads to interpersonal collaborations. Beyond dyads, the dual ordering of the social and the cultural thus operates as asymmetrical with regard to different types of interpersonal ties. The paper shows that in addition to direct dyadic overlap, network ties with third parties play an important role for the co-constitution of the social and the cultural. Moreover, we highlight that the concept of network multiplexity can be extended beyond social networks to investigate competing micro-principles guiding the interplay of social and cultural structures.
Chapter
Following the ideas of such writers as Florida, Landry and others on the ‘creative city’ and the ‘creative class’, creativity is now widely acknowledged to be a trigger for innovations and urban development. However, these ideas put the main accent on macro-level analysis, i.e. the economic effects of creativity in cities. The micro-level of creativity—grass-roots interactions of real creative actors, which form the immediate context for ideas generation and active involvement in urban life—has not been given due consideration. The micro-level of creativity, emerging through the every day practices of ‘creative’ people becomes even more valuable in the urban contexts characteristic of the post-Soviet region, where there are minimal policies to support contemporary creativity. Limited governmental support for creative clusters, cultural industries and artistic initiatives draws attention to the various adaptation tactics used by urban creative actors. In this chapter I analyze three artistic communities based in St. Petersburg, Russia, working in the sphere of contemporary art. I show the ways in which artists deal with the challenges characteristic of the field of contemporary art in the city, in particular, the lack of contemporary art education, insufficient number of experts in the sphere of contemporary art, and the scarcity of infrastructure for contemporary artists. Artists are able to partly overcome these challenges by forming independent artistic communities and performing various practices of localization, representation, functional division and communication. In this way they contribute to bottom-up development of the contemporary art sphere in the city. Artistic communities eventually become one of the main social actor groups who form urban ‘cultural capital’—the grounding for contemporary creativity in St. Petersburg—which is not being developed through the city’s local government policies.
Article
Knowledge networks consisting of links between knowledge elements and social networks composed of interactions between inventors both play a critical role for innovation. Taking a multilevel network approach, this study integrates research on the two types of networks and investigates how the knowledge network of a firm influences work-related interactions among its inventors. To this end, we associate inventors with specific knowledge elements in the firm’s knowledge network and examine how this association affects the inventors’ popularity and activity in a work-related advice network. Empirically, we combine survey data on 135 inventors working in a German high-tech firm with information derived from the firm’s 1031 patents. Results from multilevel exponential random graph models (ERGM) show that different dimensions of knowledge derived from the firm’s knowledge network shape the transfer of advice among inventors in unique ways. Thus, our study demonstrates how structural features of the firm’s knowledge stock influence interpersonal interactions among its inventors thereby affecting the intra-organizational diffusion of knowledge and the recombinant possibilities of the firm.
Article
This paper explores the relations between social ties and cultural constructs in small groups. The analysis uses cross-sectional data comprising both social networks within three art groups and semantic networks based on verbal expressions of their members. We examine how positions of actors in the intragroup social networks associate with the properties of cultural constructs they create jointly with other group members accounting for different roles actors play in collective culture constructing. We find that social popularity rather hinders sharing of cultural concepts, while those individuals who socially bridge their groups come to share many concepts with others. Moreover, focusing and, especially, integration of cultural constructs, rather than mere ‘thickness’ of those, accompany intense interactions between the leaders and the followers.
Article
Purpose: This research is aimed at an enquiry into whether it is possible in an analysis of an artistic creative process to use a model, major components (sub-processes) of which include a problem statement, emotional arousal, generating, objectification and evaluating. Methods/Analysis: The research methodological framework includes a communicative approach. It involves comprehension of creative sub-processes using a communication analysis that takes place in a team, members of which are engaged in solving an intellectually demanding task. The evidence-based framework for the paper included the data gathered with a method of a semi-structured interview in time of field research. Their object included four art communities that in an urban environment (e.g. Moscow, Saint Petersburg) had brought together more than thirty artists, working in various genres of the contemporary art. Results: The findings presented in the paper describe the sub-processes of objectification and emotional arousal in an individual and team creative work of artists, as well as understanding a role performed by communication in each process performance. Novelty/Improvements: Firstly, the research novelty lies in the model of the creative process used for the artwork analysis; the model was elaborated in the field of invention. Second, it lies in a description of the relationship between communication and creativity in the artwork of the artists clustered into art communities. Third, it lies in the identified “material” form of objectification in the artistic creative process.
Article
Changing conceptions within the sociology of culture and in the research community of social network analysts have led to the development of a new specialty area, research at the intersection of culture and networks. The new research entails a rethinking both of the kinds of actors and actions that takes place in networks, and of the connections among actors that are relevant. This article emphasizes conversations, objections, and ongoing concerns within this evolving research specialty as well as research accomplishments.
Article
This article considers the often overlooked, or looked through, museum display case. Glass cases provide physical barriers between museum exhibits and visitors. Their efficacy is what keeps them hidden. But when the case obstructs a visitor–object interaction, their presence becomes strikingly obvious. The usually discerning cases are blamed for disrupting, distancing and inhibiting museum experiences. Yet, cases can facilitate many encounters that aid visitors’ abilities to connect devotionally with exhibits. To explore the active role that glass cases play, this article employs an actor–network approach to examine interactions at an exhibition on medieval Christian relics, where the cases acted as channels and barriers within the process of veneration, as well as the means to erase traces of religious practices. Situated in debates about materiality and lived religion, this article considers the role of mundane material objects in visitor–object encounters and the mediated nature of religious experiences in non-devotional spaces.
Article
This paper examines organizational learning through a multilevel network lens. We assess how interpersonal knowledge transfer is sustained by the organizational structure of interunit work-flow ties and by the level of specialism of the connected units.To do this, we apply Multilevel Exponential Random Graph Models on data collected in a multiunit government institution in Italy.Results indicate that our approach allows simplifying and better understanding of organizational learning. Units are more likely to retain knowledge transfer ties within their boundaries. Unit boundary-spanning tends to occur only when knowledge transfer ties are sustained by hierarchical interunit work-flow ties.
Article
List of Figures - List of Tables - Acknowledgements - PART 1 INTRODUCTION - Introduction: How to Study the Force of Science M.Callon, J.Law and A.Rip - PART 2 THE POWER OF TEXTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - The Sociology of an Actor-Network: The Case of the Electric Vehicle M.Callon - Laboratories and Texts J.Law - Writing Science: Fact and Fiction: The Analysis of the Process of Reality Construction through the Application of Socio-Semiotic Methods to Scientific Texts B.Latour and F.Bastide - The Heterogeneity of Texts J.Law - Mobilising Resources through Texts A.Rip - PART 3 MAPPING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - Qualitative Scientometrics M.Callon, A.Rip and J.Law - Aquaculture: A Field by Bureaucratic Fiat S.Bauin - State Intervention in Academic and Industrial Research: The Case of Macromolecular Chemistry in France W.Turner and M.Callon - Pinpointing Industrial Invention: An Exploration of Quantitative Methods for the Analysis of Patents M.Callon - Technical Issues and Developments in Methodology J-P.Courtial - Future Developments M.Callon, J-P.Courtial and W.Turner - PART 4 CONCLUSIONS - Putting Texts in their Place M.Callon, J.Law and A.Rip - Glossary - Bibliography - Index
Article
This article analyzes how objects that are 'vessels of meaning' are involved in social interactions that create and maintain identity and community. Specifically, it examines the production and uses of chapbooks within poetry communities. Chapbooks are cheaply produced booklets of poetry that are distributed hand-to-hand rather than through institutionalized publication and distribution systems. The analysis draws from in-depth interviews with poets and ethnographic observation of literary events. By outlining the creation and deployment of chapbooks, a case is made for the centrality of material objects in constitutive social interactions. It is argued that material objects are both cultural products and cultural producers, not only because of their physical characteristics, but because of the ways in which they circulate.
Article
This study examines the effects of five attributes - authority, education, sex, race, and branch assignment - on the proximities among the members of five professional organizations in networks of instrumental and primary relations. Sex and race are found to have greater influence on primary ties than instrumental ties. While there is some evidence in two organizations that authority and education affect instrumental ties more than primary ties, the data as a whole favor the hypothesis that these two attributes, which are associated with position in the formal division of labor, give rise to both instrumental and primary ties. These attributes generally serve to place high status persons in central network positions. In one organization where these attributes prove to have little predictive power, we examine the effects on network form of a conflict which led to the disintegration of the organization shortly after it was surveyed. The factions into which the organization was divided are readily apparent in a spatial representation of the network. In conclusion we review the implications for organizational theory and research of the attribute analysis in conjunction with the case study findings.
Article
In processes of cultural production, does it matter where the producers happen to be – and if so, how? We examine the formative years of 49 twentieth-century schools of painting, focused on the geographical locations of key participants. Our data suggest that in almost every instance, artists identified with a certain school tend to live in the same region or city during its emergent period, and often even in the same neighborhood of a large metropolitan area. This pattern continues throughout the 20th century, despite changes in communication and transportation that would seem to make physical co-location less vital for the formation of small collaborative circles in the arts. We speculate that emplacement is important not only for the emergence of new esthetic norms but also for the recognition of the group as a “school” and for its eventual success in the art market.
Article
Normalization (occurring both before and after norm formation) was shown in 49 high school friendship groups to be a type of conformity; not conformity to established norms, but a response to other group pressures toward uniformity. Normalization pressures and pressures to conform to norms proved empirically distinct but tended to reinforce each other. Under conditions of changing norms, though, these two kinds of pressures can mutually oppose each other, and as a result conformity may take a direction away from, not toward, established norms.
Article
This paper examines and documents differences between southerners and other Americans in the use of leisure time. Using data from a 1973 national sample survey giving particular attention to arts-related leisure pursuits, nine types of leisure activity are identified, and regional differences mark all nine; six of these differences remain statistically significant when controlled for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and for regional differences in access and early exposure. For most activities (country and western music and religious music are exceptions), southerners participate less than non-southerners. Possible explanations for this result are examined, and it is suggested that the differences may reflect a more home-, family-, and church-centered style of life in the South.
Book
Exponential random graph models (ERGMs) are increasingly applied to observed network data and are central to understanding social structure and network processes. The chapters in this edited volume provide a self-contained, exhaustive account of the theoretical and methodological underpinnings of ERGMs, including models for univariate, multivariate, bipartite, longitudinal and social-influence type ERGMs. Each method is applied in individual case studies illustrating how social science theories may be examined empirically using ERGMs. The authors supply the reader with sufficient detail to specify ERGMs, fit them to data with any of the available software packages and interpret the results.
Article
We propose a network effects model of charisma that specifies the distribution and change of charisma attributions among individuals connected in a social structure. Data from a police organization and a classroom setting were analyzed using social network methods. The results show that social network parameters are significantly associated with the distribution and dispersion of attributions of charisma. Results are discussed in terms of their theoretical significance for understanding the socialized aspects of charisma attributions.
Article
This article presents an ecological theory of musical preference. A core idea of the theory is that musical forms depend on people for their existence. The theory argues that people are a resource for types of music; musical forms compete for the time, energy, and preferences of individuals. Musical types carve out niches in different sociodemographic segments of society. According to the theory, the niche pattern develops because musical preferences are transmitted through homophilous social network ties; similar people interact with each other and develop similar musical tastes. The article develops six hypotheses that relate individuals' social positions to their musical preferences. Tests with 1993 General Social Survey data support these hypotheses.
Article
What can actor-network theory’s approach to analyzing objects offer to cultural sociology? To answer this question we ask a more specific one: How does materiality affect people’s experience of art in a museum exhibition? Research at two museums suggests that non-human agents—object and words—interact with human bodies to choreograph the art encounter. This process works through interactions between two processes of emplacement: physical position and cognitive location. Position guides location in the process of meaning-making, a relationship mediated by three mechanisms: distance, legibility, and orientation.
Article
Although the association between delinquent friends and delinquent behavior is well established, the mechanism by which delinquency is socially transmitted remains unclear. Sutherlands theory of differential association holds that delinquency is a consequence of attitudes favorable to the violation of the law, attitudes that are acquired through intimate social interaction with peers. An analysis of data from the National Youth Survey indicates that peer attitudes do affect delinquency. But the effect of peers'attitudes is small in comparison to that of peers behavior, and the effect of peers'behavior remains strong even when peers, attitudes and the adolescent's own attitude are controlled. Moreover, when the behavior and attitudes of peers are inconsistent, the behavior of peers appears to outweigh or override the attitudes of peers. These findings suggest that delinquency is not primarily a consequence of attitudes acquired from peers. Rather, it more likely stems from other social learning mechanisms, such as imitation or vicarious reinforcement, or from group pressures to conform.
Article
I use concepts and assumptions from the literature on social networks to construct a theory of delinquent behavior. The major premise of the theory is that the structural characteristics of a social (personal) network affect the degree to which participation in the network constrains behavior. I base hypotheses at both the social psychological and social structural levels of analysis on the structural characteristics of networks of multiplexity and density. Then I examine how this approach can account for some perplexing findings from past work on the relationships between social class and delinquent behavior. My essential argument is that social status and status area are related to delinquent behavior because they affect the structure of social networks.
Article
Most sociological research assumes that social network composition shapes individual beliefs. Network theory and research has not adequately considered that internalized cultural worldviews might affect network composition. Drawing on a synthetic, dual-process theory of culture and two waves of nationally-representative panel data, this article shows that worldviews are strong predictors of changes in network composition among U.S. youth. These effects are robust to the influence of other structural factors, including prior network composition and behavioral homophily. By contrast, there is little evidence that networks play a strong proximate role in shaping worldviews. This suggests that internalized cultural dispositions play an important role in shaping the interpersonal environment and that the dynamic link between culture and social structure needs to be reconsidered.
Article
Bourdieu's analysis of class and culture errs in neglecting two important aspects of social structure: social networks and class relations at work. He expects high-status culture to be useful in class because it is correlated with class, but culture used at work includes both genres related to class (used in domination) and genres unrelated to class (used in coordination). High-status culture is correlated with class but excluded, not used, in the competitive private sector. The most widely useful cultural resource is cultural variety, and social network variety is a better source of cultural variety than is class itself.
Article
Longitudinal sociometric data on adolescent friendship pairs, friends-to-be, and former friends are examined to assess levels of homophily on four attributes (frequency of current marijuana, use, level of educational aspirations, political orientation, and participation in minor delinquency) at various stages of friendship formation and dissolution. In addition, estimates are developed of the extent to which observed homophily in friendship dyads results from a process of selection (assortative pairing), in which similarity precedes association and the extent to which it results from a process of socialization in which association leads to similarity. The implications of the results for interpreting estimates of peer influence derived from cross-sectional data are discussed.
Article
The Manchester (UK) music scene has been extremely important in the development of independent and alternative music within Europe. As such it has been the topic of two major films. It is commonly held that the Manchester scene ‘took off’ in the late 1970s. This paper observes that its ‘take off’ was facilitated by the formation of a network between a critical mass of key social actors. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate this process of network formation and to seek to contribute to its explanation by identifying the key mechanisms (of network formation) involved.The paper uses formal social network analysis to map the network in question and to demonstrate its growth. It uses a more straightforward historical–sociological approach, which is qualitative and archival in nature, to identify the salient mechanisms. The paper adds an interesting and important case study to the existing literature on music scenes and also suggests a novel way for both advancing research on music scenes and further extending the use of social network analysis (and network analytic concepts) in relation to the arts. Finally, it makes an important empirical contribution to the newly emerging area of ‘network dynamics’.
Article
A metaphor of classical social theory concerning the “intersection” of persons within groups and of groups within the individual is translated into a set of techniques to aid in empirical analysis of the interpenetration of networks of interpersonal ties and networks of intergroup ties. These techniques are useful in the study of director interlocks, clique structures, organizations within community and national power structures, and other collectivities which share members. The “membership network analysis” suggested in this paper is compared to and contrasted with sociometric approaches and is applied to the study by Davis et al. (1941) of the social participation of eighteen women.
Article
Some groups endure longer, are more stable, and are better able than other groups to incorporate new members or ideas without losing their distinctiveness. I present a simple model of individual behavior based on the thesis that interaction leads to shared knowledge and that relative shared knowledge leads to interaction. Using this model I examine the structural and cultural bases of group stability. Groups that are stable in the short run do not necessarily retain their distinctiveness in the long run as new members enter or new ideas are discovered.