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Carrageenan as a functional additive in the production of cheese and cheese-like products

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  • Bydgoszcz University of Science and Technology
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Acta Sci. Pol. Technol. Aliment. 17(2) 2018, 107–116
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grazyna.gozdecka@utp.edu.pl; phone 0048 523749056, fax 0048 523749005
www.food.actapol.net pISSN 1644-0730 eISSN 1898-9594 http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2018.0550
Received: 28.01.2018
Accepted: 3.04.2018
Polysaccharides are well known as functional food ad-
ditives used to improve the texture of nal products
(Franck, 2006; Rayner et al., 2016). One well-known
example is agar, which is used in confectionary, bak-
ery and dairy products, ice creams and other foods
(Piculell, 2006). Some hydrocolloids also improve the
nutritional values of foods. The most widely known
example is the probiotic polysaccharide inulin, which
is added to baked goods, meat, dairy products, frozen
desserts etc. (Franck, 2006).
Polysaccharides are obtained mainly from plants
and microorganisms. Among seaweed-sourced poly-
saccharides, the most well-known is carrageenan.
Carrageenan is a typical ingredient in sauces and salad
dressings (Milani and Maleki, 2012; Piculell, 2006).
Carrageenan is also used as a gelling agent in meat
products, sausages and even canned pet food. The car-
rageenan market is the fourth largest global hydrocol-
loid market and the largest seaweed-derived market. Its
global production is estimated to be in the range from
CARRAGEENAN AS AFUNCTIONAL ADDITIVE IN THE PRODUCTION
OF CHEESE AND CHEESE-LIKE PRODUCTS
Błażej Błaszak, Grażyna Gozdecka, Alexander Shyichuk
Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, UTP University of Science and Technology, Bydgoszcz
Seminaryjna 3, 85-326 Bydgoszcz, Poland
ABSTRACT
Carrageenan is a well-known gelling agent used in the food industry. The present review of patent and scien-
tic literature shows that carrageenan is a useful additive in the cheese production process. The gel-strength-
ening properties of carrageenan are as a result of the fairly strong bonds it forms with casein macromolecules.
However, carrageenan-casein interaction is dependent on pH. Dierent carrageenan types have dierent
charge levels (the most charged is the helix form of lambda-carrageenan), which aects the carrageenan-
casein aggregates. The correct concentration of carrageenan and temperature treatment can improve cheese
yield and whey protein recovery, which is desirable for cheese producers. Even small amounts of this hydro-
colloid can increase cheese rmness and maintain cheese structure after cheese curd heating. Carrageenan
improves cheese structure and other properties, such as ease of grating or slicing, which are very important
for customers. Some modications to cheese composition can destroy the natural cheese structure, but the
addition of carrageenan can be useful for creating modied cheese-like products with desirable attributes.
Carrageenan can be a good replacement for emulsifying salts, to stabilize cheese fat without disturbing the
Ca:P ratio. The replacement of emulsifying salts with carrageenan (as little as 1%) results in a homogenous
cheese product. For that reason, carrageenan is a useful additive for maintaining the organoleptic and struc-
tural values of fat-free cheese. Carrageenan can also stabilize the structure in cheese-like products and replace
casein in cheese imitations.
Keywords: carrageenan, cheese technology, rheology, texture, functional properties, whey protein
INTRODUCTION
Błaszak, B., Gozdecka, G., Shyichuk, A. (2018). Carrageenan as afunctional additive in the production of cheese and cheese-like
products. Acta Sci. Pol. Technol. Aliment., 17(2), 107–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2018.0550
108 www.food.actapol.net/
about 70,000 MT year-1 to over 110,000 MT year-1.
Carrageenan production takes place mainly in the
Asia-Pacic region (45% of total global production),
whereas production in Europe and America is estimat-
ed to be about 12% and 17% respectively (Campbell
and Hotchkiss, 2017).
Carrageenan is often used in the dairy industry due
to its ability to interact with casein (Piculell, 2006).
It is added to frozen desserts, yoghurts, milk drinks,
whipped and coee creams etc. (Piculell, 2006; Rayner
et al., 2016). Despite the utilization of carrageenan in
a wide range of dairy products, there is little informa-
tion about the use of carrageenan in cheese-making.
The present review of scientic and patent literature
shows that the addition of carrageenan can improve
cheese texture, mouthfeel and other quality attributes.
CARRAGEENAN STRUCTURE AND GEL-FORMING
PROPERTIES
Carrageenan has been used as a food additive for
around a hundred years. Carrageenan is the gener-
ic name for a family of gel-forming linear sulfated
polysaccharides extracted from certain species of
red seaweeds (Rhodophyceae; Bourriot et al., 1999;
Černíková et al., 2008; Langendor et al., 1999). This
plant is harvested mainly on the rocky Atlantic coast
of North America and Europe. According to the Euro-
pean Parliament and Council Directive No 1333/2008,
carrageenan is marked as E-407 or E-407a. In gen-
eral, carrageenan belongs to the group of food addi-
tives know as hydrocolloids. Carrageenan is used in
food technology mainly as a stabilizing and gelling
agent (Bourriot et al., 1999; Černíková et al., 2010).
The main products containing carrageenan are jellies,
cured and canned meat, yoghurt and coee cream.
There are three main commercial types of carra-
geenan (κ – kappa-, ι – iota-, λ – lambda-carrageenan).
All types of carrageenan contain repeating units of
D-galactose and 3,6-anhydrogalactose. The monomer
units are bonded by alternating α-1,3 and β-1,4 gly-
cosidic linkages (Černíková et al., 2008). The main
dierences in the structures of dierent carrageenan
types are the number and position of ester sulphate
groups on the galactose monomer units. The number
of ester sulphate groups has an eect on carrageenan
solubility. A higher level of sulphate groups results in
a lower solubility temperature. All types are soluble in
hot water, but only lambda-carrageenan is soluble in
cold water. Sodium salts of all the three types are very
soluble (Černíková et al., 2008; Langendor et al.,
2000).
In aqueous solutions, carrageenan macromolecules
form exible curls and helical structures which have
the ability to form gels (Bourriot et al., 1999; Lan-
gendor et al., 1999). Iota and kappa-carrageenan are
known to undergo temperature-dependent transitions
from a coil conformation to a helix. Transition temper-
atures are ca. 47°C for iota-carrageenan and 37°C for
kappa-carrageenan. The conformation transition also
depends on the ionic environment (Langendor et al.,
2000; Piculell, 2006; Rees et al., 1969).
CARRAGEENAN AS ACOAGULANT
ATCURDFORMATION STAGE
Cheese is produced from milk by the coagulation of
milk proteins, the separation of solid curd (which con-
tains fat and proteins) from liquid whey and nally
the formation of the nal product by pressing. Gen-
eral dierences between types of cheeses are sensory
traits and textural properties. The attributes of dier-
ent cheeses are determined by the manufacturing tech-
nology employed. Ionic gums, including carrageenan,
are common additives at the stage of milk coagulation.
The gums are added before fermentation, in order to
boost the formation of curds (Cha et al., 2004). The
underlying mechanism is electrostatic interaction be-
tween positively charged milk proteins and negatively
charged polysaccharides. It is worth noting that the
facilitation of cheese formation requires the appropri-
ate carrageenan concentration, pH and heat treatment
schedule (Dybing and Smith, 1998).
Carrageenan, mainly kappa-carrageenan, is well
known for coagulating whey proteins (Dybing and
Smith, 1998). According Makhal et al. (2013), carra-
geenan added in as low concentrations as 0.005% and
0.015% resulted in a curd yield of 13.3% to 13.8%,
a signicant increase in comparison to a control sample
with a curd yield of 12.2%. An increase in moisture re-
tention from 74.4% (control sample) to 74.9% (0.005%
carrageenan concentration) and 75.4% (0.015% car-
rageenan concentration) was also observed. The total
protein content increased from 73.4% in the control
109
Błaszak, B., Gozdecka, G., Shyichuk, A. (2018). Carrageenan as afunctional additive in the production of cheese and cheese-like
products. Acta Sci. Pol. Technol. Aliment., 17(2), 107–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2018.0550
www.food.actapol.net/
sample to 88.3% in the sample with 0.005% carra-
geenan concentration. Whey protein recovery showed
the highest increase, from 1.2% in the control sample
to 14.5% in the sample with 0.005% carrageenan con-
centration. Increasing the proportion of carrageenan
to 0.025% did not result in any additional increase in
curd yield, or improvement of cheese attributes. The
increased recovery of whey protein and total protein
content was attributed to the possible interaction be-
tween whey proteins and kappa-carrageenan, which
caused the whey proteins to coagulate. Protein iso-
lates in the pH range 3–7 typically form weak gels
only after heating. However, with the a 1% addition
of kappa-carrageenan (0.5%), whey protein can form
a gel after reaching pH ca. 6. Acidication results in
the strengthening of the formed gel. Conversely, gel
formed by whey protein isolate and kappa-carrageen-
an was weakened after heat treatment at 80°C for
30 min. Weakening also occurred when whey protein
isolate was preheated (to 80°C for 30 min) before the
addition of kappa-carrageenan. It was inferred that
kappa-carrageenan in combination with whey protein
isolate may be used in dairy products in which mini-
mal thermal treatment is applied (Mounsey, 2008).
The balance between calcium and potassium ions is
important for the results of carrageenan addition. The
amount of calcium ions is typically about 10 times
higher than the amount of potassium ions (Fox et
al., 2017). Disturbing the calcium to potassium ion
balance may result in a decrease in cheese gel rigid-
ity (MacArtain et al., 2003; Spagnuolo et al., 2005).
CARRAGEENAN AS AMODIFIER OF CHEESE
FIRMNESS AND SLICING ABILITY
Carrageenan is known to eect the rheological char-
acteristics of cheese. The addition of carrageenan
(mainly kappa-carrageenan) can boost the slicing and
grating ability of processed cheese (Imeson, 2000).
Carrageenan was reported to increase the rmness
of wheyless cream cheese (Cha et al., 2004). A more
recent study (Černíková, et al., 2008) showed that
increasing the concentration of κ-carrageenan and
ι-carrageenan results in enhanced rigidity of the pro-
cessed Eidamsky Blok-Dutch type cheese. Processed
cheese with added carrageenan was found to be very
hard and impossible to spread (Černíková et al., 2010).
Panela-type cheese with added carrageenan was also
harder than a control sample (Rojas-Nery et al., 2015).
So far, the eect of carrageenan on the rheology of
cheese has not been studied in its entirety. Many sci-
entists have tried to explain the dierences observed
upon addition of dierent kinds of carrageenan, pri-
marily the fact that the addition of ι-carrageenan cre-
ates rmer gels than the addition of κ-carrageenan.
Higher concentrations of carrageenan promote inter-
actions between their chains, which allows a more
rigid structure to be formed (Černíková, et al., 2008;
Ribeiro et al., 2004). Probably, a certain minimal
concentration exists which allows a suitable network
between carrageenan chains to be created. Higher
carrageenan concentrations result in increased gel
strength and hardness. The addition of κ-carrageenan
and ι-carrageenan in amounts of 0.15% and 0.25%
w/w results in increased rigidity of processed Eidam-
sky Blok-Dutch type cheese with dierent amount of
fat (Černíková, et al., 2008). The addition of 0.05%
of ι-carrageenan gives a harder gel than the same
amount of κ-carrageenan. The same eect is observed
at increased concentrations of carrageenan (Černíková
et al., 2008). The addition of carrageenan can com-
pensate for the eects of inadequate heat treatment of
curds. The texture of cottage cheese with added kap-
pa-carrageenan remained unaected after heat treat-
ment of the curd at 90°C for 5 min. The most probable
explanation is that kappa-carrageenan interacts with
milk proteins, resulting in the strengthening of the
cheese gel (Makhal et al., 2013).
CARRAGEENAN AS AFAT EMULSIFIER
The usual components in cheese production are
phosphate- and citrate-based emulsifying salts. Un-
fortunately, the addition of phosphate-based salts de-
stroys the optimal molar ratio of Ca:P which, should
be around 1:1 (Palacios, 2006). A higher amount of
phosphorus changes the Ca:P ratio to 1:1.5–3.0, which
may lead to diseases such as osteoporosis. The cause
of this is the detrimental impact of excess phospho-
rus on bone structure (Schäer et al., 1999). Scientists
have looked for phosphate substitutes which can form
strong bonds with milk proteins and will not have
negative eects on human health. Some reports have
suggested the addition of vegetable hydrocolloids to
Błaszak, B., Gozdecka, G., Shyichuk, A. (2018). Carrageenan as afunctional additive in the production of cheese and cheese-like
products. Acta Sci. Pol. Technol. Aliment., 17(2), 107–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2018.0550
110 www.food.actapol.net/
replace phosphate salts. (Schäer et al., 1999; 2001).
Carrageenan addition is useful to maintain a favorable
ratio of inorganic ions in cheese raw materials (Bour-
riot et al., 1999; Černíková, et al., 2008). Several hy-
drocolloids were examined as possible replacements
for phosphate salts (Černíková et al., 2010). Both
κ-carrageenan and ι-carrageenan were found to stabi-
lize fat globules in processed cheese. The carrageenan
concentration required is near to 1%. Processed Edam
cheese with a lower amount of carrageenan (0.1–0.3%
of ι-carrageenan and 0.1–0.4% of κ-carrageenan) was
evaluated as slightly inhomogeneous, with a more u-
id upper layer slightly separated from the lower layer.
Both layers contained similar amounts of fat globules,
but the average size of the fat globules was less in the
lower layer compared to the upper layer. A carrageen-
an concentration of 0.5–1% helps to maintain homoge-
neity of the nal product without signicant release of
fat. The average size and number of fat globules were
dierent in dierent samples at carrageenan concen-
trations below 1%. Samples with 1% of κ-carrageenan
have a similar number and size of fat globules. The
results of dynamic oscillatory rheometry also show
that the complex shear modulus was nearly the same.
In the sample considered to be homogenous, the pro-
cess of gel formation was observed while cooling from
80°C to 10°C. Gel formation with the addition of tra-
ditional emulsifying salts was dierent from that with
the addition of carrageenan. Increased complex shear
modulus was observed in the sample with the addition
of both carrageenan and emulsifying salts. However,
this boost was not as high as that observed in the sam-
ple with carrageenan and without emulsifying salts.
For the sample with carrageenan, the highest growth
in complex shear modulus was observed at tempera-
tures from 55 to 45ºC, near to the temperature of coil-
to-helix transition. The inference was that carrageenan
is a promising substitute for emulsifying salts (Lynch
and Mulvihill, 1996). Almost identical results were
obtained by Shabbir et al. (2016) when emulsifying
salts were replaced by dierent concentrations of kap-
pa-carrageenan in processed cheddar cheese. Samples
were analyzed for physicochemical and sensory at-
tributes during storage for 45 and 90 days. The nal
product was harder and less able to melt with increas-
ing carrageenan concentration; only the products with
0.15% carrageenan concentration and 2% emulsifying
salts possessed the best physicochemical and sensory
attributes. There was a hypothesis that the ability of
carrageenan to stabilize fat is related to binding hydro-
phobic parts of protein in the presence of calcium ions
(Lynch and Mulvihill, 1996).
APPLICATION OF CARRAGEENAN
IN LOW-FAT CHEESE
Low-fat cheese is a healthy product which can be
a good substitute for normal cheese in a reduced-fat
diet. After reducing the amount of milk fats in low-
fat cheese, it may be required to add some substances
to maintain the expected consistency and structure of
the nal product. The addition of some hydrocolloids,
mainly carrageenan, may replace the addition of fat
and emulsifying salts. This is a result of the ability of
carrageenan to stabilize the consistency and textural
properties of cheese products. Carrageenan is known
as an ingredient in fat-free cream cheese (Crane et al.,
1993). Emulsied soybean oil with added soy protein
isolate and carrageenan can help to obtain panel-type
cheese (Rojas-Nery et al., 2015). Replacing milk fat
with emulsied soybean oil resulted in higher cheese
yields and moisture content, as well as in decreased
amounts of fat (Table 1). Of the three carrageenan types
used, and the three substitution levels (25%, 50% and
75%), the best results were achieved in samples con-
taining lambda-carrageenan and milk fat substituted at
75% (Table 1). Total protein content was maintained in
the range of 11.83% (iota-carrageenan – fat substitu-
tion of 50%) to 14.11% (iota-carrageenan – fat substi-
tution of 75%), compared with a control with a protein
content of 12.41%. The main eect of replacing milk
fats with carrageenan was increased water retention in
the coagulated cheese curd, which resulted in higher
yield (Rojas-Nery et al., 2015). Emulsied soybean oil
droplets are larger than those of milk fat, resulting in
increased openness of the cheese matrix and larger in-
terstitial spaces (Giroux et al., 2013; Rojas-Nery et al.,
2015).
Substitution of milk fat also results in an increase
in cheese hardness, with signicant dierences be-
tween samples containing kappa and iota-carrageenan.
The addition of kappa-carrageenan results in increased
adhesiveness of panela-type cheese, unlike the addi-
tion of lambda-carrageenan (Table 2). It is important
111
Błaszak, B., Gozdecka, G., Shyichuk, A. (2018). Carrageenan as afunctional additive in the production of cheese and cheese-like
products. Acta Sci. Pol. Technol. Aliment., 17(2), 107–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2018.0550
www.food.actapol.net/
Table 1. Physicochemical properties of fat-reduced panela-type cheese employing emulsied oil with carrageenans, %
(Rojas-Nery et al., 2015)
Carrageenan type in emulsied
soybean oil/soy protein isolate
Milk fat
substitution Yield Moisture Fat
Control 0 16.41d,C ±0.00 56.84c,C ±2.03 30.40a,A ±0.21
Iota 25 17.18c,B ±0.00 57.88b,B ±2.51 27.00b,B ±1.20
50 17.47b,B ±0.17 58.71a,B ±2.25 26.50c,B ±0.60
75 17.60a,B ±0.00 58.92a,B ±1.91 25.50d,B ±0.25
Kappa 25 15.50c,B ±0.00 58.74b,B ±1.95 27.20b,B ±0.10
50 15.40b,B ±0.00 59.14a,B ±2.03 26.80c,B ±0.30
75 16.22a,B ±0.00 59.81a,B ±2.38 25.64d,B ±0.30
Lambda 25 16.41c,A ±0.00 59.62b,A ±2.52 26.90b,C ±1.20
50 17.70b,A ±0.00 60.40a,A ±2.12 25.85c,C ±1.73
75 19.08a,A ±0.00 60.72a,A ±1.71 25.18d,C ±0.30
a–dMeans that data with the same letter in the same column are not signicantly (p > 0.05) dierent for the percentage milk fat
substitution.
A–DMeans that data with the same letter in the same column are not signicantly (p > 0.05) dierent for the carrageenan type.
Table 2. Texture analysis of fat-reduced panela-type cheese employing emulsied oil with carra-
geenans (Rojas-Nery et al., 2015)
Carrageenan type in emulsied
soybean oil/soy protein isolate
Milk fat
substitution
%
Hardness, N Adhesiveness, N
Control 0 31.40b,C ±0.82 0.75a,B ±0.40
Iota 25 45.19a,A ±3.83 0.70a,A ±0.10
50 45.81a,A ±8.43 0.75a,A ±0.13
75 27.87b,A ±4.50 0.74a,A ±0.77
Kappa 25 41.13a,A ±2.17 0.80a,A ±0.17
50 29.30a,A ±1.52 0.79a,A ±0.16
75 39.25b,A ±2.93 0.76a,A ±0.17
Lambda 25 27.80a,B ±1.21 0.66a,C ±0.08
50 39.63a,B ±0.89 0.67a,C ±0.05
75 32.16b,B ±2.27 0.70a,C ±0.05
a–dMeans that data with the same letter in the same column are not signicantly (p > 0.05) dierent for
the percentage of milk fat substitution.
A–DMeans that data with the same letter in the same column are not signicantly (p > 0.05) dierent for
the carrageenan type.
Błaszak, B., Gozdecka, G., Shyichuk, A. (2018). Carrageenan as afunctional additive in the production of cheese and cheese-like
products. Acta Sci. Pol. Technol. Aliment., 17(2), 107–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2018.0550
112 www.food.actapol.net/
that replacing milk fat results in a decrease in elas-
ticity-related textural parameters. Cohesiveness (di-
mensionless) was signicantly lower in samples with
kappa-carrageenan – from 0.34 to 0.26, compared to
a control sample with a cohesiveness of 0.39. Both
resilience and springiness of cheese decrease when
carrageenan is added and fat is removed. The resil-
ience values decreased to 0.67 and 0.59 for iota and
kappa-carrageenan respectively, compared to 0.76 for
the control sample. The springiness values (dimen-
sionless) were registered in the range of 0.77 to 0.75
for iota-carrageenan and of 0.76 to 0.75 for kappa-
-carrageenan, compared to 0.80 for the control sample
(Rojas-Nery et al., 2015).
The addition of dierent types of carrageenan to
low-fat Colby cheese resulted in changed rheologi-
cal properties and nutrient content relative to full-fat
cheese. The sample with kappa-carrageenan (0.15 g/kg)
had higher protein and moisture contents and lower
fat content and moisture in the non-fat substances
(MNFS). Samples with iota and lambda-carrageenan
had higher moisture content and lower fat content than
the control. The highest protein content was found in
the sample with kappa-carrageenan. Protein recovery
remained almost unchanged. Only protein recovery
in cheese with lambda-carrageenan was higher than in
the control.
One very important stage of cheese production is
ripening, when protein is hydrolyzed to peptides and
amino acids by starter bacteria, milk proteases and
coagulant enzymes. The degree of proteolysis may be
partially attributed to the MNFS level. A high level of
proteolysis was observed in cheese with lambda and
iota-carrageenan, which also have high MNFS levels.
Accordingly, samples with low MNFS also have low
levels of proteolysis. Both hardness and springiness
values were found to decrease with ripening. The ex-
ception was cheese with kappa-carrageenan, for which
springiness did not change signicantly. The larg-
est decrease in springiness was observed in samples
with iota and lambda-carrageenan. The reduction in
the fat content aects the cheese texture and rheology.
To improve these characteristics, it may be necessary
to increase the moisture content in order to provide
MNFS at the same or even at a higher level than full-
fat cheese. The addition of ι- and λ-carrageenan results
in increased moisture content and MNFS level, while
decreasing hardness, springiness and storage modu-
lus. Higher levels of MNFS accelerated the release
of soluble proteins, further increasing rheological and
textural properties (Wang et al., 2016).
Mixed hydrocolloids (kappa-carrageenan, locust
bean gum and xanthan gum) proved to be good fat
replacements in the production of low-fat Dominati
cheese. The blended hydrocolloids provide high water
binding capacity and a low rate of moisture loss during
cheese ripening. Higher concentrations of fat replacers
show higher moisture content. However, a decrease
in moisture content was observed in all the samples
during the ripening period. Cheese pH also decreased
at this stage, although reducing fat has no signicant
impact on the pH value. Probably, higher acidity is
a result of the changed composition of the cheese, be-
cause higher moisture content leads to an increase in
chemical and biochemical reactions. The addition of
hydrocolloids also results in higher yield after ripen-
ing due to a lower rate of mass loss. Cheese yield was
observed to increase signicantly and proportionally
relative to the amount of hydrocolloids added. The
highest yield was observed in the sample containing
the highest concentration of hydrocolloids (0.75 g/kg
of milk). Fat in cheese is also important for avor. The
highest sensory analysis score was given to full-fat
cheese. Replacing fat with hydrocolloids can improve
sensory values and balance the fat reduction defects,
achieving a score for low-fat cheese almost equal to
that of full-fat cheese (Alnemr et al., 2016).
APPLICATIONS OF CARRAGEENAN
IN CHEESE ANALOGUES, CHEESE IMITATIONS
AND CHEESE-LIKE PRODUCTS
Cheese analogues (cheese substitutions) are food prod-
ucts made to imitate the taste of dairy cheese intended
for dierent types of customers. For example, cheese
analogues for vegans are produced from plant milks.
Cheese analogues for pizzerias are especially designed
to melt well as a pizza topping. Due to their smooth
consistency, cheese-like dairy products can replace
traditional cheeses (Jackson et al., 2002). Carrageenan
may be used as a functional ingredient in cheese-like
products, resulting in an increased body and improved
texture. On the other hand, carrageenan may result in
decreased melting ability. For that reason, cheese-like
113
Błaszak, B., Gozdecka, G., Shyichuk, A. (2018). Carrageenan as afunctional additive in the production of cheese and cheese-like
products. Acta Sci. Pol. Technol. Aliment., 17(2), 107–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2018.0550
www.food.actapol.net/
products may include trisodium phosphate, disodium
phosphate, sodium citrate, sodium aluminum phos-
phate or sodium metaphosphate. Melting properties
are improved by sodium salts (Lazaridis et al., 1980).
Properties of processed cheese analogues with
the addition of acidic casein and κ-carrageenan were
studied by Sołowiej (2012). Both the additives re-
sulted in increasing product hardness. The addition of
κ-carrageenan in low amounts (0.05% and 0.1%) led
to a nal product with the same or even less hardness
than a product with only acidic casein. The samples
with 13% casein and 0.3% carrageenan have the high-
est rigidity. The increased amount of carrageenan re-
sults in decreased adhesiveness. Being able to easily
remove cheese from its packaging is a very important
property for consumers. The addition of carrageenan
(0.05% to 0.3%) caused chewiness to increase and
meltability to decrease (Sołowiej, 2012).
Mozzarella type cheese analogues are often used
as a topping in baked dishes (e.g. pizzas). Mozzarella
analogues can lower production costs by replacing
expensive ingredients with cheaper substitutes. The
addition of hydrocolloids can help to stabilize the
nal product and achieve desirable characteristics.
The sample containing only carrageenan had a rmer
structure compared to samples with locust bean gum
or xanthan gum. A mozzarella analogue created with
two blended stabilizers has desirable softness. Dier-
ent blends of stabilizers result in dierent properties.
The highest score was reached by xanthan gum blend-
ed with locust bean gum. A mixture of carrageenan
and locust bean gum also provides good properties
(Jana et al., 2010).
One more cheese analogue is tofu, which is soya
protein product. Tofu can be a good substitute for tra-
ditional cheese in the diets of people who are sensi-
tive to lactose, cholesterol and other substances con-
tained in animal products. Carrageenan may be used
as a functional additive in the tofu production process.
Carrageenan mixed with coagulants like glucono-
-delta-lactose and calcium chloride can increase tofu
yield, lightness, softness and exibility. Tofu samples
with carrageenan have increased freshness and mois-
ture content. The best results were observed in tofu
containing glucono-delta-lactose and 0.1% of carra-
geenan (Esparan et al., 2011).
The addition of carrageenan also has an inuence
on the viscoelastic properties of processed cheese
analogues made with vegetable fats (Hanakova et al.,
2013). Dierent values of rigidity were registered for
dierent blends of hydrocolloids and fats. Regardless
of the hydrocolloid applied, the highest values of ri-
gidity modulus were observed in the sample with co-
conut fat, followed by the sample with butter, and the
lowest was observed in the sample with palm oil. The
hardness of the nal product increased signicantly
after the addition of hydrocolloids, but still the high-
est hardness was observed in the product with coconut
fat, followed by the product with butter. The cheese
analogue with kappa-carrageenan was the product
with highest hardness. This eect may be explained by
the interaction of carrageenan and casein. Dierences
in values of G modulus and melting temperatures of
kappa and iota-carrageenan may be explained taking
into consideration the coil-to-helix transition tempera-
ture. The inference was that the addition of kappa car-
rageenan to processed cheese analogues can help to
create a product with the desired viscoelastic proper-
ties and hardness (Hanakova et al., 2013).
Cheese imitations contain both milk casein and
vegetable oils. Cheese imitations have nearly the same
nutritional values as real cheese, but have a longer
shelf life and are cheaper to produce. Carrageenan
may be used alongside gelatin as a casein replacement
for cheese imitations. Gelatin adds a yellow tint to the
casein replacement composition, which is not desir-
able for cheeses which are normally white, such as
mozzarella. For that reason, the amount of gelatin can
be decreased and replaced by carrageenan. The addi-
tion of carrageenan also improves the texture of the
nal product (Yoder et al., 1995).
Carrageenan may be also used in the production of
cheese sauce. Carrageenan applied in the correct ratio
with other vegetable gums and hydrocolloids results
in a homogenous sauce with extraordinary mouth-
feel (Spanier et al., 1986). In order to meet customer
expectations, some companies also oer dairy prod-
ucts with decreased protein. The production of cream
cheese compositions with lower protein contents re-
quires the addition of texture stabilizers. Carrageenan
proved to be a good additive to these kinds of products
due to its ability to stabilize dairy components (Laye
et al., 2005).
Błaszak, B., Gozdecka, G., Shyichuk, A. (2018). Carrageenan as afunctional additive in the production of cheese and cheese-like
products. Acta Sci. Pol. Technol. Aliment., 17(2), 107–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2018.0550
114 www.food.actapol.net/
CARRAGEENAN AS ACOMPONENT
OF CHEESE COATING
Carrageenan can be also used as a component of coat-
ing material for cheese (Kampf and Nussinovitch,
2000). Cheese samples with hydrocolloid coatings
have increased gloss, which is desirable in market-
ing. The highest gloss was observed for samples with
carrageenan and gellan. Bubbles trapped in the carra-
geenan coating can be the result of ripening. Carra-
geenan coatings do not change the taste of the cheese
and adhere well to the cheese surface after 144 h. The
coated cheese samples have an extended shelf life, re-
duced mass loss and lower changes in pH under stor-
age (Kampf and Nussinovitch, 2000).
CONCLUSION
The application of carrageenan as an additive in cheese
making results in increased curd yield and whey pro-
tein recovery, as well as improved cheese structure.
Moreover, the addition of carrageenan enables cheese
structure to be maintained after thermal treatment of
the curd in cottage cheese production. The addition of
carrageenan can improve cheese slicing and grating
ability. The rmness of wheyless cream cheese may
also be improved. The addition of kappa and iota-
-carrageenan increases the rigidity of processed
cheese with dierent amounts of fat. However, pro-
cessed cheese with carrageenan may be too hard and
impossible to spread.
Carrageenan can be a good replacement for emul-
sifying salts to stabilize fat in the cheese production
process without disturbing the Ca:P ratio. Increasing
the amount of carrageenan results in a homogenous
product, but dierences in the amount of fat globules
may occur. Cheese with both carrageenan and emul-
sifying salts added have increased shear modulus.
Carrageenan may be a useful ingredient in cheese ana-
logues and cheese imitations. The use of carrageenan
as a cheese coating can be useful in cheese manufac-
turing and marketing.
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... Plant proteins have larger molecule sizes and more complex quaternary structures than milk proteins, meaning they cannot form compact gel networks in the way that casein can, which is a crucial step in the production of cheese [10]; therefore, using plant proteins to match the functionality of casein in the development of plant-based cheese will be challenging [11]. Additional ingredients such as stabilizers might help to improve the texture of plant-based cheese analogues [12]. Stabilizers such as carrageenan and xanthan gum are commonly added into cheese analogues (0.3-4% on a mass basis) to improve the firmness of the product and minimize syneresis [12][13][14]. ...
... Additional ingredients such as stabilizers might help to improve the texture of plant-based cheese analogues [12]. Stabilizers such as carrageenan and xanthan gum are commonly added into cheese analogues (0.3-4% on a mass basis) to improve the firmness of the product and minimize syneresis [12][13][14]. There are three commercial types of carrageenan: kappa, iota, and lambda. ...
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... This species mainly contain carrageenan using for food and beverages, for example, jelly-jelly, juice, candy, and cheese. [1] Nowadays, carrageenan is known as a safety additive using popularly in the food processing industry. The consumption yield of carrageenan is estimated per all the world and supported mainly from aquaculture. ...
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The inflammatory effects of carrageenan (CGN), a ubiquitous food additive, remains controversial. Gut microbiota and intestinal homeostasis may be a breakthrough in resolving this controversy. Here we show that, κ-CGN did not cause significant inflammatory symptoms, but it did cause reduced bacteria-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and decreased thickness of the mucus layer by altering microbiota composition. Administration of the pathogenic bacterium Citrobacter rodentium, further aggravated the inflammation and mucosal damage in the presence of κ-CGN. Mucus layer degradation and altered SCFA levels could be reproduced by fecal transplantation from κ-CGN-fed mice, but not from germ-free κ-CGN-fed mice. These symptoms could be partially repaired by administering probiotics. Our results suggest that κ-CGN may not be directly inflammatory, but it creates an environment that favors inflammation by perturbation of gut microbiota composition and then facilitates expansion of pathogens, and this effect may be partially reversed by the introduction of probiotics.
Article
For nearly half a century, the scientific community has been unable to agree upon the safety profile of carrageenan (CGN), a ubiquitous food additive. Little is known about the mechanisms by which consumption of CGN aggravates the etiopathogenesis of murine colitis. However, analyses of gut microbiota and intestinal barrier integrity have provided a breakthrough in explaining the synergistic effect of CGN upon colitis. In Citrobacter rodentium-induced infectious murine colitis, inflammation and the clinical severity of gut tissue were aggravated in the presence of λ-CGN. Using fecal transplantation and germ-free mice experiments, we evaluated the role of intestinal microbiota on the pro-inflammatory effect of λ-CGN. Mice with high dietary λ-CGN consumption showed altered colonic microbiota composition that resulted in degradation of the colonic mucus layer, a raised fecal LPS level, and a decrease in the presence of bacterially derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Mucus layer defects and altered fecal LPS and SCFA levels could be reproduced in germ-free mice by fecal transplantation from CGN-H-fed mice, but not from germ-free CGN-H-fed mice. Our results confirm that λ-CGN may create an environment that favors inflammation by altering gut microbiota composition and gut bacterial metabolism. The present study provides evidence that the “gut microbiota-barrier axis” could be an alternative target for ameliorating the colitis promoting effect of λ-CGN.
Article
Aim: To assess the ability of the common food additive E407a (semi-refined carrageenan) to enter leukocytes in vitro and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leukocytes as a whole and granulocytes in particular, both during incubation and in experimental animals. Methods: ROS production was assessed in leukocytes incubated with E407a for 2 h at the final concentrations of 5 and 10 g/L using the dye 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA), as well as in cells isolated from rats orally exposed to E407a (140 mg/kg of weight) during 2 weeks (n = 8) and control rats (n = 8), by flow cytometry. Carrageenan uptake by leukocytes was estimated by confocal microscopy using incubation of rhodamine B isothiocyanate-labelled carrageenan with leukocyte suspensions. Results: Uptake of carrageenan by viable neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes was confirmed. Oral administration of the food additive E407a was associated with excessive ROS formation by viable leukocytes (CD45+, 7‑aminoactinomycin D- cells) and especially in granulocytes. Unexpectedly, a direct impact of semi-refined carrageenan during incubation for 2 h did not affect ROS production in leukocytes, evidenced by statistically insignificant differences in mean fluorescence intensity values of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein, which is a ROS-sensitive product of intracellular H2DCFDA conversion. Oral intake of E407a and direct exposure of leukocyte suspensions to it decreased the viability of leukocytes. Conclusion: Food-grade carrageenan can enter leukocytes without affecting ROS generation as a result of incubation for 2 h with leukocyte suspensions. On the contrary, oral exposure to E407a is accompanied by ROS overproduction by white blood cells, suggesting an indirect mechanism for the stimulation of ROS synthesis in vivo. E407a promotes cell death of leukocytes both in vivo and in vitro.
Article
κ-Carrageenase cleaves the β-(1-4) linkages of κ-carrageenan into κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides (κ-COS), which exhibit various biological activities. In this study, a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 16 κ-carrageenase gene, cgkA, was cloned from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. SY01 and secretory expressed in a food-grade host, Yarrowia lipolytica. The specific activity of the purified CgkA was 12.5 U/mg. Determination of biochemical properties showed that CgkA was a thermo-tolerant enzyme, and 59.9% of the initial enzyme activity was recovered by immediately placing the sample at 20 °C for 30 min after enzymatic inactivation by boiling for 5 min. The recombinant CgkA was an endo-type enzyme, the main enzymatic product was κ-carradiaose (accounting for 87.6% of total products), and κ-carratetraose was the minimum substrate. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo analyses indicated that enzymatic κ-carradiaose possesses anti-oxidant activity. These features make CgkA as a promising candidate for biotechnological applications in the production of anti-oxidant κ-COS.
Article
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The addition of food particles to food matrices is a convenient approach that allows to steer oral behavior, sensory perception and satiation. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of physical-chemical properties of heterogenous foods on oral processing behavior, bolus properties and dynamic sensory percep- tion. Bell pepper gel pieces varying in fracture stress and concentration were added to processed cream cheese matrices differing in texture. Addition of bell pepper gel pieces to processed cheeses increased consumption time, decreased eating rate and led to harder and less adhesive bolus with more saliva incorporated. Addition of bell pepper gel pieces to processed cheeses decreased dominance rate and duration of creaminess, smoothness, melting and dairy flavor and increased graininess and bell pepper flavor. Increasing fracture stress of bell pepper gel pieces from 100 to 300 kPa resulted in longer consumption time and lower eating rate. For hard/non- adhesive processed cheese matrices increasing gel pieces fracture stress lead to a boli with larger particles and more saliva. These changes were accompanied by decreased dominance perception of creaminess and bell pepper flavor and increased dominance of graininess. Increasing the concentration of bell pepper gel pieces from 15 to 30% did not affect oral behavior but led to the formation of harder and less adhesive bolus with larger particles and less saliva that were perceived with reduced dominance of creaminess, meltiness and dairy flavor while dominance of graininess and bell pepper flavor increased. Changing the texture of the cheese matrix from soft/ adhesive to hard/non-adhesive decreased consumption time, increased eating rate, did not influence bolus properties and decreased dominance rate of creaminess, smoothness and melting sensations. Number of chews and total consumption time were positively correlated with saliva content of the bolus, number of bolus particles, bolus hardness, dominance of firmness, chewiness and graininess. We conclude that the modification of physical- chemical properties of processed cheeses and embedded bell pepper gel pieces can be a strategy to steer oral behavior and bolus properties which consequently determine dynamic sensory perception.
Chapter
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In food, natural polymers encompass a range of proteins and polysaccharides that are widely used in a variety of industrial applications to perform a number of functions including gelling and thickening aqueous solutions, as well as stabilizing foams, emulsions and dispersions, inhibiting ice and sugar crystal formation, and control the release of flavors. In the food technology field, proteins, and polysaccharides when used as additives and ingredients in food formulations, are often referred to as “hydrocolloids.” Hydrocolloids are a heterogeneous group of long chain natural polymers characterized by their ability to form viscous dispersions and/or gels when dispersed in water (Saha and Bhattacharya in J Food Sci Technol 47:587–597, 2010). These polymers are generally hydrophilic due to the large number of hydroxyl (−OH) groups imparting a high affinity for binding water molecules, allowing them to be dispersed in water in the colloidal state. Thus, the origin of their name—hydrophilic colloids or hydrocolloids, which in the context of this chapter can be considered interchangeable with “natural polymers.” This chapter reviews the main applications of natural polymers in food, specifically, the stabilization of emulsions, modification of texture by the action of thickening and gelling, as well as some additional functions polymers can provide with respect to preservation, health, and nutrition. It also provides some market figures on the volumes, prices, and key drivers for the development of natural polymers as food additives and ingredients.
Article
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In order to modify the fatty acid profile of panela-type cheese (a Mexican fresh cheese), emulsified soybean oil with soy protein isolate and different carrageenan (iota, kappa or lambda) was employed as fat replacer. The replacement of milk fat in panela-type cheese resulted in higher cheese yield values and moisture content, besides a concomitant lower fat phase and higher protein content, due to a soy protein isolate in emulsified soybean oil. Fat replacement resulted in a harder but less cohesive, spring and resilient texture, where differences in texture could be attributed to the specific carrageenan-casein interactions within the rennet coagulated cheese matrix. The FTIR analysis showed that the milk fat replacement changed the fatty acid profile, also in function of the type of carrageenan employed. Lambda carrageenan containing emulsions improved moisture retention and maintained the textural properties of panela-type cheese.
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The objective of this study was to manufacture processed cheese analogues with added K-carrageenan and to evaluate their textural properties and meltability. The hardness of processed cheese analogues manufactured was measured using a TA-XT2i Texture Analyser and a 10 mm diameter cylindrical sampler (penetration rate: 1 mm/s; constant temperature: 21 degrees C). Using a puncture test, the force was determined that allowed the sampler to sink 20 mm deep in the cheese. The texture of the processed cheese analogues was examined using a TA-XT2i Texture Analyser and a 15 mm diameter cylindrical sampler (penetration rate: 1 mm/s; constant temperature: 21 degrees C). Using a texture profile analysis (TPA) determined were the parameters: adhesiveness, springiness, and chewiness of processed cheese analogues. The viscosity of processed cheese analogues was measured using a Brookfield DV II+ rotational viscometer with a Helipath Stand (F). The meltability of processed cheese analogues was analysed using a modified Schreiber test. An increase in the kappa-carragcenan content ranging from 0.05 to 0.3 % caused the hardness and chewiness of the processed cheese analogues to increase, and their adhesiveness and meltability to decrease. The addition of kappa-carrageenan in the amount from 0.05 to 0.3 % did not cause the springiness of processed cheese analogues to decrease. Along with the increasing content of kappa-carrageenan in the range between 0.05 and 0.3 %, the viscosity of 11 % and 12 % acid casein-based samples increased, whereas the viscosity of 13 % acid casein-based samples decreased as compared to the model analogues.
Chapter
Carrageenan is the leading seaweed-derived food hydrocolloid and is used widely for its textural functionality. Carrageenan has a specific set of rheological properties that differentiates it from other hydrocolloids and renders it useful in certain processed foods in addition to a small number of other niche markets. Growing demand for processed foods is a global trend that is being driven in general by an increase in population but also by opposing changes in the world’s economies. On one side, recession is forcing consumers to seek value for money, on the other, improved living standards in formerly disadvantaged economies are enabling consumers to look for more diverse and luxurious product offerings. From either perspective, carrageenan is a winner and the global market is expected to grow albeit, there are some indications that growth in certain regions and sectors has slowed.
Article
Regarding the rising demand of eating healthy displayed by consumers over the past few years, dairy market has been increasing its supply in producing low fat cheese. As well known, the reduction of fat in cheese milk causes a significant decrease in organoleptic properties and cheese yield, thus dairy scientists have a continuous challenge to counteract these defects and satisfy the consumer’s requests. This work was undertaken to investigate the possibilities to improve the characteristics of low fat Domiati cheese by using hydrocolloids as fat mimetic. Mixture of kappa carrageenan, locust bean and xanthan gums have been added to chesses milk. Upon using different concentrations of Hydrocolloids, low fat cheese showed a significant increase in the physiochemical characteristics, yield, and moisture. Furthermore, organoleptic properties obtained were both highly acceptable and comparable to full fat cheese. These positive effects were also sustained during the 75 days ripening period where sensory scores were closely similar to those obtained from full fat cheese.
Book
This book provides comprehensive coverage of the scientific aspects of cheese, emphasizing fundamental principles. The book’s updated 22 chapters cover the chemistry and microbiology of milk for cheesemaking, starter cultures, coagulation of milk by enzymes or by acidification, the microbiology and biochemistry of cheese ripening, the flavor and rheology of cheese, processed cheese, cheese as a food ingredient, public health and nutritional aspects of cheese, and various methods used for the analysis of cheese. The book contains copious references to other texts and review articles.
Article
en The effect of carrageenan (κ‐carrageenan, ι‐carrageenan, and λ‐carrageenan) on the physiochemical and functional properties of low‐fat Colby cheese during ripening was investigated. Protein, fat, and moisture contents; the soluble fractions of the total nitrogen at pH 4.6; protein and fat recovery; and the actual yield and dry matter yield (DM yield) were monitored. Hardness, springiness, and the storage modulus were also evaluated to assess the functional properties of the cheese. Moreover, the behavior of water in the samples was investigated to ascertain the underlying mechanisms. The results indicated that 0.15 g/kg κ‐carrageenan had no significant effect on the actual yield and DM yield, and physiochemical and functional properties of low‐fat Colby cheese. The protein content increased in the low‐fat cheese and low‐fat cheese containing κ‐carrageenan, and the moisture in the nonfat substance (MNFS) decreased in both samples, which contributed to the harder texture. The addition of 0.3 g/kg ι‐carrageenan and 0.3 g/kg λ‐carrageenan improved the textural and rheological properties of low‐fat cheese by 2 ways: one is increasing the content of bound and expressible moisture due to their high water absorption capacity and the other is interfering with casein crosslinking, thereby further increasing MNFS and the actual yield. Practical Application pt This study has proved that κ‐carrageenan had no significant effect on the functional properties of low‐fat Colby cheeses; ι‐carrageenan and λ‐carrageenan tend to interact with casein favorably, increasing the moisture content, and thus improving the functional properties of low‐fat cheeses. The cheese producers can add 0.3 g/kg ι‐carrageenan and 0.3 g/kg λ‐carrageenan to raw milk and manufacture the low‐fat cheeses with good functional properties.
Article
Hydrocolloids act as stabilizer and thickening agents, thus able to replace emulsifying salts. The present study was planned to use kappa-carrageenan in the production of processed cheddar cheese and to explore its effect on physico-chemical and textural properties of processed cheddar cheeses. Different concentration of.-carrageenan were used with gradual decrease in salt contents along with natural cheese, fat, and water to prepare processed cheddar cheese. The prepared samples were analyzed for physicochemical and sensory attributes at storage interval of 45 days during and after 90 days. With the increase in hydrocolloid concentration, stiffer product was obtained and meltability of the samples decreased than control. Processed cheddar cheese samples having 0.15% kappa-carrageenan with 2% emulsifying salt (1.34% sodium citrate and 0.66% disodium phosphates) were found more acceptable in terms of physico-chemical and sensory attributes, but all sensory attributes got fewer score with the passage of storage time.