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Gritty Leaders: The Impact of Grit on Positive Leadership Capacity

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Abstract

The concepts of grit and positive leadership are central to extraordinary performance. However, to date there has been little empirical analysis of the relationship between a leader’s level of grit and their capacity to implement positive leadership strategies and practices. This correlational study explores these linkages, taking grit subfactors into consideration as well as three dimensions of positive leadership. Convenience sampling was used to survey 100 leaders across a range of industries. Respondents completed the Grit Scale and 18 questions from the Positive Leadership Practices Self-Assessment. Results indicated that grit positively correlated with positive leadership, and perseverance exhibited a stronger relationship than passion. Further, grit accounted for variance in positive leadership. These findings provide a solid evidence base for giving leaders access to development opportunities that can accelerate the growth of grit and positive leadership.

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... It is believed that a positive leader helps to mitigate the challenges of globalization by turning them into opportunities for leveraging the diversity of the global context(Youssef-Morgan et al., 2013). Overall promoting a positive work culture(Ilies et al., 2013) thereby increasing employee well-being(Adams et al., 2020;Biswas & Chakraborty, 2019;Kelloway et al., 2013), aiding crisis management(James et al., 2011), promoting exemplary performance(Crewe & Girardi, 2020), empowering employees(Meyer et al., 2019) and even achieving 'Everest' goals(Schimschal & Lomas, 2019). ...
... Research indicates that grittier people are characterized by an unwavering, sustained and passionate search for a certain interest or goal, despite setbacks and distractions (Dam et al., 2019;Dugan et al., 2019). Likewise, it has been considered a trait broadly related to leadership (Caza & Posner, 2019;Schimschal & Lomas, 2019). ...
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... Subsequently, the relationship between grit and personal performance or success has been widely studied, covering a wide range of fields, such as education (Christopoulou et al., 2018;Wei et al., 2019), military (Maddi et al., 2012(Maddi et al., , 2017, management (Schimschal and Lomas, 2019), economy (Dugan et al., 2019), sports (Meyer et al., 2017;Cormier et al., 2019), and so on. These strands of research have verified that grit could positively predict personal achievements. ...
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... Similar to other forms of civic engagement, performing environmentally friendly behaviours involve prosocial reasoning or beliefs about one's responsibility to help others through community service or forms of prosocial behaviours (Metzger & Smetana, 2010). If grit has been associated not only with conscientiousness (Duckworth et al., 2007;Dumfart & Neubauer, 2016) but also with effective academic (Datu et al., 2016(Datu et al., , 2018Datu, Yang, et al., 2021;Wolters & Hussain, 2015), interpersonal (Lan et al., 2019), leadership (Schimschal & Lomas, 2018), and civic behaviours (Holbein et al., 2020), then it is plausible to anticipate that grit might be associated with positive environmental actions. ...
Article
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... A gritty individual is one who is tenacious towards goals and maintains effort over time, despite challenges and failures. It is described as a key trait shared by most well-known leaders (Duckworth et al., 2007;Schimschal & Lomas, 2018). In a study of cadets at West Point, researchers determined that grit is a significant predictor of success and ability to reach one's goals. ...
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... Researchers have also linked grit to increased engagement, greater resilience and improved well-being (e.g., Dam et al., 2019;Dugan et al., 2019). Furthermore, there has been considerable interest in the role of grit on leadership capability (e.g., Caza & Posner, 2019;Gilson et al., 2017;Schimschal & Lomas, 2019;Seguin, 2019). ...
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... With a strong grit motive, students could positively confront their adversity, which leads them to have a better performance. Students with gritter individuals engage in self-regulated learning and deliberate practices in an effort for their learning goal that improves students' learning performance (Schimschal & Lomas, 2019). ...
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Grit has drawn increasing intention in the field of educational research. As a crucial noncognitive indicator, grit has been used to understand individual success and performance in various fields. The past empirical research has shown inconsistent findings on the relationship between grit and academic achievement. The purpose of the study is aimed to explore how transformational school leaders support teachers to foster student grit through discovering what transformational school leaders' practices inspire teachers' practices in the classroom to the students. The semi-structural interview was conducted in the phenomenology study, and two school principals and eight teachers participated in the study. The researcher analyzed interview data guided by three theories of Dahlgren & Fallsberg's seven steps, cultural-historical activity theory, and the critical ecology framework. The Nvivo 12 program was utilized to code and to analyze the interview data. The study found that grit was a significant indicator of school improvement led by transformational school leaders' belief of core values such as hope, passion, excellence, resilience, and coherence. The study also found that grit fully or partially mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and school outcome and influenced among school leaders, teachers, and students. The significant finding was the strongest correlation between noncognitive factors and school leaders' belief and teachers' practices of grit, self-efficacy, mindset, and motivation. Results suggested that school leaders would promote grit as one of the school core indicators for school development; and suggested that the mindset needed to implement in the curriculum practice. Future researches would be recommended. Keywords: transformational leadership, school leaders, teachers, student grit, gritty, change
... In the leadership literature, the importance of the development of the leader's grit (Caza & Posner, 2019;Schimschal & Lomas, 2019) and hardiness (Bartone, 2006;Bartone, Eid, Johnsen, Laberg, & Snook, 2009;Eid, Johnsen, Bartone, & Nissestad, 2007) for leadership performance is clear. This article provides a detailed account of how the traits of grit and hardiness overlap as a foundation for leaders of character. ...
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... and Hope (i.e., the perseverance of rising-to-the-occasion; to keep going when things are difficult). These four characteristics overlap with the fundamental processes found in recent goal-setting studies (Raphiphatthana et al., 2018;Schimschal & Lomas, 2018). For example, interest in long-term goal pursuit has grown in recent years, with particular reference to its integrations with self-regulation (Eskreis-Winkler et al., 2014;Muenks, Wigfield, Yang, & O'Neal, 2017). ...
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Women are still not progressing into executive, CEO or board roles in substantial numbers. We argue that gendered forces operating at societal, organizational, and individual levels inhibit the accumulation of valuable career capital. These forces, typically in combination across a variety of contexts in the life-cycle, create substantial and cumulative limitations upon the ability of women to access and to accumulate the capital required to progress into executive roles in firms. We define this valuable capital for the role of the senior executive and explore the timing and interplay of critical forces that limit the acquisition and development of valuable capital for women. In particular, it is proposed that these forces can be mitigated by the corporate elite who, as board chairs and CEOs, can enhance the ability of middle and senior female managers to access and to acquire the additional valuable career capital required to progress to executive leadership roles.
Book
Transformational Leadership, Second Edition is intended for both the scholars and serious students of leadership. It is a comprehensive review of theorizing and empirical research that can serve as a reference and starting point for additional research on the theory. It can be used as a supplementary textbook in an intense course on leadership--or as a primary text in a course or seminar focusing on transformational leadership. New in the Second Edition: New, updated examples of leadership have been included to help illustrate the concepts, as well as show the broad range of transformational leadership in a variety of settings. New chapters have been added focusing specifically on the measurement of transformational leadership and transformational leadership and effectiveness. The discussion of both predicators and effects of transformational leadership is greatly expanded. Much more emphasis is given to authentic vs. inauthentic transformational leadership. Suggestions are made for guiding the future of research and applications of transformational leadership. © 2006 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
The Oxford Handbook of Positive Organizational Scholarship synthesizes much of the knowledge that has been generated after approximately ten years of research in the area of study called Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS). The Handbook identifies what is known, what is not known, and what is in need of further investigation going forward. The Handbook clarifies the definition and domain of POS, takes special care to define what is and is not meant by the term "positive," describes the history and development of this area of scientific inquiry, and explains why research in POS is so important as a scientific endeavor. Positive organizational scholarship rigorously seeks to understand what represents the best of the human condition based on scholarly research and theory. Just as positive psychology focuses on exploring optimal individual psychological states rather than pathological ones, organizational scholarship focuses attention on the generative dynamics in organizations that lead to the development of human strength, foster resiliency in employees, enable healing and restoration, and cultivate extraordinary individual and organizational performance. POS emphasizes what elevates individuals and organizations (in addition to what challenges them), what goes right in organizations (in addition to what goes wrong), what is life-giving (in addition to what is problematic or life-depleting), what is experienced as good (in addition to what is objectionable), and what is inspiring (in addition to what is difficult or arduous). While note ignoring dysfunctional or typical patterns of behavior, examines the enablers, motivations, and effects associated with remarkably positive phenomena-how they are facilitated, why they work, how they can be identified, and how organizations can capitalize on them. The Handbook is intended to be the "go-to" place for scholars and others interested in learning about POS.
Article
In this research, we investigate how grittier individuals might incur some costs by persisting when they could move on. Grittier participants were found to be less willing to give up when failing even though they were likely to incur a cost for their persistence. First, grittier participants are more willing to risk failing to complete a task by persisting on individual items. Second, when they are losing, they expend more effort and persist longer in a game rather than quit. Gritty participants have more positive emotions and expectations toward the task, which mediates the relationship between grit and staying to persist when they are losing. Results show gritty individuals are more willing to risk suffering monetary loss to persist.
Article
Psychological capital;Physical health;Psychological well-being
Article
Emotional contagion processes influence a wide range of organizational and leadership outcomes. In this paper, I review emotional contagion research as it relates to multiple levels of analysis within an organization and discuss the extent to which this process can be managed by leaders. The review begins with an explanation of the processes underpinning the emotional contagion process, highlighting the neurological mechanisms that give rise to implicit and explicit forms of emotional contagion. In the following section, I discuss some individual differences that moderate the experience of these two forms of emotional contagion. Subsequently, I review how emotional contagion processes impact leadership outcomes at the interpersonal, group and finally, organizational levels. The purpose of the current review is threefold. The first is to refine under-standings of the emotional dynamics of leadership influence from a neurological perspective, highlighting how implicit and explicit emotional contagion underpins much of leader-follower interactions. Second, the review extends on conceptualizations of emotional contagion in leadership interactions often captured at the interpersonal level, and illustrates how the process is relevant in influencing group level organizational leadership outcomes. Third, the review also highlights themes emerging from this area of research, and concludes with directions for further research. Ultimately, the review aims to show how emotional contagion processes are implicated as the 'emotional links' across multiple levels in organizations and organizational leadership.
Article
More than 4 decades of research and 9 meta-analyses have focused on the undermining effect: namely, the debate over whether the provision of extrinsic incentives erodes intrinsic motivation. This review and meta-analysis builds on such previous reviews by focusing on the interrelationship among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic incentives, and performance, with reference to 2 moderators: performance type (quality vs. quantity) and incentive contingency (directly performance-salient vs. indirectly performance-salient), which have not been systematically reviewed to date. Based on random-effects meta-analytic methods, findings from school, work, and physical domains (k = 183, N = 212,468) indicate that intrinsic motivation is a medium to strong predictor of performance (ρ = .21-45). The importance of intrinsic motivation to performance remained in place whether incentives were presented. In addition, incentive salience influenced the predictive validity of intrinsic motivation for performance: In a "crowding out" fashion, intrinsic motivation was less important to performance when incentives were directly tied to performance and was more important when incentives were indirectly tied to performance. Considered simultaneously through meta-analytic regression, intrinsic motivation predicted more unique variance in quality of performance, whereas incentives were a better predictor of quantity of performance. With respect to performance, incentives and intrinsic motivation are not necessarily antagonistic and are best considered simultaneously. Future research should consider using nonperformance criteria (e.g., well-being, job satisfaction) as well as applying the percent-of-maximum-possible (POMP) method in meta-analyses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Scholarly research on the topic of leadership has witnessed a dramatic increase over the last decade, resulting in the development of diverse leadership theories. To take stock of established and developing theories since the beginning of the new millennium, we conducted an extensive qualitative review of leadership theory across 10 top-tier academic publishing outlets that included The Leadership Quarterly, Administrative Science Quarterly, American Psychologist, Journal of Management, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Organizational Science, and Personnel Psychology. We then combined two existing frameworks (Gardner, Lowe, Moss, Mahoney, & Cogliser, 2010; Lord & Dinh, 2012) to provide a process-oriented framework that emphasizes both forms of emergence and levels of analysis as a means to integrate diverse leadership theories. We then describe the implications of the findings for future leadership research and theory.
Article
We report two studies examining the relationship between positive leadership behaviors and employee well-being. In the first, data from 454 nursing home employees showed that (a) a newly developed measure of positive leadership was distinct from transformational leadership and (b) positive leadership behaviors predicted context-specific and context-free well-being after controlling for transformational and abusive leadership. In the second study, data from a daily diary study (N = 26) showed that (a) positive leadership predicted positive, but not negative, employee affect and (b) positive leadership interacted with transformational leadership to predict employees positive affect.
Article
In the wake of increasing globalization, today's organizational leaders are faced with unprecedented complexity. To help meeting the challenge, this article proposes a new positive approach to global leadership. After first providing the background on positivity, positive global leadership is carefully defined and its similarities and differences with both the established and contemporary leadership theories are noted. The discussion then turns to how positive global leadership addresses three major challenges in the global context of distance, cultural differences and cross-cultural barriers. The article concludes that this new positive approach can help global leaders to leverage diverse strengths in themselves and their environment to more effectively meet the escalating challenges they face now and in the future.
Article
This article presents my response to the article by Brown, Sokal, and Friedman (2013), which critically examined Losada's conceptual and mathematical work (as presented in Losada, 1999; Losada & Heaphy, 2004; and Fredrickson & Losada; 2005) and concluded that mathematical claims for a critical tipping point positivity ratio are unfounded. In the present article, I draw recent empirical evidence together to support the continued value of computing and seeking to elevate positivity ratios. I also underscore the necessity of modeling nonlinear effects of positivity ratios and, more generally, the value of systems science approaches within affective science and positive psychology. Even when scrubbed of Losada's now-questioned mathematical modeling, ample evidence continues to support the conclusion that, within bounds, higher positivity ratios are predictive of flourishing mental health and other beneficial outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Connectivity, the control parameter in a nonlinear dynamics model of team performance is mathematically linked to the ratio of positivity to negativity (P/N) in team interaction. By knowing the P/N ratio it is possible to run the nonlinear dynamics model that will portray what types of dynamics are possible for a team. These dynamics are of three types: point attractor, limit cycle, and complexor (complex order, or “chaotic” in the mathematical sense). Low performance teams end up in point attractor dynamics, medium perfomance teams in limit cycle dynamics, and high performance teams in complexor dynamics.
Article
When making capital investment decisions organizational leaders are trained to consider the financial return on investment. Yet, the same expectation typically does not exist for investments in leadership training. We suggest that decisions regarding leadership training and development ought to use a similar approach as the process leads to organizations incurring cost for an anticipated benefit, like any other investment. In the current paper, we describe how to estimate the return on leadership development investment (RODI) and the implications for measuring organizational effectiveness from such analyses. Using different guiding assumptions, scenarios, length of the intervention, and level of management participating in the leader development program, the expected return on investment from leadership development interventions ranged from a low negative RODI to over 200%.
Article
Hope is defined as the perceived capability to derive pathways to desired goals, and motivate oneself via agency thinking to use those pathways. The adult and child hope scales that are derived from hope theory are described. Hope theory is compared to theories of learned optimism, optimism, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Higher hope consistently is related to better outcomes in academics, athletics, physical health, psychological adjustment, and psychotherapy. Processes that lessen hope in children and adults are reviewed. Using the hope theory definition, no evidence is found for "false" hope. Future research is encouraged in regard to accurately enhancing hope in medical feedback and helping people to pursue those goals for which they are best suited.
Article
Article Many quantities of interest in medicine, such as anxiety or degree of handicap, are impossible to measure explicitly. Instead, we ask a series of questions and combine the answers into a single numerical value. Often this is done by simply adding a score from each answer. For example, the mini-HAQ is a measure of impairment developed for patients with cervical myelopathy.1 This has 10 items (table 1)) recording the degree of difficulty experienced in carrying out daily activities. Each item is scored from 1 (no difficulty) to 4 (can't do). The scores on the 10 items are summed to give the mini-HAQ score. View this table:View PopupView InlineTable 1 Mini-HAQ scale in 249 severely impaired subjects When items are used to form a scale they need to have internal consistency. The items should all measure the same thing, so they should be correlated with one another. A useful coefficient for assessing internal consistency is Cronbach's alpha.2 The formula is: [This figure is not available.] where k is the number of items, si2 is the variance of the ith item and sT2 is the variance of the total score formed by summing all the items. If the items are not simply added to make the score, but first multiplied by weighting coefficients, we multiply the item by its coefficient before calculating the variance si2. Clearly, we must have at least two items-that is k >1, or will be undefined. The coefficient works because the variance of the sum of a group of independent variables is the sum of their variances. If the variables are positively correlated, the variance of the sum will be increased. If the items making up the score are all identical and so perfectly correlated, all the si2 will be equal and sT2 = k2 si2, so that si2/sT2 = 1/k and = 1. On the other hand, if the items are all independent, then sT2 = si2 and = 0. Thus will be 1 if the items are all the same and 0 if none is related to another. For the mini-HAQ example, the standard deviations of each item and the total score are shown in the table. We have si2 = 11.16, sT2 = 77.44, and k = 10. Putting these into the equation, we have [This figure is not available.] which indicates a high degree of consistency. For scales which are used as research tools to compare groups, may be less than in the clinical situation, when the value of the scale for an individual is of interest. For comparing groups, values of 0.7 to 0.8 are regarded as satisfactory. For the clinical application, much higher values of are needed. The minimum is 0.90, and =0.95, as here, is desirable. In a recent example, McKinley et al devised a questionnaire to measure patient satisfaction with calls made by general practitioners out of hours.3 This included eight separate scores, which they interpreted as measuring constructs such as satisfaction with communication and management, satisfaction with doctor's attitude, etc. They quoted for each score, ranging from 0.61 to 0.88. They conclude that the questionnaire has satisfactory internal validity, as five of the eight scores had >0.7. In this issue Bosma et al report similar values, from 0.67 to 0.84, for assessments of three characteristics of the work environment.4 Cronbach's alpha has a direct interpretation. The items in our test are only some of the many possible items which could be used to make the total score. If we were to choose two random samples of k of these possible items, we would have two different scores each made up of k items. The expected correlation between these scores is . References1.↵Casey ATH, Crockard HA, Bland JM, Stevens J, Moskovich R, Ransford AO.Development of a functional scoring system for rheumatoid arthritis patients with cervical myelopathy Ann Rheum Dis (in press).2.↵Cronbach LJ.Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests.Psychometrika1951; 16:297–333.3.↵McKinley RK, Manku Scott T, Hastings AM, French DP, Baker R.Reliability and validity of a new measure of patient satisfaction with out of hours primary medical care in the United Kingdom: development of a patient questionnaire.BMJ1997; 314:193–8.OpenUrlFREE Full Text4.↵Bosma H, Marmot MG, Hemingway H, Nicholson AC, Brunner E, Stansfield SA.Low job control and risk of coronary heart disease in Whitehall II (prospective cohort) study.BMJ1997; 314:558–65.
Article
The meaning of work literature is the product of a long tradition of rich inquiry spanning many disciplines. Yet, the field lacks overarching structures that would facilitate greater integration, consistency, and understanding of this body of research. Current research has developed in ways that have created relatively independent domains of study that exist in silos organized around various sources of meaning and meaningfulness. In this paper, we review the meaning of work literature in order to propose new frameworks within which to classify existing work and to seed new work. Our review is organized by the major sources of the meaning of work on which extant research has focused, and by the mechanisms through which work is proposed to become meaningful. We analyze the evolution and current state of meaning of work research, identifying core patterns and assumptions that have defined research in this area to date, and offer a theoretical framework based on this body of research that illuminates the main pathways to meaningful work. Throughout, we outline several promising directions for future research that we hope will stimulate further generative inquiry in this rich area of study.
Article
We expand the conceptualization of positive leadership and hypothesize that leaders' ability to influence followers across varied complex situations will be enhanced through the development of a rich and multifaceted self-construct. Utilizing self-complexity theory and other aspects of research on self-representation, we show how the structure and structural dynamics of leaders' self-constructs are linked to their varied role demands by calling forth cognitions, affects, goals and values, expectancies, and self-regulatory plans that enhance performance. Through this process, a leader is able to bring the “right stuff” (the appropriate ensemble of attributes) to bear on and succeed in the multiple challenges of leadership. We suggest future research to develop dimensional typologies related to leadership-relevant aspects of the self and also to link individual positive self-complexity to more aggregate positive organizational processes. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Kim Cameron reports on two decades of empirical research on organizations that have faced difficult economic situations but achieved unexpected and exceptional levels of success. Examining these organizations, Cameron has uncovered some unusual leadership strategies that can serve as guidelines for organizations facing trying times. These strategies focus on the positive, or an orientation toward strengths rather than weaknesses and abundance rather than deficits in organizations. Cameron explains why these strategies succeed and offers five critical guidelines on putting them to use in your organization.
Book
This 2006 book was the first handbook where the world's foremost ‘experts on expertise’ reviewed our scientific knowledge on expertise and expert performance and how experts may differ from non-experts in terms of their development, training, reasoning, knowledge, social support, and innate talent. Methods are described for the study of experts' knowledge and their performance of representative tasks from their domain of expertise. The development of expertise is also studied by retrospective interviews and the daily lives of experts are studied with diaries. In 15 major domains of expertise, the leading researchers summarize our knowledge on the structure and acquisition of expert skill and knowledge and discuss future prospects. General issues that cut across most domains are reviewed in chapters on various aspects of expertise such as general and practical intelligence, differences in brain activity, self-regulated learning, deliberate practice, aging, knowledge management, and creativity.
Article
Research shows that harmonious and obsessive passion are positively and negatively linked to well-being respectively (e.g., Vallerand et al. in J Personal 75:505–534, 2007; Psychol Sport Exerc 9:373–392, 2008). The present study investigated the psychological mechanisms underlying the different impact of the two types of passion on well-being. A theoretical model involving passion, ruminations, flow experiences, and well-being was tested. Results showed that the more people have a harmonious passion, the more they tend to experience flow in their favorite activity, which in turn predicts higher well-being. Obsessive passion did not seem to be systematically linked to flow in the favorite activity. In contrast, the more people have an obsessive passion, the more they tend to ruminate about their passionate activity while engaging in another activity, which did not seem to be systematically the case for people with a harmonious passion. These ruminations are negatively related to flow experiences in the other activity, which are positively associated with well-being. Flow and ruminations thus seem to contribute to the understanding of the link between passion and well-being.
Article
This article reviews the founding of The Leadership Quarterly (LQ) and the 188 articles published in its first decade. Multiple methods were used to prepare this review including interviews with former and current LQ editors; quantitative techniques; and qualitative analysis to examine the themes, methods, and contributions of the journal during its first decade. Directions for future research are provided, which integrate a decade of LQ author directives with interviews of prominent leadership scholars and the current authors' opinions grounded in the literature review.
Article
This Special Issue is the result of the inaugural summit hosted by the Gallup Leadership Institute at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in 2004 on Authentic Leadership Development (ALD). We describe in this introduction to the special issue current thinking in this emerging field of research as well as questions and concerns. We begin by considering some of the environmental and organizational forces that may have triggered interest in describing and studying authentic leadership and its development. We then provide an overview of its contents, including the diverse theoretical and methodological perspectives presented, followed by a discussion of alternative conceptual foundations and definitions for the constructs of authenticity, authentic leaders, authentic leadership, and authentic leadership development. A detailed description of the components of authentic leadership theory is provided next. The similarities and defining features of authentic leadership theory in comparison to transformational, charismatic, servant and spiritual leadership perspectives are subsequently examined. We conclude by discussing the status of authentic leadership theory with respect to its purpose, construct definitions, historical foundations, consideration of context, relational/processual focus, attention to levels of analysis and temporality, along with a discussion of promising directions for future research.
Article
The scholarly entrepreneurship community is coming to recognize what practicing entrepreneurs have known for some time — that passion is a central element of the entrepreneurial process. Recent developments have more carefully defined the construct of entrepreneurial passion and modeled its impact on entrepreneurial behaviors. This paper takes the next step by building a model of how that passion may be transferred from entrepreneur to employees. The question of interest is how entrepreneurs can facilitate the contagion of their own passion to others.
Article
This research explored the roles of intrinsic motivation (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM) and the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals as predictors of increased work effort (WE). A cross-lagged field study was conducted among 1,441 employees from three large Norwegian service organizations across a 10-month time span. The results showed that the relationship between IM and increased WE was more positive for employees with high levels of mastery-approach goals. This observation suggests that having congruent goals may accentuate the positive relationship between IM and WE.