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International Journal of
and Public Health
The Efﬁcient Measurement of Job Satisfaction:
Facet-Items versus Facet Scales
Angelika Lepold ID , Norbert Tanzer, Anita Bregenzer and Paulino Jiménez * ID
Department of Psychology, University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria; email@example.com (A.L.);
firstname.lastname@example.org (N.T.); email@example.com (A.B.)
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel.: +43-316-380-5128
Received: 25 May 2018; Accepted: 25 June 2018; Published: 28 June 2018
The measurement of job satisfaction as a central dimension for workplace health and
well-being is crucial to set suitable health- and performance-enhancing management decisions.
Measuring different facets of job satisfaction leads to a more precise understanding about job
satisfaction in research as well as to more speciﬁc interventions in companies. This study examines
the measurement of job satisfaction with facet scales (multiple-items for one facet) and facet-items
(one item for one facet). Facet-items are a cost-effective and fast way to measure job satisfaction
in facets, whereas facet scales are more detailed and provide further information. Results from
788 bank employees showed that facet-items of job satisfaction were signiﬁcantly correlated
with the corresponding facet scales and had high factor loadings within the appropriate factor.
Furthermore, the same correlational pattern between facet scales and external criteria was found
for facet-items and external criteria (identiﬁcation with the company, work engagement, stress,
resources). The ﬁndings support the usage of facet-items in companies and in research where cost-
and time-effectiveness is imperative and the usage of facet scales where an even deeper understanding
of job satisfaction is needed. In practice, the usage of efﬁcient measurements is evident, especially in
the upcoming ﬁeld of eHealth tools.
workplace health promotion; job satisfaction; facet-items; facet scales; measurement;
Is your job making you feel satisﬁed? Job satisfaction (JS) is one of the most studied ﬁelds
of work design research in psychology [
]. The wide interest of JS is valid for research and for
]. JS can be seen in two different ways: On one hand, JS is used as a measurement
for well-being of employees [
]. In this respect, JS displays the emotional state of the employees that
is also frequently used as an indicator in workplace health promotion projects to develop speciﬁc
]. On the other hand, JS is seen in a dynamic process as a predictor and outcome
variable for other job-related factors in the direction of performance [
], e.g., work engagement.
Since engaged employees are more productive [
], organizations want to explore the level of JS of
their employees. High JS can be a goal for organizations to reduce their ﬂuctuations and to enhance
their performance, but for the employees by themselves, it is of deep interest to enhance their own
quality of life. JS is deﬁned as a pleasurable or positive emotional state [
] and is developed through
evaluative judgments, affective experiences at work, and beliefs about jobs [
]. It is associated with
important work-related and general outcomes [
] as e.g., JS shows a high variance proportion for
the prediction of general life satisfaction [
]. Furthermore, JS and work engagement show a high
positive relationship [
]. Therefore, the measurement of JS plays a fundamental role as organizations
want highly involved and satisﬁed employees to reach their goals (e.g., [
]). The measurement of JS
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 1362; doi:10.3390/ijerph15071362 www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 1362 2 of 19
gives insight into the attitudes of the employees in the company and can be used to support the design
of corporate strategies .
A typical way of using JS is by including it as organizational diagnostic variable in employee
] to derive actions according to the goals and strategies of the organization. These goals
can be derived with the Balanced Scorecard [
]. The Balanced Scorecard is an instrument to translate
the strategies and goals of a company into precise measurable indicators. The learning and growth
perspective of the Balanced Scorecard, which is one of four perspectives, is the foundation for all other
perspectives. Investments in further education, information technologies, and systems are part of the
learning and growth perspective where the base to reach other deﬁned goals is set. The learning and
growth perspective includes, amongst other indicators, the satisfaction of the employees to increase
productivity and quality [
], where JS can be measured with an employee survey [
]. Recent research
shows that economic measurement is important to get information and to decrease the reaction time to
set actions in a company .
As part of most employee surveys, JS can be on one hand considered as a global construct
or on the other hand can be seen as consisting of various facets [
], where, according to Judge
and Kammeyer-Mueller [
], JS is a hierarchical construct. Global JS combines all feelings and
cognitions toward the job whereas the facet approach considers various aspects of the job like work
task, payment, promotion, supervision, or coworkers [
]. These different approaches lead to
various measurements of JS [
]. We differentiate the approaches into the goal of assessing global JS or
facets of JS as presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Different forms of measurement of assessing job satisfaction (JS).
Number of Items
Form of JS Multiple-Items Single-Items
JS Global Multiple-items for one global scale of JS Single-item for global score of JS
Multiple-items for every facet of JS (facet scales)
Single-items for every facet of JS (facet-items)
The contrasts between these approaches can be seen at different levels. JS is often measured
with multiple-items aggregated to global JS [
]. A new way of assessing JS is with one single-item
asking for global JS (e.g., [
]). Global JS is an efﬁcient way of measuring well-being either in a
single-item version or with multiple-items, where the advantage of multiple-items lies in higher
]. Measuring dimensions (or facets) of JS can be done with multiple-items aggregated
to different facets of JS [
]. Assessing facets of JS is useful to get a deeper insight into the
different organizational processes [
] as also the multidimensional complexity of JS has to be taken
into account [
]. The facets that are considered, e.g., by the Job Descriptive Index [
], are the
work by itself, compensation and beneﬁts, attitudes toward supervisors, relations with co-workers,
and opportunities for promotion. But there can be other facets like working conditions [
]. Given the
current measurements of JS, there exist different facets of JS as well as different compositions of
]. Regarding the idea of an efﬁcient way of measuring JS, which at the same time covers all
important facets, can be seen best presented with the use of single-items where every item describes one
facet of JS, e.g., the facet “satisfaction with working conditions” is assessed with one item (e.g., [
We deﬁne single-items, which are used as assessment for a single facet of JS, as facet-items.
The aim of this study is to introduce and test a set of JS instruments: an instrument of JS
consisting of different facet scales (Proﬁle Analysis of Job Satisfaction (PAJS); [
]) and a specially
developed screening version are compared. This screening version of the measurement of JS consists
of a battery of facet-items, where every item represents one facet of the facet scales. Instruments
with facet-items have been developed before (e.g., [
]) but have included only a small range of
possible facets, focusing strongly on facets measuring JS with social aspects (supervisor, coworkers)
or with task-related aspects (work tasks, payment, career possibilities). To get a deeper insight into
the workplace, a more detailed assessment is needed where a wide range of possible facets must be
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 1362 3 of 19
considered (e.g., the information processes, the working and vacation times, or working conditions).
The PAJS contains 11 facets with multiple-items for every facet and, therefore, allows a very speciﬁc
assessment of the workplace. A screening version with one item for each of the 11 facets could provide
more information than single- or multiple-items of global JS and be at the same time more cost- and
time-efﬁcient than the PAJS. Nonetheless the usage of multiple-item measurements for JS is necessary
to get a deeper insight into the facets and to derive interventions more precisely.
1.1. Measuring Job Satisfaction with Facet-Items versus Facet Scales
Regarding single-items of JS, they need less time and space, are more cost-effective, and may
contain more face validity than scales with multiple-items [
]. Cost- and time-effectiveness is an
important issue for companies. Shorter surveys are more likely to be approved by companies and are
more likely to be completed by the employees or participants in a study [
]. Therefore, an economic
measurement will lead to higher participation of employees in an employee survey or in research
studies . These advantages can also be assumed for facet-items of JS .
Criticism against single-item measurements refer to the assessment of reliability: the test-retest-
reliability for single-item measurements can be estimated, but the more psychometrically important
estimation of internal consistency cannot be generated [
]. Furthermore, Wanous et al. [
in their meta-analysis test-retest-reliabilities for single-items between 0.45 and 0.69, which is a
large bandwidth. But as Gardner et al. [
] state, it is possible that one “good” item shows better
reliability and validity than many “bad” items. Wanous et al. [
] report correlations at 0.63 between
single-items and scale measures showing that single-items of JS have an acceptable psychometric
quality. Besides that, not only reliability but also validity for the practical usage of scales is at least of
high importance .
For other constructs, like work engagement, it was already shown that a short and efﬁcient
measurement can be used [
]: the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) measures the three
dimensions of vigor, dedication, and absorption with one item for each dimension and shows
acceptable reliability and validity. For narcissism, a single-item measurement was also developed,
showing high test-retest-reliability and acceptable validity [
]. Even assessing the health status with
global single-items as a valid, reliable, and sensitive measurement can be done .
In the present study, facet-items of JS are direct statements. Facet-items in form of questions
in a discrepancy approach [
] can lead to psychometric problems [
]. Furthermore, the used
measurement, in fact the PAJS, contains 11 facets of JS, and therefore, it is even more comprehensive
and easier to derive practical interventions than with less facets. As the measurement of 11 facets with
multiple-items for every scale is costly, a facet-item approach is more efﬁciently and less cost-intensive.
Therefore, a screening version was developed to measure the facets of JS with facet-items: 11 items
were deﬁned to measure 11 facets. The items included the name of the facet scale and in parentheses
further descriptions of the scale (this is presented in Table 2, see third column). To be efﬁcient,
the circumstance of having items measuring more than one aspect was deliberately accepted, but for
that more comprehensible items were possible.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 1362 4 of 19
Table 2. Comparison of the Profile Analysis of Job Satisfaction (PAJS) and the PAJS-Facet-Item (PAJS-FI) 1.
Facet of Job Satisfaction PAJS—Facet Scale Measurement PAJS-FI—Facet-Item Measurement
Information and communication Three single-items (Sample item: I am . . . with the information about activities in
I am . . . with information and communication (activities in company,
treatment of my suggestions, information from the management,
information about innovations).
Demanding work Three single-items (Sample item: I am . . . with my work domain.) I am . . . with how demanding my job is (work domain, responsibility).
Relationship to direct colleagues Four single-items (Sample item: I am . . . with the support of my direct colleagues.) I am . . . with the relationship to my direct colleagues (team spirit,
work atmosphere, division of work, support).
Relationship to direct supervisor Four single-items (Sample item: I am . . . with the support of my supervisor.) I am . . . with the relationship to my direct supervisor (support, openness for
problems, arrangement of cooperation between colleagues, praise, criticism).
Organization and management Three single-items (Sample item: I am . . . with the image of the company.) I am . . . with the organization and management (effort regarding employees,
participation possibilities, image).
Chances of making career
Five single-items (Sample item: I am
. . .
with my chances of moving up in my company
compared to my colleagues.)
I am . . . with the chances of moving up and making career (compared to my
colleagues, to colleagues from similar companies, to friends, possibility of
making my desired career, possibility of further education).
Working conditions Three single-items (Sample item: I am . . . with my working tools and materials.) I am . . . with the working conditions (working tools and materials,
working environment, work applications, personal design freedom).
Three single-items (Sample item: I am
. . .
with my participation possibilities concerning
my work domain.)
I am . . . with the decision range (classiﬁcation of work tasks,
possibility of participation).
Working and vacation times Four single-items (Sample item: I am . . . with the planning of my vacation times.) I am . . . with working and vacation times (working hours, consideration of
wishes in organizing working hours, vacation times, organization of breaks).
Compensations of the employer
Three single-items (Sample item: I am
. . .
with the payment compared to my colleagues.)
I am . . . with compensations of the employer (ﬁnancial, social, job security).
General framework conditions Three single-items (Sample item: I am . . . with the extended beneﬁts offered to me.) I am .. . with extended beneﬁts (ﬂexible working-time models,
burnout-package, workplace health management).
The three points “
. . .
” refer to the rating-scale from “1, very satisﬁed” to “5, unsatisﬁed”. An example for the rating of a single-item of the facet “organization and management” with a
rating of “very satisﬁed” is “I am very satisﬁed with the image of the company”.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 1362 5 of 19
1.2. Job Satisfaction and External Criteria
On one hand, JS is used as an indicator for well-being, e.g., as an output of changes within
a company inducing organizational health performance interventions [
]. On the other hand,
JS is supposed to be a cause for other outcomes like absenteeism, performance, productivity,
work engagement, organizational inefﬁciency (like counterproductive behaviour), intention to quit,
or commitment [
]. In the applied ﬁeld of organizational psychology, JS is used as a broad
indicator of these outcomes or as an indicator of well-being, concluding that any measurement of JS
either as facet-items or facet scales has to be tested with the respective outcomes as external criteria.
The facets of JS lead to different predictions of behaviour and therefore, different interventions can
be derived [
]. In an international study for example the relational aspect of JS has been identiﬁed
as the most important facet for performance [
] and in a study among senior managers in the
forestry and wood-processing sector, base salary was the most important factor for motivation [
By using organizational-speciﬁc results like the previous one then subsequent steps for changes in an
organization can be developed in a tailored manner.
Organizational identiﬁcation, declared as a strong affective and cognitive bond between employee
and organization, shows a positive relationship with JS [
], whereas intention to quit is related
negatively to JS [
]. The positive relationship between organizational identiﬁcation and JS also
occurs when JS is summarized from different facets [
]. Jiménez [
] states that different facets of
JS have inﬂuence on intention to quit and organizational identiﬁcation. Satisfaction with making
career and satisfaction with how demanding the job is are the most important inﬂuence factors for
Furthermore, JS and work engagement can be viewed as two different constructs in organizational
psychology with a positive relationship [
] but higher levels of arousal for work engagement than
for JS [
]. The importance of work engagement for todays’ work environment has been proved in
many studies [
]. Different facets of JS are meant to make different predictions of work engagement,
e.g., satisfaction with the work by itself is the key driver of work engagement, whereas satisfaction
with payment is not linked to work engagement .
Projects in workplace health promotion aim to enhance resources and to reduce stress. In the end,
these projects should improve well-being, often measured in the form of JS [
]. As job resources are a
positive feature of work environment related to motivational outcomes, resources are of an outstanding
interest for companies [
] and are further related to well-being [
]. Stress, seen as a process caused
by a load beyond the level of normal functioning [
], is an indispensable part in workplace health
promotion projects. It has been shown that stress and JS are negatively related, whereas the different
facets of JS are differently important .
1.3. Research Questions
1.3.1. Facet-Items in Comparison with Facet Scales of Job Satisfaction
One aim of this study is to compare a facet-item measurement with a facet scale measurement
of JS. The used facet scale measurement, the PAJS, is a standardized approach to measure a wide
range of facets of JS and it is possible to compare the results of an organization with a representative
sample. It is hypothesized that facet-items are signiﬁcantly correlated to the appropriate facet scale of
the PAJS. Furthermore, intercorrelations between the facets of JS should be moderate [
]. In addition,
the facet-items should show high factor loadings within the appropriate factor in a conﬁrmatory factor
analysis with all items of the PAJS. The ﬁndings should provide evidence to use a facet-item approach
to measure JS where cost- and time-effectiveness is imperative.
1.3.2. Facets of Job Satisfaction and External Criteria
In addition, as the validity of a measurement must be checked, this is another aim of the present
study. To test validity, the facet-item measurement as well as the facet scale measurement is related to other
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 1362 6 of 19
external criteria. External criteria in this study are identification with the company, work engagement,
stress, and resources. Correlations between external criteria and the two measurements of JS should
show similar patterns. To interpret the correlation coefﬁcients, the classiﬁcation from Cohen [
used, pointing out correlations higher than 0.30 are moderate and correlations higher than 0.50 are
high. The level of correlations between JS and organizational identiﬁcation should be moderate [
Furthermore, relationships between JS and work engagement should be moderate to high [
well as relationships between JS and resources and stress .
1.3.3. Efﬁciency of a Facet-Items Approach
To prove the efﬁciency of the newly developed facet-items approach compared to a facet scales
approach, the comparison between the average answer times of the two measurements is another aim
of the present study. It is hypothesized, that the average answer time for the facet-items measurement
is shorter than for the facet scales approach.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Participants and Procedure
The participants in this online-study were 788 employees working for an Austrian bank.
The overall response rate was 53% (total of 1495 employees). The study is a ﬁrst result in a longitudinal
project about workplace health promotion (“Employee Survey 2015—Main Focus on Psychosocial Risk
Management according to the Austrian Employee Protection Act”) and was conducted in the year
2015. The participation in the workplace health promotion project was voluntary. Nearly half of the
employees were female (49.4%), and the others were male (50.6%). The largest portion had no leading
position (74.6%). In this study, 13.8% of the bank employees had no contact to clients (employees in the
back ofﬁce), and 74.2% worked full-time, the others part-time. Age was measured in four categories:
13.1% were between 21 and 30 years old, 22.7% between 31 and 40 years, 33% between 41 and 50 years,
and 31.2% were older than 50 years.
The survey was advertised on the intranet of the bank and through e-mail. The bank employees
were asked to participate in the workplace health promotion project (including an employee survey)
that takes place every two years and is conducted by an external, independent research institute.
The ﬁrst part of the survey included the questionnaires of the typical part of the employee survey,
and in the second part, employees were asked to participate in a research project from the University of
Graz to get some information about the effects of JS. At ﬁrst, participants had to rate their JS measured
with a screening version (measurement of facet-items). The second part of the survey included the PAJS
(measurement of facet scales). The participation in the study was completely voluntary, anonymous,
and conﬁdential. Participants were promised total data protection. The study was carried out in
accordance with the recommendations of the guidelines of the Ethics Commission of the University of
Graz and approved by the Ethics Commission of the University of Graz from 27 March 2015.
2.2.1. Job Satisfaction (Facet Scales and Facet-Items)
The PAJS by Jiménez [
] with 38 items belonging to 11 facets was used to measure the facets
of JS with several items for every facet (facet scales). Three to ﬁve items belong to every facet
of the PAJS. This scale for job satisfaction (published at a test publisher [
]) has been used in
organizational diagnostic studies in research and in practice. Studies showed Cronbach’s alpha
for the facets of JS measured with the PAJS from 0.82 to 0.91 [
]. Criterion validity for the
PAJS showed in different studies a negative relationship of JS with burnout, intention to quit,
or absenteeism [
]. Furthermore, construct validity was proven with the Job Diagnostic Survey by
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 1362 7 of 19
Hackman and Oldham [
]. The practical requirements often requested for a shorter version with
high psychometric quality.
Based on the ideas of being efﬁcient (cost and time), a screening version was developed with
the items of the PAJS to measure the facets of JS with facet-items. Therefore, it was accepted to have
items measuring more than one aspect, but for that getting more comprehensible items. With the
idea of being efﬁcient, for the PAJS-Facet-Item (PAJS-FI) eleven items were developed to measure
eleven facets. The development of the facet-items included the name of the facet scale and in
parentheses the single-items of the facet scales or other descriptions of the scale. As an example,
the facet information and communication with three single-items of the PAJS was measured in the PAJS-FI
with the facet-item “I am
. . .
(rated from “1, very satisﬁed” to “5, unsatisﬁed”) with information and
communication (activities in company, treatment of my suggestions, information from the management,
information about innovations)”. Another example for the facet organization and management is
the facet-item “I am
. . .
(rated from “1, very satisﬁed” to “5, unsatisﬁed”) with the organization and
management (effort regarding employees, participation possibilities, image)”. It seems on one hand
to be trivial to compare these two measurements, on the other hand it is important for practice and
economic science to get valuable results for the practical use of efﬁcient measurements in employee
surveys with scientiﬁc accuracy [
]. In Table 2, the different facets as well as the facet-items from the
PAJS-FI and sample items from the facet scales of the PAJS are shown. The facet to which the items
belong is also represented in Table 2.
Employees were asked to indicate their agreement on a ﬁve-point scale (1 = very satisﬁed,
5 = unsatisﬁed). For an easier interpretation of the results, the values were inverted to get high values
referring to high JS. In the present study, the Cronbach’s alpha for the global JS score in PAJS-FI was
α= 0.89 and for the PAJS also α= 0.89.
2.2.2. Identiﬁcation with the Company
Identiﬁcation with the company was measured with four different items [
] which were
adapted to the employee survey in the company and contained the aspects of recommendation and
reapplying to the company, identiﬁcation with the company, and proudness of working in this company.
The items had to be rated on a ﬁve-point scale (1 = does apply perfectly, 5 = does not apply at all).
For an easier interpretation, the values of identiﬁcation with the company were inverted to get high
values referring to high identiﬁcation. A sample item is “I identify myself strongly with the company”.
Cronbach’s alpha for identiﬁcation with the company was α= 0.90.
2.2.3. Work Engagement
Work engagement was measured with the short version of the UWES [
]. The UWES-9 includes
nine items pertaining to three dimensions: vigor,dedication, and absorption (three items for each
dimension). Participants were asked to rank their answers on a seven-point scale from 0 (never) to 6
(always/every day). Sample items are “At my work, I feel bursting with energy” (vigor), “I am proud
on the work that I do” (dedication), and “I feel happy when I am working intensely” (absorption).
Cronbach’s alpha for work engagement was α= 0.96.
2.2.4. Resources and Stress
Resources and stress were measured with the Recovery-Stress-Questionnaire for Work [
With this measurement, the two dimensions stress and resources can be displayed. In the present
study, a short version of the RESTQ-Work (RESTQ-Work-27) was used. For the dimension stress,
the sub-dimensions social emotional stress and loss of meaning can be generated. The dimension
resources contains the sub-dimensions overall recovery, leisure/breaks, psychosocial resources,
and work-related resources. Employees were asked to rate their answers from 0 (never) to 6 (always).
A sample item for the dimension resources is “In the last 7 days and nights I felt physically relaxed”
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 1362 8 of 19
and a sample item for the dimension stress is “In the last 7 days and nights I felt down”. Cronbach’s
alpha for resources was α= 0.93 and for stress α= 0.94.
Data were analysed using Version 24 of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS (IBM
SPSS software, Armonk, NY, USA) and using the program Mplus (Version 7.3 (Muthén & Muthén,
Los Angeles, CA, USA)).
3.1. Relationship between Facets of PAJS (Facet Scales) and PAJS-FI (Facet-Items)
To test if facet-item measures belong to the appropriate facet scale, Pearson correlations between
the PAJS-FI facet-items and the PAJS facet scales (scales obtained by aggregation of single-items)
were calculated in SPSS. In Table 3, the correlations between the facets of the PAJS and the PAJS-FI
Every facet-item showed a moderate to high correlation with the appropriate facet scale,
ranging from 0.50 to 0.82 (p< 0.01). The lowest correlation between facet-items and facet scales
was shown for the facet general framework conditions (0.50, p< 0.01) and the highest correlation for
the facet relationship to direct supervisor (0.82, p< 0.01). By further examination of the correlations,
it can be seen that the facet-item organization and management correlates higher with the facet scale
relationship to direct supervisor (0.67, p< 0.01) than with the facet scale organization and management
(0.54, p< 0.01).
The intercorrelations between the facets of the PAJS as well as between the PAJS-FI were small to
high and ranged from 0.20 to 0.70 (p< 0.01) for PAJS-FI and from 0.24 to 0.64 (p< 0.01) for PAJS.
3.2. Conﬁrmatory Factor Analysis for PAJS (Facet Scales) and PAJS-FI (Facet-Items)
To test if the facet-items of the PAJS-FI belong to the same factor as the single-items of the facet
scales of the PAJS and show high factor loadings, a conﬁrmatory factor analysis was conducted.
For every facet of JS, the single-items of the PAJS and the facet-item of the PAJS-FI belonging to
the same facet, were modelled as one factor. All 11 facets were put into one higher-order factor.
The conﬁrmatory factor analysis was conducted in the program Mplus.
In Table 4, the standardized factor loadings of PAJS-FI facet-items with the appropriate facet are
shown. The factor loadings of the single-items of the facet scales (PAJS) are not shown in Table 4.
Standardized loadings for the items of the PAJS-FI reached from 0.64 for the facets general framework
conditions and organization and management to 0.85 for the facets relationship to direct supervisor
and relationship to direct colleagues. Model ﬁt also showed appropriate results:
(1116) = 4300.86,
CFI = 0.90, SRMR = 0.07, RMSEA = 0.06.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 1362 9 of 19
Table 3. Correlations between Profile Analysis of Job Satisfaction (PAJS, facet scales) and PAJS-Facet-Item (PAJS-FI, facet-items, N = 788) 1.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
1. Communication (FI)
2. Demanding (FI) 0.34
3. Colleagues (FI) 0.21 0.24
4. Supervisor (FI) 0.35 0.31 0.44
5. Organization (FI) 0.49 0.39 0.40 0.70
6. Career (FI) 0.44 0.44 0.26 0.38 0.51
7. Conditions (FI) 0.32 0.34 0.20 0.20 0.32 0.38
8. Decision range (FI) 0.43 0.47 0.32 0.40 0.53 0.46 0.39
9. Time aspects (FI) 0.27 0.37 0.25 0.22 0.24 0.34 0.41 0.36
10. Compensations (FI) 0.32 0.33 0.20 0.27 0.37 0.49 0.30 0.38 0.32
11. Framework (FI) 0.34 0.36 0.25 0.29 0.37 0.37 0.44 0.45 0.50 0.36
12. Communication (FS) 0.73 0.36 0.26 0.39 0.53 0.50 0.37 0.49 0.31 0.41 0.40
13. Demanding (FS) 0.34 0.76 0.28 0.30 0.37 0.47 0.34 0.49 0.39 0.41 0.40 0.40
14. Colleagues (FS) 0.25 0.25 0.80 0.43 0.43 0.33 0.23 0.35 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.31 0.31
15. Supervisor (FS) 0.36 0.33 0.36 0.82 0.67 0.39 0.23 0.43 0.26 0.30 0.29 0.43 0.37 0.41
16. Organization (FS) 0.52 0.40 0.28 0.37 0.54 0.54 0.39 0.47 0.33 0.55 0.41 0.64 0.47 0.37 0.43
17. Career (FS) 0.41 0.45 0.28 0.35 0.49 0.76 0.37 0.47 0.33 0.47 0.38 0.52 0.53 0.36 0.41 0.58
18. Conditions (FS) 0.29 0.35 0.27 0.20 0.28 0.35 0.68 0.33 0.35 0.29 0.40 0.36 0.37 0.32 0.24 0.41
19. Decision range (FS) 0.42 0.56 0.32 0.38 0.48 0.44 0.40 0.64 0.44 0.39 0.48 0.51 0.64 0.38 0.43 0.50
20. Time aspects (FS) 0.29 0.40 0.31 0.33 0.38 0.38 0.40 0.45 0.66 0.38 0.52 0.36 0.46 0.37 0.38 0.41
21. Compensations (FS) 0.31 0.31 0.18 0.23 0.32 0.48 0.25 0.31 0.27 0.74 0.29 0.37 0.37 0.26 0.28 0.48
22. Framework (FS) 0.34 0.38 0.30 0.27 0.40 0.44 0.50 0.43 0.46 0.49 0.50 0.43 0.47 0.38 0.34 0.56
Correlations between the facet-items of the PAJS-FI and their corresponding facet scales of the PAJS are printed in boldface. Communication = information and communication,
Demanding = demanding work, Colleagues = relationship to direct colleagues, Supervisor = relationship to direct supervisor, Organization = organization and management,
Career = chances of making career, Conditions = working conditions, Decision range = decision range, Time aspects = working and vacation times, Compensations = compensations of the
employer, Framework = general framework conditions. FI = facet-items, FS = facet scales. All correlations are signiﬁcant at p< 0.01.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 1362 10 of 19
Factor loadings in a conﬁrmatory factor analysis for Proﬁle Analysis of Job Satisfaction
Facet-Item (PAJS-FI, facet-items, N = 788) 1.
PAJS-FI Facet-Items Factor Loading
1. Communication 0.79
2. Demanding 0.79
3. Colleagues 0.85
4. Supervisor 0.85
5. Organization 0.64
6. Career 0.78
7. Conditions 0.70
8. Decision range 0.69
9. Time aspects 0.69
10. Compensations 0.77
11. Framework 0.64
Standardized factor loadings are only shown for the facet-items of the PAJS-FI. Items of PAJS are not displayed
in the table due to lack of space but are all higher than 0.60. Communication = information and communication,
Demanding = demanding work, Colleagues = relationship to direct colleagues, Supervisor = relationship
to direct supervisor, Organization = organization and management, Career = chances of making career,
Conditions = working conditions, Decision range = decision range, Time aspects = working and vacation times,
Compensations = compensations of the employer, Framework = general framework conditions. All standardized
factor loadings are signiﬁcant at p< 0.01.
3.3. The Facets of Job Satisfaction and External Criteria
To test validity, the facet-items of the PAJS-FI were correlated with external criteria. The correlations
of the external criteria with the facet-items of PAJS-FI were compared to the same correlations between
the facet scales of the PAJS and the same external criteria. As external criteria identiﬁcation with the
company, work engagement, stress, and resources were used. In Table 5, the Pearson correlations
between the facet-items of the PAJS-FI and the facet scales of the PAJS with the external criteria
identiﬁcation with the company, work engagement, stress, and resources, calculated in SPSS, can be
found. To test if differences between the correlations from PAJS and PAJS-FI with the respective
external criteria exist, a test of the difference between two dependent correlations with one variable in
common was calculated [
]. For that reason, Bonferroni correction was applied [
], and the
results were compared with α= 0.0004 (0.05 divided by 143 possibilities). Results showed signiﬁcant
differences for several facets especially for organization and management (see Table 5).
The correlations between the different items of identiﬁcation with the company and the facet-items
of the PAJS-FI ranged from 0.23 (relationship to direct colleagues and identify with the company) to
0.44 (demanding work and reapply at the company, chances of making career and proud to work at
the company). Correlations between the facet scales of the PAJS and the items of identiﬁcation with
the company reached from 0.27 (relationship to direct colleagues and identify with the company) to
0.65 (organization and management and recommendation of the company). The correlations between
identiﬁcation with the company and the facet scales (PAJS) were always slightly higher than with the
facet-items of the PAJS-FI except for a few single correlations (mainly for the facet compensations of
the employer). The pattern of the correlational structure remained the same for PAJS and PAJS-FI.
Signiﬁcant results between PAJS and PAJS-FI were found for the facet organization and management.
These differences were analysed additionally and are described below.
For work engagement, the correlations for the facet-items of the PAJS-FI ranged from 0.23
(relationship to direct colleagues and absorption) to 0.61 (demanding work and dedication). The facet
scales of the PAJS and work engagement showed correlations from 0.26 (compensations of the employer
and absorption) to 0.66 (demanding work and dedication). The aforementioned correlations were
slightly higher than with the facet-items of the PAJS-FI except for the facet compensations of the
employer, but the correlational structure was the same for both measurements. Signiﬁcant results
were found for the facets information and communication, organization and management, chances of
making career, working and vacation times, and general framework conditions.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 1362 11 of 19
Correlations between facet-items (Proﬁle Analysis of Job Satisfaction Facet-Item, PAJS-FI; on the left) and facet scales (Proﬁle Analysis of Job Satisfaction,
PAJS; on the right) with the external criteria Identiﬁcation with Company, Work Engagement, Stress, and Resources (N = 788).
External Criteria Left: Facet-Item (PAJS-FI)|Right: Facet Scale (PAJS) 1
Communication Demanding Colleagues Supervisor Organization Career Conditions Decision Range Time Aspects Compensations Framework
with Company 2
Recommend 0.39|0.45 0.39|0.42 0.28|0.35 0.35|0.35 0.42|0.65 * 0.43|0.45 0.35|0.35 0.41|0.45 0.34|0.39 0.38|0.33 0.36|0.44
Identify 0.28|0.35 0.36|0.41 0.23|0.27 0.26|0.30 0.32|0.52 * 0.39|0.42 0.30|0.33 0.29|0.37 0.27|0.32 0.36|0.33 0.27|0.38
Reapply 0.38|0.44 0.44|0.47 0.24|0.28 0.34|0.39 0.40|0.59 * 0.43|0.47 0.33|0.33 0.41|0.47 0.32|0.40 0.34|0.29 0.36|0.40
Proud 0.33|0.40 0.43|0.46 0.26|0.28 0.33|0.37 0.38|0.64 * 0.44|0.48 0.35|0.34 0.36|0.42 0.29|0.36 0.41|0.37 0.34|0.44
Vigor 0.31|0.40 * 0.50|0.53 0.32|0.36 0.36|0.41 0.44|0.53 0.41|0.45 0.34|0.38 0.47|0.54 0.35|0.45 * 0.34|0.27 0.38|0.46
Dedication 0.33|0.39 0.61|0.66 0.29|0.31 0.33|0.38 0.40|0.56 * 0.41|0.49 * 0.34|0.37 0.48|0.56 0.35|0.42 0.33|0.29 0.37|0.49 *
Absorption 0.31|0.38 0.52|0.56 0.23|0.27 0.30|0.35 0.38|0.52 * 0.39|0.44 0.32|0.34 0.41|0.49 0.29|0.36 0.31|0.26 0.33|0.43
Stress Soc. em. stress 3−0.33|−0.37 −0.35|−0.38 −0.32|−0.35 −0.32|−0.35 −0.38|−0.37 −
−0.33|−0.30 −0.41|−0.50 −0.34|−0.39 −0.30|−0.21 * −0.34|−0.33
Loss mean. 4−0.38|−0.45 −0.48|−0.51 −0.36|−0.42 −0.45|−0.50 −0.50|−0.49 −
−0.37|−0.35 −0.49|−0.60 * −0.38|−0.43 −0.37|−0.27 * −0.41|−0.39
Ov. recovery 50.35|0.37 0.42|0.44 0.31|0.36 0.36|0.38 0.42|0.37 0.40|0.38 0.34|0.32 0.43|0.50 0.33|0.40 0.28|0.19 * 0.35|0.36
Leisure/breaks 0.29|0.29 0.31|0.31 0.26|0.34 * 0.26|0.29 0.36|0.31 0.31|0.29 0.33|0.29 0.35|0.42 0.34|0.42 0.27|0.22 0.35|0.34
Psychosoc. res. 60.22|0.26 0.20|0.24 0.68|0.72 0.42|0.39 0.39|0.29 0.30|0.31 0.22|0.23 0.34|0.32 0.22|0.27 0.22|0.18 0.25|0.31
Work-rel. res. 70.39|0.45 0.49|0.55 0.39|0.40 0.49|0.48 0.50|0.43 0.41|0.46 0.37|0.35 0.59|0.63 0.34|0.42 0.29|0.23 0.38|0.43
Communication = information and communication, Demanding = demanding work, Colleagues = relationship to direct colleagues, Supervisor = relationship to direct supervisor,
Organization = organization and management, Career = chances of making career, Conditions = working conditions, Decision range = decision range, Time aspects = working and vacation
times, Compensations = compensations of the employer, Framework = general framework conditions.
Identiﬁcation with Company: Single-item measures, Recommend = I would
recommend the company as employer, Identify = I identify myself strongly with the company, Reapply = I would reapply at the company, Proud = I am proud to work at the company.
Soc. em. stress = social emotional stress.
Loss mean = loss of meaning.
Ov. recovery = overall recovery.
Psychosoc. res. = psychosocial resources.
Work-rel. res. = work-related
resources. A star (*) denotes a signiﬁcant differences between correlations of PAJS-FI and PAJS with external criteria.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 1362 12 of 19
Concerning stress (sub-dimensions social emotional stress and loss of meaning) the correlations
between the facet-items of the PAJS-FI and stress reached from
0.30 (compensations of the employer
and social emotional stress) to
0.50 (organization and management and loss of meaning). For the
facet scales of the PAJS and stress the correlations reached from
0.21 (compensations of the employer
and social emotional stress) to
0.60 (decision range and loss of meaning), higher than the correlations
with the facet-items of the PAJS-FI except for the facets organization and management, chances of
making career, working conditions, compensations of the employer, and general framework conditions.
Signiﬁcant differences via Steiger’s Equations were found for the facets decision range as well as
compensations of the employer.
Resources (sub-dimensions overall recovery, leisure/breaks, psychosocial resources, work-related
resources) showed correlations from 0.20 (demanding work and psychosocial resources) to 0.68
(relationship to direct colleagues and psychosocial resources) for the facet-items of the PAJS-FI. For the
facet scales of the PAJS, the correlations ranged from 0.18 (compensations of the employer and
psychosocial resources) to 0.72 (relationship to direct colleagues and psychosocial resources). Most of
the facets showed higher correlations for the facet scales of the PAJS and resources than for the
facet-items of the PAJS-FI except for a few single correlations. The structural pattern for the facet scales
(PAJS) and the facet-items (PAJS-FI) with stress and resources was the same. Signiﬁcant differences
were found for the facets relationship to direct colleagues as well as compensations of the employer.
In sum, the correlational structures between the facet scales (PAJS) and external criteria were the
same like between facet-items (PAJS-FI) and external criteria. Most correlations showed a moderate
to high level, except for the facets compensations of the employer, working and vacation times,
and relationship to direct colleagues, and a few single correlations.
As the most significant comparisons between PAJS and PAJS-FI resulted for the facet organization and
management, further reliability analyses were explored. The internal consistency for the three single-items
for the facet organization and management from PAJS was
= 0.85, whereas reliability analysis
including the facet-item organization and management showed
= 0.83 (analysed with Cronbach’s
alpha). A more stricter analysis with McDonald’s coefﬁcient omega (omega hierarchical; [
h = 0.85 vs.
h = 0.78. Furthermore, item selectivity was lowest for the facet-item. These coefﬁcients
present that the reliability is stronger in the multiple-item version compared to the reliability including
3.4. Efﬁciency of the Short Version PAJS-FI
At-test for dependent samples was calculated to see if the answer time for the measurement
PAJS is different from the answer time for the PAJS-FI. People who interrupted the survey were
excluded from the analysis. The test showed that for answering the items of the PAJS (M= 195.92 s,
SD = 188.24), the answer time lasted signiﬁcantly longer than for the facet-items of the PAJS-FI
(M= 43.74 s, SD = 83.52, t(577) = −18.34, p< 0.01). The answer time was measured in seconds.
This paper aimed to test a comprehensive facet-item measurement of JS that includes the
assessment of eleven facets of JS. Furthermore, the facet-item measurement was compared to a
facet scale measurement of JS to analyse construct and criterion validity. The results showed that
the facet-items of JS were signiﬁcantly and highly related to the facet scales. Additionally, results of
a conﬁrmatory factor analysis showed that the facet-items loaded highly within the appropriate
factor for each facet scale. Furthermore, correlations with external criteria were acceptable showing
4.1. Comparison between Facet-Items and Facet Scales of Job Satisfaction
JS has been introduced as a global construct measured with one single-item or with multiple
items or as a construct representing different facets measured with facet-items or with multiple
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 1362 13 of 19
items aggregated to facets (facet scales). The usage of facets is useful for a deeper understanding of
organizational processes , and therefore, efﬁciency plays a major role.
Regarding the ﬁrst research question, we conclude with the high correlations of the facet scales
with the facet-items (diagonal in bold in Table 3) that both versions can be used for their different
usages. This seems at ﬁrst sight trivial, but the goal of the study was to develop an efﬁcient
measurement for practical use without forgetting precise, scientiﬁc standards. Therefore, the simple
correlations were analysed, and additionally, a conﬁrmatory factor analysis has been conducted.
As expected, the correlations between the facet scales of PAJS and the facet-items of the PAJS-FI were
high, and it is summarized that the PAJS-FI showed appropriate correlations for the eleven facets.
Moreover, conﬁrmatory factor analysis showed for all eleven facets that the facet-items of the PAJS-FI
had high loadings within the appropriate factor. Single-item approaches, like the PAJS-FI for facets of
JS, are useful where cost- and time-effectiveness plays an important role [
], whereas multiple-item
measurements, like the PAJS, are needed in research and organizations to measure relatively complex
constructs reliably .
Looking into the details, it can be seen, that the facet-item organization and management showed
a high correlation with the facet scale relationship to direct supervisor (0.67). This is not surprising
as the organization and the management of a company has much in common with the supervisors
of a company, because the management depends on supervisors. Moreover, employees can assess
their direct formal leaders better than management [
]. On the contrary, the facet scale organization
and management did correlate at a moderate level (0.37) with the facet-item relationship to direct
supervisor. Closer examined, the facet-item organization and management includes the nearer
description “efforts regarding employees” (see Table 2). Such efforts depend on people who manage a
company. The employees possibly have their supervisor in mind when thinking about management
and do not include the satisfaction with the organization in their assessment. We suggest to strengthen
the aspect of satisfaction with the organization in a next version of the PAJS-FI.
4.2. Job Satisfaction and External Criteria
By looking at the correlations with external criteria (identification with company, work engagement,
stress and resources) to answer the second research question, it was shown that the correlations
visible looked higher for the facet scale approach, but not in a statistical comparison of the different
correlations. The level of correlations was mostly moderate to high, except for the facets compensations
of the employer, working and vacation times, and relationship to direct colleagues, and a few single
correlations. The correlations showed that the level of correlations for different facets of JS with
external criteria is different, as hypothesized.
The correlational structure remained the same for the facet scales of the PAJS and the facet-items
of the PAJS-FI. The higher identiﬁcation with the company was, the higher was JS, no matter which
measurement (PAJS or PAJS-FI) was used. For identiﬁcation with the company, the facet organization
and management showed signiﬁcantly higher correlations with PAJS than with PAJS-FI. As already
suggested, the facet organization and management in PAJS-FI should be further investigated as
Cronbach’s alpha dropped when including the facet-item. Work engagement seems to have much
in common with JS [
]. Here, also the correlational structure for PAJS and PAJS-FI remained the
same: the higher work engagement was, the higher was JS. Stress (sub-dimensions social emotional
stress and loss of meaning) and JS shared a negative relationship for the facet scales of the PAJS as
well as for the facet-items of the PAJS-FI, whereas the relationship between resources (sub-dimensions
overall recovery, leisure/breaks, psychosocial resources, work-related resources) and JS was positive.
Summarized, the PAJS-FI and PAJS showed similar internal consistencies whereas the PAJS-FI has a
The correlations with external criteria were the same for the facet-items of the PAJS-FI and for
the facet scales of the PAJS, except for a few correlations and especially for the facet organization and
management. Schaufeli et al. [
] also concluded in their approach of getting a shorter version of the
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 1362 14 of 19
UWES scale, that an expectable consequence and drawback of this shortening is that the coefﬁcient
alpha is reduced. We therefore made a deeper analysis for the facet organization and management and
found a lower internal consistency in this facet which may explain the differences between the two
versions of the PAJS. A facet scales approach is more accurate and therefore, different correlations may
remain between the two compared measurements. On the other hand, the correlational structure is in
the same direction as described before. The differences have to be kept in mind when interpreting the
results with the PAJS-FI.
4.3. Efﬁciency of the PAJS-FI
As it was shown, the relative answer time for PAJS was much longer than for PAJS-FI. To answer
the PAJS-FI, employees needed 44 s whereas the answer time for the items of the PAJS took more than
three minutes. An efﬁcient measurement should not be to simply have a shorter version replacing
a longer version with the drawback of possibly losing information. Instead, the shorter version
should lead to approximately the same information and show ﬁrst results, e.g., in employee surveys.
Shorter measurements meet the demands of survey participants as otherwise research has to assess
fewer constructs or assess constructs with fewer items [
]. In employee surveys it is useful to have
short measurements to gain as much information as possible [
] as there are often also time
]. On the other side, the more precise the facets of JS are measured, the more detailed
interventions in a company can be derived. Therefore, the usage of multiple-item measurements of JS
is as legitimate as the usage of facet-items for efﬁcient measurement.
One limitation in this study is the speciﬁc sample of employees working in the bank sector.
In agreement with the participating bank, there is no permission to show descriptive data (means and
standard deviations), only the relative relationships. As the interest of this study was to compare
the two different versions PAJS and PAJS-FI, and not to show speciﬁc results from bank employees,
the relative relationships sufﬁce. For this study, it was important to test a sample that can participate
in a study where the PAJS and the PAJS-FI are presented at one measure point. This leads to another
limitation in the study: the completion of PAJS and PAJS-FI was not randomized. Bank employees had
to ﬁrst ﬁll out the PAJS-FI, and in a second step, they had to complete the PAJS.
External criteria like job performance or turnover-rates and their relationship with facet-items of
JS might be interesting and should be further investigated. Moreover, test-retest reliabilities would be
of further interest.
4.5. Practical Implications: Advantages and Disadvantages—The Right Placement for the Right Instrument
JS is seen as a predictor for various outcomes [
] and is therefore a useful variable for
organizational development and hence supports making management decisions [
]. But also as an
indicator for well-being, JS is important [
]. This can be seen in dynamic views of JS e.g., from Büssing
and Bissels [
] or Jiménez [
]. These system theoretical oriented views consider especially the facets of
JS and draw the attention to the qualitative forms of JS. A result of JS can be seen in a “satisﬁed” rating
but this judgment possibly could be evaluated as a “resigned work satisfaction” [
]. Knowing more
about different aspects of the working life with facets of job satisfaction supports to understand
possible coping strategies of employees which in turn inﬂuence the organization.
Employee surveys, especially when measuring JS, are an important instrument for organizational
diagnosis by using the subjective assessment of a company [
]. Such employee surveys should be
adopted to companies and therefore, the results should lead to topics discussed in the management
area of the company and to implementations in the strategy of a company, e.g., in the Balanced
There are many advantages for a facet-item approach to measure the facets of JS: Cost-effective
and short questionnaires need less time and space [
], and the response rate may be higher for shorter
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 1362 15 of 19
]. According to Schaufeli et al. [
], shorter forms of questionnaires help to fulﬁl
the requirements of employee surveys in companies: Due to time constraints, researchers either need
to assess fewer constructs or have to assess the constructs with fewer items, which is especially the
case in employee surveys. In this case, the usage of PAJS-FI is supported. Of course, multiple-item
measures of the facets of JS (facet scales) have their use and advantages. They are because of the
single-items even more differentiated for the employees as well as for the companies to generate
interventions. One fundamental advantage of multiple-item measures is the estimation of internal
consistency reliability, where high reliability is essential for statistical analysis to minimize effects of
]. In cases where small differentiations and the estimation of reliability is needed, the usage of
PAJS is advised.
Another application area for efﬁcient and short measurements is in the upcoming ﬁeld of eHealth
tools. In this area shorter “scales” and even visual analogue scales are also used as single-item
] and can be part of workplace health promotion projects. With eHealth tools using visual
analogue scales or the approach of facet-items, it is possible for supervisors to get short and efﬁcient
feedback . This feedback has to be valid and accurate despite usage of short versions .
Facet-item and facet scale measurements of JS have both their areas of application. The aim of this
study was to show that a facet-item measurement can be a replacement for a facet scale measurement
of JS with multiple-items. In an online study, bank employees ﬁlled out both versions of assessments
of JS, and by comparing the structural resemblance of the two measurements, it was demonstrated that
facet-items are an appropriate approach. Facet-items can be an approach to measure the facets of JS in
employee surveys efﬁciently, but facet scales are also appropriate when the facets should be measured
more accurately. Which approach is used depends on the goals that should be reached. In projects
where efﬁciency plays a major role, facet-item measures are preferred. This is especially the case in
larger studies [
] or in practice when using eHealth tools [
]. In research or organizations where an
even deeper understanding of JS with the aim of deriving interventions is needed, facet scale measures
have a lot of advantages. This study showed that both approaches are appropriate measures.
As we could see that both forms for measuring JS can be seen as equivalent, they both help in
deriving steps for interventions in organizations. In a next step of analyses, the sociological factors
have to be regarded too. For example, if there are differences between groups like in gender [
in age [
], then the organization has to consider special actions and has to look up for the reasons.
Here, the more detailed version of JS has advantages over the PAJS-FI. Typically, it can be advised in
practice to think about the usage of the short versus long version of any scale in advance, if possible.
If there are already some hypotheses regarding special facets, then the longer version could be helpful.
In the other case when the facet-items had been used, then the next step in practice could be to
investigate the results in small groups [
] (e.g., with so called “health circles”) where the effects are
discussed to see which special aspects of the facets are important.
Furthermore, the usage of approaches to measure JS can also be examined in other areas of work,
which has been shown in other studies [
]. In practice, it is recommended to deﬁne at ﬁrst the
goals of measuring JS. In workplace health promotion projects or employee surveys, where efﬁciency
is a main aim and a lot of other constructs are explored, a facet-item measurement is preferred. In cases
where the facets of JS should be explored and differentiated, the usage of a facet scale measurement
is advised. This study showed for practice that short and efﬁcient measurements are appropriate to
measure the facets of JS.
A.L. and P.J. formulated the objectives, designed the method, supervised the data
assessment and worked together on the last draft of the paper. A.L. wrote the ﬁrst draft of the paper, prepared the
current state of the literature and carried out the data assessment. A.L. analysed the data with the support of
N.T. A.B. and N.T. supported the administration and quality assurance. P.J. developed the questionnaire Proﬁle
Analysis of Job Satisfaction Facet-Item (PAJS-FI). All authors reﬂected the results and discussion.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 1362 16 of 19
Funding: This research received no external funding.
Acknowledgments: This publication was printed with the ﬁnancial support of the University of Graz.
Conﬂicts of Interest: The authors declare no conﬂict of interest.
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