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This paper uses a personal narrative format to recount an emeritus professor of public administration’s ongoing study of how social class and socioeconomic origins shape various aspects of bureaucracy, with special emphasis on the sorting function of formal education and its subsequent effects on personnel selection. Following an account of his family background, he summarizes his recent findings on the relationship between class and administration, followed by a sampling of remedies he proposes for bringing socioeconomic issues, especially the effects of inherited social, financial, and cultural capital, into the mainstream of our discipline. The author argues that by implementing these changes, we will not only prove we are the “cutting edge” enterprise we claim to be, but our actions will provoke other fields to enact similar democratic and egalitarian reforms.

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Indigenous governments are growing in size and strength. As a result, indigenous issues are becoming more frequently and prominently in the public administration landscape. Whether it is natural resource management, culturally appropriate foster home placements, or eradicating known drug trafficking routes that cross tribal jurisdictions, there are a multitude of ways that federal, state, and local public managers may encounter indigenous issues. Incorporating indigenous learning environments into public administration programs will not only serve to further the needs of indigenous students, but will also strengthen public administration programs as a whole. Our method for creating a learning environment that embraces indigenous students is to incorporate indigenous issues into the core curriculum, include indigenous ways of knowing into the program, provide for indigenous focused student assessment, and ensure cultural appropriateness. This four-pronged approach will ensure that an indigenous valued learning environment is part of any public administration program.
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Following up on his 2007 About Campus article, Kenneth Oldfield shares six more lessons he wishes he had known as a working-class, first-generation college student and argues that higher education should pay more attention to first-generation and class status among students, faculty, and staff.
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Social equity has been challenged in recent years through increasing income inequality. The widening gap between the rich and the poor contributes to economic segregation among regions and neighborhoods and has a direct impact on public service delivery. This article examines declining mobility, economic segregation, and education to demonstrate the relevance of social class and socioeconomic status to the field of public administration. The potential for positive change lies in the willingness of scholars to advance social equity through representation, research, and pedagogy.
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The National Academy of Public Administration’s Board of Trustees recently adopted social equity as the fourth pillar of public administration. Human resource management (HRM) courses are situated to increase the public affairs graduate curriculum’s emphasis on social equity, because these courses already give attention to related concepts such as due process, discrimination, sexual harassment, and work-life policies. The challenge is to directly apply this pillar in the HRM curriculum by strengthening students’ exposure to formal and informal personnel policies and practices that promote or impede social equity. Drawing on our teaching experiences, we describe how HRM professors can enhance their students’ social equity competencies by incorporating the use of informal “HR dialogues” in their courses. These dialogues allow students to develop managerial competencies to handle the real-world social equity tensions and resistance they are likely to encounter.
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Participants in the annual conferences on "Making statistics more effective in schools of business" have made recommendations for improving the teaching of statistics in schools of business. To determine what is being taught and how it is being taught in terms of these recommendations, we surveyed professors teaching undergraduate business statistics courses. We found that hypothesis testing receives the greatest share of coverage and quality control the least. Computers are not used in one quarter of the courses, and lecturing is still the dominant teaching method. When asked for a wish list of changes, professors most often listed greater use of computers and more relevant data.
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Michael Mintrom (2003). "Policy Analysts and People Skills." Published as Chapter 1 in People Skills for Policy Analysts (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press). Effective policy analysts need both sound technical skills and superb people skills. Over many years of teaching courses in public policy analysis, I typically have augmented my lectures on applied microeconomic analysis and other topics relevant to policy analysis with workshops on topics such as interviewing informants, working in teams, and giving presentations. The popularity of these workshops among students led me to solicit ideas for additional topics to cover. It was through this process of offering workshops and inviting student feedback that I struck upon the idea of writing this book. This chapter serves as an introduction to the book. The book has much to offer individuals seeking to increase their effectiveness as policy analysts. Just as many textbooks lay out how to analyze policy issues appropriately, here I provide guidance on how policy analysts might present themselves and their work so as to improve the likelihood that they will produce quality advice and receive a good hearing from others in the policymaking community. By placing the spotlight on people skills for policy analysts, I also hope this book will contribute to a rethinking of what we mean when we say someone is an excellent analyst and of how policy analysts are trained.
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Abstract: Despite big budgets, political endorsement, and formal frameworks for information policy, technology, and management, government IT projects continue to falter or fail. This paper argues that public management education must include information strategy and management topics as core concerns. MPA programs should be teaching the next generation of public managers to appreciate how deeply embedded IT is in every aspect of government—and to appreciate their own roles and responsibilities with respect to it. The paper reviews practical experience and academic research on information systems in government and identifies five kinds of competencies that are most needed to build successful information strategies and systems in the public sector. These include strategic thinking and evaluation, system-oriented analytical skills, information stewardship, technical concepts, and complex project management skills. The article concludes with a variety of approaches for bringing these competencies into the Master of Public Administration curriculum.
Article
A popular input measure of bureaucratic success is whether the demographic characteristics of an organization's personnel reflect those of the community. Does the bureaucracy employ, for example, ethnic minorities and women in roughly the same proportion as their respective percentages of the citizenry? Given several recent court decisions and public referenda limiting the use of race and gender considerations in placements and promotions, some writers now propose that measures of diversity include socioeconomic status (SES). This study shows that the parental SES of teaching faculty at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) is far higher than the public's. Based on these findings and related literature, the present discussion offers a rationale for why UIUC, and eventually perhaps many other universities, should use social class considerations in an affirmative action plan to recruit and hire new faculty; suggestions for implementing such a class- based hiring program; and rebuttals for anticipated criticisms of this proposal.
Article
This study examined the effects of two primary distance learning media, video and on-line instruction, on the satisfaction and academic performance of public affairs master's-level students as compared to their peers in classrooms. The study found that the students' course media had no significant influence on final course grades and that there were no significant differences between the three groups' ratings of satisfaction with their classes. The study also failed to identify any characteristics or constructs that could predict successful public affairs distance learners. Follow-up interviews suggested that the distance learners were enrolled in the video or on-line courses not because of preference but because of necessity. Although students indicated that they were grateful that distance learning media enabled them to enroll in an MPA program, almost all stated that they would prefer to attend traditional classes if their circumstances permitted it. The author concluded that PA distance learners may differ little from their classroom peers and that their participation in distance learning courses may be situational rather than a permanent, lifetime preference.
Article
This article raises fundamental questions that should be asked about the implications of distance education for public affairs teaching and practice. The questions discussed relate to educational objectives, students and their needs, adult learning theory, human and organizational limiting factors, implications for faculty, and the challenges of accreditation. The authors draw on evidence from the literature, a large focus group, and field observation on their own campus to address these issues. They conclude that student socialization presents the most important questions of all. New electronic technologies are now forcing our field to reexamine closely the processes through which we socialize future generations of public servants.
Article
This essay argues against traditional topic-oriented research methods courses and focuses instead on one of our most important goals: the outcomes desired in public administrators' on-the-job behavior as a result of taking research methods courses These outcomes are concerned with managers' using research intelligently as an important source of decision-making and making a habit of critical thinking that allows them to better formulate and judge programs and policies. Working back from these outcomes, the author emphasizes the importance of the affective component of research methods, outlines cognitive objectives to inform the manager-consumer, and discusses methods that may be useful for achieving desired outcomes.
Article
Peterson's college guide reported in 1997 that 762 educational institutions were offering courses via the internet, more than a 700 percent increase since 1994. In spite of this trend, little research on the learning culture of these internet-mediated courses exists. This paper reports on an ethnographic study of the CU Online program at the University of Colorado at Denver and explores five themes that emerge for the research agenda for the online learning culture: the importance of human interaction, the student work ethic, personal characteristics, the thoughtfulness of student comments in an asynchronous environment, and the instructor's critical role as moderator of the learning process. The primary agenda items are intended to help instructors make the difficult choice of whether to use asynchronous or real-time communication in their course designs and to explore ways to support healthy group dynamics in the electronic frontier.
Article
Successful governance of multiethnic democracies and advancement of social and political equity for minorities in Europe are well-recognized goals. As has been noted recently in the activities of the Working Group on Democratic Governance of Multi-ethnic Communities of the Network of Institutes and Schools of Public Administration in Central and Eastern Europe (NISPAcee), The importance of finding effective long-term solutions to the management of ethnic, cultural, and linguistic difference and reduction of conflict in the region is without question. Strengthening the capacity of the public and NGO sectors to manage diversity is an essential step to improving governance and service delivery in general. Sustained attention to issues of diversity require long term capacity building through public administration education in addition to current efforts to reform laws and intervene in existing conflicts.¹ The challenge has drawn attention from many sectors and is being tackled in a wide range of ways (Brintnall, 2004; Kovacs, 2002). Solutions have been viewed variously, and often simultaneously, as a matter of law (Weller, 2005), as a matter of education (Tibbetts, 2002), as one of social psychology, community organizing, and social integration (Danchin and Cole, 2002; Petrova, 2002), as a matter of new policy and institution building (Ablyatifov, 2004; Krizsán, 2004; Marinova, 2005), and as one of reform of governance (Gál, 2002). The issue is genuinely multidimensional. This paper explores what the civil service can contribute to achieving these goals, and particularly the role that education and training for public administration can play.² It reports on a survey of public administration education and training programs in the region intended to learn how they approach this problem and what progress they are making.
Article
Service learning is a type of experiential learning, a form of education that has become increasingly important at the college level as student bodies have changed. The authors present a review of their experiences with a course in which the content is a service learning project. The students carry out a project that enables them to hone their research skills and develop an appreciation of the political, economic, and social complexity of their community while at the same time providing a valuable service to that community.
Article
The American Society for Public Administration and the National Academy of Public Administration, as well as several leading authors in our field, have expressed support for a range of ethical principles, including representativeness, diversity, affirmative action, equality, fairness, and justice. Various social equity reformers have argued that universities should expand their integrative efforts to include more students of poverty and working class origins. This study surveyed the nation’s 50 top-rated MPA schools, asking whether they collect data about their students’ socioeconomic backgrounds. While other academic disciplines have initiated social class-based affirmative action plans for enrolling students, none of the 43 survey respondents said they do so. The discussion closes by suggesting that, with this study’s evidence and justification in place, academic public administration, driven by its commitment to the discipline’s acknowledged ideals, has a sound rationale for establishing economic affirmative action plans for student diversity purposes.
Article
Since its inception, the discipline of public administration has been challenged by its dual mission of educating both practitioner and academician (Golembiewski, 1977; Denhardt, 2001). Normative issues such as ethical behavior, social equity, and the impact of diversity on public institutions and policies are matters that conjoin public administration scholarship and practice. However, these subjects are not standard in the public administration education curriculum. Ethics and social equity have received intermittent attention in the professional journals and in the curriculum offerings of schools associated with the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration (NASPAA; Bowman, 1990; Lee and Paddock, 1992; Gooden and Myers, 2004). This study explores the question of whether the issue of diversity has received similar attention in public administration education. After reviewing the curricula at 50 NASPAA accredited-schools, this study concludes that teaching diversity in the public administration/public affairs curriculum is not, in fact, overlooked. However, our finding that the topic of diversity is relatively neglected in the published scholarship indicates a need for public affairs education programs to support such scholarship.
Article
It is generally agreed that diversity is a critical challenge for managers and that advancing organizational diversity is both an ethical and a pragmatic requirement for effective public administration. However, it may be argued that graduate public affairs education relating to human resource management (HRM) has not sufficiently attended to diversity topics and that public affairs graduate curricula in general have not evidenced sufficient inclusion of diversity themes. This essay indicates a need for curricular revision that includes diversity competencies. The research and corresponding analysis is presented in two parts, corresponding to two phases of research. The first addresses findings from graduate student surveys conducted over three years at the University of Vermont. The second concerns data collected from 41 NASPAA-accredited and 17 unaccredited NASPAA-member programs in public affairs. The results from the first phase suggest that graduate public affairs students need greater exposure to diversity themes and issues. The second phase results suggest that NASPAA-accredited programs are not much different from unaccredited member programs in incorporating diversity topics into curricular offerings or otherwise exhibiting a commitment to diversity. The essay ends with several recommendations for programs intending to develop or revise their public policy and administration curricula in order to better attend to diversity concerns.
Article
Advancing social equity is, or should be, a primary focus of public administrators. Yet it is not an integral part of the curriculum of public administration programs, nor is it a prominent feature of the NASPAA standards. Almost 40 years ago, the Minnowbrook I scholars proposed an activist role for public administrators in achieving social equity, which came to be known as the New Public Administration (NPA). Despite the efforts of George Frederickson and others at that conference, the NPA has progressed slowly and haltingly. Through advocating privatization and market models, the NPA—such as it is today—has come to substantially deemphasize the significance of social equity. How can social equity be made a central part of the public administration curriculum? What is needed, in our view, is a theoretical base that goes beyond Rawls’ Theory of Justice or Kant’s Deontology. Philosophy alone cannot provide the tools that public administrators need for this task, nor is it sufficient to examine social equity simply within the confines of a given level of government policymaking, whether it concerns local or national policy. Public policy decisions today have global implications, and social equity must take an international perspective as well. This article proposes that a complex of research and advocacy literatures that we will characterize as human rights theory offers a unique opportunity to the public affairs curriculum by providing a basis for education in social equity, incorporating a global perspective and coherent ethical decision-making models.
Article
As MPA programs search for teaching options that meet students’ needs and maintain program quality, many are exploring various distance learning formats. This paper evaluates whether students with synchronous learning and asynchronous learning experiences received a different quality of instruction in an course that blended distance and face-to-face learning. The authors review the literature on blended learning distance education as an alternative to online-only distance education, discuss the model of blended learning distance education used in the course described in this analysis, and then review their hypotheses, research methodology, and statistical analysis. The authors conclude with a brief discussion of the implications of this experiment for other MPA programs that might explore a blended learning distance education component in their curriculum.
Article
This article examines the design and delivery of two sample courses that integrated the pedagogical approaches of traditional classroom learning, distance learning, and service learning. It examines the perspectives of students, the client organization, and the instructor and addresses potential pitfalls, lessons learned, and recommendations for success. The author presents an analysis of the quality of student learning and outcomes of this multi-faceted educational environment as compared to past student performance and the products produced using traditional teaching methods. Finally, the author draws conclusions and offers recommendations for future research.
Book
The ideology of the American dream--the faith that an individual can attain success and virtue through strenuous effort--is the very soul of the American nation. According to Jennifer Hochschild, we have failed to face up to what that dream requires of our society, and yet we possess no other central belief that can save the United States from chaos. In this compassionate but frightening book, Hochschild attributes our national distress to the ways in which whites and African Americans have come to view their own and each other's opportunities. By examining the hopes and fears of whites and especially of blacks of various social classes, Hochschild demonstrates that America's only unifying vision may soon vanish in the face of racial conflict and discontent. Hochschild combines survey data and vivid anecdote to clarify several paradoxes. Since the 1960s white Americans have seen African Americans as having better and better chances to achieve the dream. At the same time middle-class blacks, by now one-third of the African American population, have become increasingly frustrated personally and anxious about the progress of their race. Most poor blacks, however, cling with astonishing strength to the notion that they and their families can succeed--despite their terrible, perhaps worsening, living conditions. Meanwhile, a tiny number of the estranged poor, who have completely given up on the American dream or any other faith, threaten the social fabric of the black community and the very lives of their fellow blacks. Hochschild probes these patterns and gives them historical depth by comparing the experience of today's African Americans to that of white ethnic immigrants at the turn of the century. She concludes by claiming that America's only alternative to the social disaster of intensified racial conflict lies in the inclusiveness, optimism, discipline, and high-mindedness of the American dream at its best.
Chapter
Updated version of her famous essay "White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack."
Article
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of food taxes and subsidies on diet, body weight and health through a systematic review of the literature. METHODS: We searched the English-language published and grey literature for empirical and modelling studies on the effects of monetary subsidies or taxes levied on specific food products on consumption habits, body weight and chronic conditions. Empirical studies were dealing with an actual tax, while modelling studies predicted outcomes based on a hypothetical tax or subsidy. FINDINGS: Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria: 13 were from the peer-reviewed literature and 11 were published on line. There were 8 empirical and 16 modelling studies. Nine studies assessed the impact of taxes on food consumption only, 5 on consumption and body weight, 4 on consumption and disease and 6 on body weight only. In general, taxes and subsidies influenced consumption in the desired direction, with larger taxes being associated with more significant changes in consumption, body weight and disease incidence. However, studies that focused on a single target food or nutrient may have overestimated the impact of taxes by failing to take into account shifts in consumption to other foods. The quality of the evidence was generally low. Almost all studies were conducted in high-income countries. CONCLUSION: Food taxes and subsidies have the potential to contribute to healthy consumption patterns at the population level. However, current evidence is generally of low quality and the empirical evaluation of existing taxes is a research priority, along with research into the effectiveness and differential impact of food taxes in developing countries.
Book
In spite of soaring tuition costs, more and more students go to college every year. A bachelor’s degree is now required for entry into a growing number of professions. And some parents begin planning for the expense of sending their kids to college when they’re born. Almost everyone strives to go, but almost no one asks the fundamental question posed by Academically Adrift: are undergraduates really learning anything once they get there? For a large proportion of students, Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa’s answer to that question is a definitive no. Their extensive research draws on survey responses, transcript data, and, for the first time, the state-of-the-art Collegiate Learning Assessment, a standardized test administered to students in their first semester and then again at the end of their second year. According to their analysis of more than 2,300 undergraduates at twenty-four institutions, 45 percent of these students demonstrate no significant improvement in a range of skills—including critical thinking, complex reasoning, and writing—during their first two years of college. As troubling as their findings are, Arum and Roksa argue that for many faculty and administrators they will come as no surprise—instead, they are the expected result of a student body distracted by socializing or working and an institutional culture that puts undergraduate learning close to the bottom of the priority list. Academically Adrift holds sobering lessons for students, faculty, administrators, policy makers, and parents—all of whom are implicated in promoting or at least ignoring contemporary campus culture. Higher education faces crises on a number of fronts, but Arum and Roksa’s report that colleges are failing at their most basic mission will demand the attention of us all.
Article
Empirical research involving content analysis of Chinese journal articles has been conducted in the last few years, but the focus has been on the issues and problems of Chinese public administration as a basic social science rather than an applied field. This narrow focus can be misleading. The need to reassess the quality of Chinese PA research is based on three presumptions: that it is a basic science, an applied science, and both. This study attempts to complete the monitoring of progress in knowledge advancement by assessing quality based on an analysis framework that includes an assessment of applied research reports published in Chinese PA journals. The population of articles analyzed comprises 1,123 papers published in Chinese Public Administration (CPA) from 2002 to 2006; further, 300 articles published in 16 journals from 1998 to 2006 were analyzed in the pilot study (but not included here). Specific findings are presented here, in addition to the two principal conclusions: Theorybuilding and knowledge advancement in Chinese PA have been rather problematic, but many studies reported in CPA, when classified as applied research, are valuable, in spite of the defects and shortcomings identified. This article also discusses implications for future research and the development of Chinese PA as a field of study.
Article
Using the evaluation framework originally developed by McCurdy and Cleary, this article examines the quality of 132 public administration dissertations produced in mainland China between 2002 and 2006. In general, the quality of these PA dissertations can be considered unsatisfactory in all six criteria: research question, validity, theory relevance, causality, importance, and innovativeness. A comparison between these dissertations and their counterparts produced in the US in 1981, 1990 and 1998 shows that they are similar to the US dissertations from 1981. Major institutional problems that have led to inadequate PA doctoral research, including the lack of a research orientation, rigid PhD advisor institutions, and maladjustment to internationalization, are identified and discussed. While there is a prevailing consensus in China of building PA research on contemporary social science standards, real efforts and institutional reforms are urgently needed.
Article
The rapid modernization and globalization of mainland China has resulted in impressive new practices and expectations for public administration (PA), including public administration research and education. Chinese universities have created new master in public administration (MPA) degree programs that already rival U.S. MPA programs in enrollment, with about 15,000 to 20,000 students annually. In 1999, PhD programs in public administration were first established at Fudan University, Renmin University, and Sun Yat-Sen University. Since then, Chinese ministries and universities have ratcheted up quality expectations for university-based public administration research. At the top universities, faculty are increasingly expected to publish in journals that are part of the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) to keeping pace with similar expectations for quality in neighboring Asian countries and, indeed, around the world. Beyond this, public administration researchers are also expected to contribute to empowering a new generation of public managers and guiding modernization efforts in Chinese public service. There are high expectations for sure.
Article
Whether excited by the prospect or not, academics realize that general interest in technology-based distance eduation is rapidly increasing - a fact which is particularly true for public administration and public policy programs (see, for example, Ebdon, 1999). According to the U.S. Department of Education (1997), as of fall 1995, a third of higher education institutions offered distance education and another quarter planned to offer such courses in the next three years (p. iii). In academic year 1994-1995, approximately 753,640 students were enrolled in an estimated 25,730 distance education courses offered by higher education institutions. Of those, public four-year institutions offered 45 percent, public two-year instutitions offered 39 percent, and private four-year instutitions offered 16 percent (pp. iii-iv). Degrees and course offerings range from business, to nursing, to social science. Graduate programs in public administration have not escaped the pressure. Interest among MPA programs in distance education has burgeoned suddenly. This is reflected, for example, in attendance at NASPAA panels on the subject. Just three years ago it was difficult to get more than a dozen participants to such panels. In subsequent years they have seen standing-room-only. Even more noteworthy is the fact that NASPAA has recently adopted new accreditation standards and guidelines addressing distance education (COPRA, 1999, pp. 24-26). NASPAA is, at least in principle, ready to embrace distance education as a legitimate component of MPA programs. Things are moving quickly, and we detect an air of urgency among politicians and administrators to jump on the distance-education bandwagon. Indeed, Rahm and Reed (1997) have conducted surveys that indicate that these officials are responsible for much of the pressure now put on faculty to offer distance courses.
Article
Combining insights from traditional thought and practice and from contemporary political analysis, Madison's Managers presents a constitutional theory of public administration in the United States. Anthony Michael Bertelli and Laurence E. Lynn Jr. contend that managerial responsibility in American government depends on official respect for the separation of powers and a commitment to judgment, balance, rationality, and accountability in managerial practice. The authors argue that public management-administration by unelected officials of public agencies and activities based on authority delegated to them by policymakers-derives from the principles of American constitutionalism, articulated most clearly by James Madison. Public management is, they argue, a constitutional institution necessary to successful governance under the separation of powers. To support their argument, Bertelli and Lynn combine two intellectual traditions often regarded as antagonistic: modern political economy, which regards public administration as controlled through bargaining among the separate powers and organized interests, and traditional public administration, which emphasizes the responsible implementation of policies established by legislatures and elected executives while respecting the procedural and substantive rights enforced by the courts. These literatures are mutually reinforcing, the authors argue, because both feature the role of constitutional principles in public management. Madison's Managers challenges public management scholars and professionals to recognize that the legitimacy and future of public administration depend on its constitutional foundations and their specific implications for managerial practice. © 2006 by The Johns Hopkins University Press. All Rights Reserved.
Article
As we enter the twenty-first century, poor and non-Asian minority students lag considerably behind their nonpoor, Asian, and white counterparts on many dimensions of academic performance. Although scholars have long known that these academic disparities stem from many causes, commentators on both sides of the political spectrum often attribute these gaps to disparities in school quality. Thus, President George W. Bush has promoted his "No Child Left Behind" education reform legislation as a crusade against lowquality schools. "We don't want schools languishing in mediocrity and excuse-making," Bush said in 2002. "We want the best for every child. . . . And that starts with making sure that every child gets a good education." But just how unequal is the U.S. educational system? Do schools that serve disadvantaged students "languish in mediocrity"? It is certainly true that dilapidated facilities staffed by inexperienced teachers haunt journalists' depictions of the schools that serve disadvantaged students (see, for example, Kozol 1991). But to what extent do these portraits accurately describe the typical schools that disadvantaged students attend? This chapter uses national data to examine the prevalence of "savage inequalities" at the turn of the twentyfirst century. We assess not only the extent to which poor and nonwhite students attend "worse" schools than their nonpoor and white counterparts, but also whether these inequalities have widened or narrowed since the late 1980s. In addition, we discuss whether reducing disparities in any particular dimension of school quality is likely to reduce disparities in students' academic achievement. We begin by describing trends in academic performance among students from different ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. In the next section, we briefly examine the extent of ethnic and socioeconomic segregation across schools. The third and most important section describes ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in public school quality and, when possible, whether these disparities widened or narrowed over the 1990s. We first examine inequities in teacher quality, including differential access to well-educated, credentialed, experienced, and academically skilled teachers. Then we describe disparities in access to instructional attention, as reflected both in the amount of time students spend in school and in class sizes. Next we look at inequalities in instructional resources, as measured by the availability of "gifted" or "advanced placement" programs, instructional materials, computer technology, visual and performing arts offerings, and exposure to academically oriented peers. We conclude this section by describing disparities in access to school services, comfortable facilities, and a safe school environment. The next section briefly discusses whether our focus on public schools understates the extent of education inequality in the United States, and finally, we summarize our main conclusions and offer suggestions for future research.
Article
In this article, the authors investigate the coverage of social equity in introductory public administration textbooks.A framework for understanding and measuring social equity is first presented, followed by a detailed review of textbook content. Finding mixed attention to the issue, an “equity-across-the-survey-course” is suggested. The article concludes with specific recommendations for including social equity as a theme running throughout the course.