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Abstract

Purpose A rich and heterogeneous body of knowledge about adoption breakdown has accumulated in recent years. The goal of this article is to review the existing research literature on the topic. Method A comprehensive review of journal articles, book chapters, and technical reports addressing the issue of adoption breakdown was conducted. Results Terminological and methodological difficulties are discussed before the main findings about the incidence of adoption breakdown are presented. A detailed examination of the child, parent, and support and service characteristics associated with the breakdown experience follows. The review ends with the analysis of some policy and practice implications, as well as with suggestions about how to increase and improve the study of adoption breakdown. Discussion Although research into adoption breakdown has achieved a considerable progress in recent years, improvements are still needed in both the basic research and the applied implications domains.

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... In this review, we use the term placement breakdown broadly to refer to the situation in which a foster or adopted child is either temporarily or permanently physically separated from the foster or adoptive parents regardless of the legal status. That is, whether the adoption process was finalised or not and whether the legal parental rights are terminated or not (Palacios, Rolock, Selwyn, & Barbosa-Ducharne, 2019). Placement breakdown does, however, not refer to the situation in which a foster child is returned to the biological parents due to improvements in the parenting ability or the life circumstances of the biological parents. ...
... Nonetheless, an incidence of placement breakdown is difficult to estimate precisely due to variation in terminology, research designs, measurement, and available statistics. In a recent review of the existing literature on adoption breakdown and disruption, Palacios, Rolock, et al. (2019) report incidence rates ranging from just 1% to 23% in different studies. The study with the lowest incidence only measured disruptions or breakdown occurring in the timeframe when the adoption paper work was still being processed, which is not when most disruptions or breakdowns happen. ...
... Similarly, it is estimated that between 20 and 50% of children in long term foster care will experience that their planned stay in their foster family ends prematurely (Oosterman, Schuengel, Slot, Bullens, & Doreleijers, 2007). Regardless of the exact extend of the problem with placement breakdown, it is clear that it constitutes a serious risk, as placement breakdowns are both costly to the society and can have devastating consequences for vulnerable children (Newton, Litrownik, & Landsverk, 2000;Palacios, Rolock, et al., 2019;Strijker, Knorth, & Knot-Dickscheit, 2008). ...
Article
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This is the protocol for a Campbell review. The objectives are as follows: 1. To assess the efficacy of attachment‐based interventions on measures of favourable parent/child outcomes (attachment security, dyadic interaction, parent/child psychosocial adjustment, behavioural and mental health problems and placement breakdown) within foster and adoptive families with children aged between 0 and 17 years. 2. To identify factors that appear to be associated with more effective outcomes and factors that modify intervention effectiveness (for example, age of the child at placement and at intervention start, programme duration, programme focus) To assess the efficacy of attachment‐based interventions on measures of favourable parent/child outcomes (attachment security, dyadic interaction, parent/child psychosocial adjustment, behavioural and mental health problems and placement breakdown) within foster and adoptive families with children aged between 0 and 17 years. To identify factors that appear to be associated with more effective outcomes and factors that modify intervention effectiveness (for example, age of the child at placement and at intervention start, programme duration, programme focus)
... According to Rolock and Testa (2008), the dissolution rate increases with the number of years since the child first joined the family, with more dissolutions occurring at 10 years after adoption. When adoption breakdown (a term encompassing both disruption and dissolution) occurs, the child no longer experiences the benefits of having a permanent and stable family (Palacios, Rolock, Selwyn, & Barbosa-Ducharne, 2019). In fact, the child and family both experience the devastating effects of loss and trauma following adoption breakdown (Smith, 2014). ...
... Studies have also shown when children experience a high number of placement moves while in foster care, they are at an increased risk of experiencing adoption breakdown (Barth, Berry, Yoshikami, Goodfield, & Carson, 1988;Rolock & White, 2016;Selwyn et al., 2014). Palacios et al. (2019) observed as the number of broken relationships increased, children struggled to trust future relationships and emotional connections. This, in turn, increased the emotional and behavioral challenges of children . ...
... In fact, Leathers (2005) identified that when a child has been separated from all of their siblings while in foster care, the risk of placement disruption increased, particularly if the child had previously been placed with siblings and then later separated. Palacios et al. (2019) suggested that the inconsistency in findings across studies perhaps was due to factors surrounding placement of the child with or without siblings, including an experience of preferential rejection-when one child is singled out to be adopted or made to leave the adoptive home (p. 134). ...
Article
The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 was one of several United States federal initiatives meant to encourage adoptions from child welfare and support parents in post-adoption. The majority of these policies provide financial assistance in the form of subsidies and tax breaks. This systematic review explores the effect of these federal initiatives on adoption by examining recent studies (n = 6) of adoption breakdown in the United States. Several of the previously identified factors associated with adoption breakdown appear to remain a challenge for children and families in post-adoption. Child characteristics that remained significant are 1) age of child at adoption, 2) number of placements while in foster care, and 3) emotional and behavior challenges. Some parent and agency characteristics also continued to be observed in situations of adoption breakdown. Yet, this review indicated a potential positive impact of the Fostering Connections Act and previous legislation aimed at strengthening families in post-adoption. Implications for practice include a call for future federal initiatives to continue efforts to support adoptive families by expanding the adoption competency trainings to reach adoptive parents as well as professionals. Future research needs include exploring the post-adoption needs of kinship adopters and expanding the examination of parent and agency factors currently associated with adoption breakdown in the United States.
... Adopted families are a possibility for children who have had adverse experiences to live the stability and permanence of a home and a family (Palacios, Rolock, Selwyn, & Barbosa-Ducharne, 2019). Thus, adoption has become necessary to guarantee the right to family for children and adolescents who could no longer be with their biological families due to the occurrence of mistreatment, negligence and even abuse (Palacios, 2007). ...
... Barth and Berry (2017) noted that this expression had been commonly used for the multiple diverse ways of returning the child to the child welfare system, failing to distinguish between adoptions that ended before (adoption disruption) and after being legalized (adoption dissolution). We will use the term adoption breakdown in the text, as used by Palacios et al. (2019) since it encompasses adoption disruption and adoption dissolution. But it is important to remember that this breakdown in Brazil implies returning the child from the adoptive family to the child's welfare system. ...
... Smith et al. (2015) affirms that the older the child, the higher the risk for adoption dissolution. Other recent studies (Brodzinsky & Smith, 2019;Palacios et al., 2019) identified that children's emotional problems are systematically connected to adoption breakdown. Similarly, Palacios et al. (2019) focused on the factors related to adoptive parents and suggested that when the motivation to adopt was related to the satisfaction of the adults' needs, it became a risk factor for adoption breakdown. ...
Article
Background Adoption breakdown can cause another trauma for vulnerable children and impact their development. Objective The present study aimed to analyze the factors associated with consideration for adoption breakdown in a Brazilian sample of adoptive parents. The factors investigated were: (1) symptoms of common mental disorders; (2) expectations about the child's temperament; (3) dissatisfaction with parenting and; (4) the adoption of sibling groups. Method An online survey was used to access adoptive families. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. Participants The sample (N = 205) was composed of adoptive parents ranging from 38 to 55 years old (M = 39.6; SD = 6.6), mostly heterosexual (87.2%), married (81%) and with only one adopted child (57%). Results The results revealed that parents’ symptoms of common mental disorders are associated with the consideration for adoption breakdown (OR = 1216; p = .001). In addition, a higher level of dissastisfaction with parenting causes a threefold increase in the chance of thinking about adoption breakdown (OR = 3078; p = .001). Discussion It is clear, therefore, that parents' mental health seems to be associated with parental consideration for adoption breakdown. These data corroborate the literature that suggests that parents' dissatisfaction with parenting may contribute to parents to think about adoption breakdown. The identification of these factors contributes significantly to those who work with adoption support, particularly helping in the adaptation of the adoptive families.
... Durante este processo, ocorre o despertar para os aspectos emocionais do exercício da parentalidade através da adoção. O lugar reservado para a criança no psiquismo parental ganha um espaço importante, especialmente por sua capacidade de fornecer indícios da futura interação entre os membros da família (Morelli, Scorsolini-Comin, & Santeiro, 2015;Moyer & Goldberg, 2015;Palacios, Rolock, Selwyn, & Barbosa-Ducharne, 2019). ...
... A criação de um "espaço para o imprevisível"como destacam Ferrari, Piccinini e Lopes (2007) -a respeito da idealização do bebê imaginário por gestantes, pode ser de grande relevância no processo de transição para a maternidade por adoção também. Pais adotivos, assim como pais biológicos, criam uma criança imaginária -que representa seu ideal de filho -, e faz parte de um processo sadio que estes pais gradualmente afastem-se dessa imagem, abrindo, assim, espaço para perceberem a realidade da criança que vão encontrar (Levy & Féres-Carneiro, 2001;Palacios et al., 2019). ...
... Nesse sentido, a motivação para a adoção, segundo revisão integrativa da literatura nacional, tornou-se foco de muitos estudos nos últimos anos(Morelli et al., 2015). No entanto, as representações maternas inconscientes sobre o filho não foram ainda abordadas, mesmo sendo um dos principais entraves para o relacionamento futuro mãe-criança(Morelli et al., 2015;Moyer & Goldberg, 2015;Palacios et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
O período anterior à chegada da criança na família adotiva é permeado por expectativas, incluindo o imaginário sobre a criança. O presente estudo investigou as representações maternas sobre a criança imaginária no contexto de espera pela adoção. Trata-se de um estudo de casos múltiplos em que participaram quatro mulheres que esperavam na fila de adoção. Os dados foram analisados através da Análise Temática e organizados a partir de três temas definidos previamente: (a) imaginário sobre características físicas; (b) imaginário sobre as características emocionais; e (c) imaginário sobre a relação mãe-criança. Observou-se que no primeiro tema surgiram questões raciais, enquanto no segundo tópico as participantes falaram sobre a representação de uma criança sofrida e/ou idealizada, sendo essa última baseada na apresentação de um comportamento calmo. Na relação com a criança, as participantes abordaram a necessidade de adaptação frente ao tornar-se mãe por adoção, apesar disso, suas perspectivas apontavam para interações positivas. Reconhecer a espera pela adoção como parte da transição para parentalidade faz-se primordial para saúde emocional dessas famílias. Este estudo contribui empiricamente para uma maior compreensão sobre as representações maternas da criança imaginária no contexto da filiação adotiva.
... A key consideration for policy makers and service providers alike is to understand and address the needs of children who have exited the foster care system through adoption or guardianship, and their families. While there is an intention, and often an assumption, that once children achieve legal permanence, these will be their 'forever' families (Hanna, Tokarski, Matera, & Fong, 2011;Samuels, 2008), research suggests that these familial relationships do not always endure (e.g., Goering & Shaw, 2017;Palacios, Rolock, Selwyn, & Barbosa-Ducharne, 2019;Parolini et al., 2018;Rolock & White, 2016;Selwyn et al., 2014;Smith, Maza, Magruder, Sciamanna, & Howard, 2014;Testa, Snyder, Wu, Rolock, & Liao, 2015;White, 2016). ...
... Extant research has found that most children who exit the foster care system through adoption or guardianship do not return to foster care (Goering & Shaw, 2017;Palacios et al., 2019;Parolini et al., 2018;Rolock, 2015;Rolock & White, 2016;Selwyn et al., 2014;White, 2016). It has been estimated that between 5% and 20% of children experience instability, including foster care reentry, placement in longterm treatment facilities and congregate care, and moves between foster homes or relatives that last longer than a week (Berry, Propp, & Martens, 2007;Festinger, 2002;Goering & Shaw, 2017;Hartinger-Saunders, Trouteaud, & Matos Johnson, 2015;Jones & LaLiberte, 2010;Palacios et al., 2019;Parolini et al., 2018;Smith, Howard, & Monroe, 1998;White et al., 2018). ...
... Extant research has found that most children who exit the foster care system through adoption or guardianship do not return to foster care (Goering & Shaw, 2017;Palacios et al., 2019;Parolini et al., 2018;Rolock, 2015;Rolock & White, 2016;Selwyn et al., 2014;White, 2016). It has been estimated that between 5% and 20% of children experience instability, including foster care reentry, placement in longterm treatment facilities and congregate care, and moves between foster homes or relatives that last longer than a week (Berry, Propp, & Martens, 2007;Festinger, 2002;Goering & Shaw, 2017;Hartinger-Saunders, Trouteaud, & Matos Johnson, 2015;Jones & LaLiberte, 2010;Palacios et al., 2019;Parolini et al., 2018;Smith, Howard, & Monroe, 1998;White et al., 2018). This wide variation in the risk for instability results from variation in the type of population or sample (e.g., a sample of respondents who are seeking help and samples that are a broader array of families) and on how long children and families are observed in different studies (Festinger & Maza, 2009;Golden & Macomber, 2009;Jones & LaLiberte, 2010;White et al., 2018). ...
Article
Ensuring the wellbeing and stability of children with foster care experiences is critical. Between 5% and 20% of children experience post-permanency instability, a reentry into foster care after adoption or guardianship; adolescents are at increased risk for post-permanency instability. Few interventions that aim to reduce post-permanency instability have been rigorously tested. This study adapted and tested Tuning in to Teens (TINT), previously tested in Australia as a prevention program with parents of adolescents. TINT teaches caregivers skills in emotion coaching (responding with empathy, support, and guidance when young people express emotions) while helping them to reduce their dismissive or harsh parenting responses and regulate their own emotions. This study found that TINT was effective at reducing the degree to which parents and guardians are struggling, especially for those who expressed difficulty with managing their child’s behaviors. Implications for practice, policy, and future research are discussed.
... Adoption professionals are well aware that the emotional and behavioral health of each family member during the adjustment period is vital for the family to remain intact up to legal finalization of the adoption and beyond. For the past twenty years, adoption researchers have explored factors that contribute to adoption breakdown, a term encompassing both disruption (prior to legal finalization) and dissolution (after legal finalization) (Palacios, Rolock, Selwyn, & Barbosa-Ducharne, 2019). Studies have found that one of the most significant factors contributing to adoption breakdown is the age of the child at placement (Coakley & Berrick, 2008;Faulkner, Adkins, Fong, & Rolock, 2017;Festinger, 2014;Smith, 2014). ...
... Studies have found that one of the most significant factors contributing to adoption breakdown is the age of the child at placement (Coakley & Berrick, 2008;Faulkner, Adkins, Fong, & Rolock, 2017;Festinger, 2014;Smith, 2014). When the child is older, the child has often been exposed to adverse conditions for a longer period of time, making adjustment to a new family setting more challenging (Palacios et al., 2019). Additionally, when an older child is placed for adoption, the child may be beginning the process of individualization according to the natural process of child development (Piaget, 1952). ...
... Researchers who study the phenomena of adoption breakdown have suggested two other groups of factors that may contribute to an outcome of breakdown: parent factors and agency factors (Palacios et al., 2019). Research has shown that parents tend to struggle with harboring unrealistic expectations of what the adopted child or the adoption process will be like (Palacios, Jiménez-Morago, & Paniagua, 2015;Reilly & Platz, 2003;Rosenthal, Groze, & Curiel, 1990;Smith, 2014). ...
Article
The process of adopting a child holds specific challenges for a new adoptive family. When a child joins an adoptive family, the adjustment necessary for each family member plays a significant role in the outcome of the placement. Yet, despite the importance that adjustment plays in the success of an adoption, very few studies have focused on the adjustment process or the "honeymoon period" for children and families. This study offers valuable insight into various aspects of healthy adoption adjustment and the honeymoon period and provides a foundation for a model of adoption adjustment with specific time frames and insight into when the most challenges to healthy adjustment arise. Implications for practice include tools and strategies for adoption workers in child welfare to monitor adoption adjustment more closely.
... The literature identifies many risk and protective factors that influence sustained adoptive or guardianship relationships. For example, evidence suggests that child characteristics (e.g., age, time and experiences in foster care) and caregiver characteristics (e.g., age, kinship, and expectations of the child) impact these relationships (Palacios, Rolock, Selwyn, & Barbosa-Ducharne, 2019;White, 2016). However, according to theory, these characteristics are also influenced by the quality of the relationship between the principal and the agent. ...
... The results of the multivariate analysis were largely congruent with theory and prior research on discontinuity. The relationship between increased time since finalization and increased hesitancy is congruent with prior research into adoption breakdown (see Palacios et al., 2019). Specifically, it is not typically a single crisis that causes the breakdown but rather, struggles that occur over multiple years. ...
... Older age at the time of permanence has been found in other studies to be associated with increased likelihood for discontinuity after adoption or guardianship (Palacios et al., 2019;Rolock & White, 2016;Selwyn, Wijedasa, & Meakings, 2014). In this study, older age at placement was associated with being hesitant to adopt or assume guardianship again. ...
Article
Targeted prevention efforts after adoption or guardianship from foster care are intended to help families most at-risk and prior to the onset of significant issues. Most adoptive and guardianship families adjust well with supportive services in place; only a small proportion have difficulties that result in children returning to foster care after adoption or guardianship. This study examined the use of administrative data to identify families at-risk for post-permanency discontinuity. Administrative data have some utility for identifying families that may struggle, however, they provide a limited representation of risk. Caregiver survey responses in four states (n=1,670) found that families with universal outreach scored higher on child behavioral and caregiver strain measures than families specifically targeted based on risk factors identified in the administrative data. These findings suggest that caregiver commitment and familial relationships questions should be assessed prior to targeting prevention services aimed at reducing post-permanence discontinuity. Specifically, a brief check-in with families after adoption or guardianship, with key questions discussed here, could be beneficial to identify and engage struggling families for prevention and early intervention services.
... Durante este processo, ocorre o despertar para os aspectos emocionais do exercício da parentalidade através da adoção. O lugar reservado para a criança no psiquismo parental ganha um espaço importante, especialmente por sua capacidade de fornecer indícios da futura interação entre os membros da família (Morelli, Scorsolini-Comin, & Santeiro, 2015;Moyer & Goldberg, 2015;Palacios, Rolock, Selwyn, & Barbosa-Ducharne, 2019). ...
... A criação de um "espaço para o imprevisível"como destacam Ferrari, Piccinini e Lopes (2007) -a respeito da idealização do bebê imaginário por gestantes, pode ser de grande relevância no processo de transição para a maternidade por adoção também. Pais adotivos, assim como pais biológicos, criam uma criança imaginária -que representa seu ideal de filho -, e faz parte de um processo sadio que estes pais gradualmente afastem-se dessa imagem, abrindo, assim, espaço para perceberem a realidade da criança que vão encontrar (Levy & Féres-Carneiro, 2001;Palacios et al., 2019). ...
... Nesse sentido, a motivação para a adoção, segundo revisão integrativa da literatura nacional, tornou-se foco de muitos estudos nos últimos anos(Morelli et al., 2015). No entanto, as representações maternas inconscientes sobre o filho não foram ainda abordadas, mesmo sendo um dos principais entraves para o relacionamento futuro mãe-criança(Morelli et al., 2015;Moyer & Goldberg, 2015;Palacios et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Resumo: O período anterior à chegada da criança na família adotiva é permeado por expectativas, incluindo o imaginário sobre a criança. O presente estudo investigou as representações maternas sobre a criança imaginária no contexto de espera pela adoção. Trata-se de um estudo de casos múltiplos em que participaram quatro mulheres que esperavam na fila de adoção. Os dados foram analisados através daAnálise Temática e organizados a partir de três temas definidos previamente: (a)imaginário sobre características físicas;(b) imaginário sobre as característicasemocionais; e (c) imaginário sobre a relação mãe-criança.Observou-se que no primeiro tema surgiram questões raciais, enquanto no segundotópico as participantes falaram sobre a representação de uma criança sofrida e/ou idealizada, sendo essaúltimabaseada na apresentação deum comportamento calmo. Na relação com a criança, as participantes abordaram a necessidade de adaptação frente ao tornar-se mãe por adoção, apesar disso, suas perspectivas apontavam para interações positivas. Reconhecer a espera pela adoção como parte da transição para parentalidade faz-se primordial para saúde emocional dessas famílias. Este estudo contribui empiricamente para uma maior compreensão sobre as representações maternas da criança imaginária no contexto da filiação adotiva.Palavras-chave: criança imaginária, adoção, pretendentes à adoção.Abstract: The period prior to the arrival of the child in the adoptive family is permeated by expectations, including the imaginary about the child. The present study investigated the maternal representations about the imaginary child in the context of waiting for adoption. This is multiple case studies involving four womenwho were waiting in line for adoption. Thedata were analyzed through the Thematic Analysis and organized from three previously defined themes: (a) imaginary about physical characteristics (b) imaginary about emotional characteristics and (c) imaginary about the mother-child relationship. It was observed that in the first theme racial issues arose, while in the second it oscillated between the representation of a child suffered and/or idealized as calm. In the relationship with the child, the participants approached the need for adaptation to becoming an adoptive mother, despite this, their perspectives point to positive interactions. Recognizing the waiting period to adopt as part of the transition to parenting is essential for the emotional health of these families. This study empirically contributes to a better understanding of maternal representations of the imaginary child in this context of adoptive filiation.Keywords:imaginary child, adoption, adoption applicants.
... The majority of adoptions provide residential permanence for children, although measuring the incidence of adoption "breakdown" is dogged by problems of terminology and methodology (Palacios, Rolock, et al., 2019). The rate of post-order adoption breakdown in England over a 12-year period has been estimated to be 3.2% (Selwyn et al., 2014). ...
... The origin of adverse outcomes for adopted children may relate to a range of different factors located within the child and their life history, birth and adoptive family factors and service factors (Palacios, Rolock et al., 2019). ...
... Age at placement has often been studied, with older children found to be at greater risk of later problems (Barth & Berry, 1988). However, age may be predominantly a proxy for length of exposure to adverse experiences and may be less influential per se than these other adversities (Howe, 1998;Palacios, Rolock et al., 2019;Rutter, 2005). Children who are adopted at older ages may have had greater exposure to abuse and neglect, and such maltreatment can have far-reaching developmental consequences (Egeland et al., 1983;Rutter, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored how child maltreatment, alongside a range of other variables, predicted adverse outcomes for children adopted from the foster care system in England. The participants were 319 adoptive parents who completed an in-depth online survey about their most recently adopted child. The mean age of children at placement for adoption was 28 months (range 0–11 years) and their ages at the time of the survey ranged from 0 years to 17 years (mean = 7 years). Detailed information was collected about children’s backgrounds, including their experiences in the birth family and the care system before adoption. Adoptive parents also reported on how well children were getting on in a range of areas of functioning and how well they felt the adoption was going overall. Child maltreatment and child adverse outcomes were modeled as two factors in a latent factor structural equation model. The relationship between these two factors was explored alongside a range of covariates. Associated with worse outcomes for children were potentially heritable factors (parental learning disability), the pre-birth environment (exposure to drugs or alcohol in utero) and the period between birth and moving to the adoptive family (higher levels of maltreatment, spending more than a year in care, having two or more foster placements). The child’s distress on moving from the foster home to the adoptive family was also highly significant in linking to poorer outcomes, suggesting the detrimental effect of poorly managed transitions. Implications for child welfare practices before and after adoption are discussed.
... Parent characteristics can help inform post-adoption needs but are often overlooked compared with child characteristics (Palacios, Rolock, Selwyn, & Barbosa-Ducharne, 2019). Parent demographics have been associated with post-adoption needs, helpseeking, and permanency outcomes. ...
... In addition to these phenotypical differences, adoptive parents are often ill-prepared to engage in racial socialization practices, which support children of color in managing racial discrimination and instilling a positive racial identity (R. M. Lee, 2003). Some research suggests that transracial adoption placements may be more likely to experience disruption than adoptions within the same race, especially for African American children (McRoy & Grape, 1999;Palacios et al., 2019). Although parental age and education level are unrelated to having a transracial placement, transracial adoption may be more common among same-sex couples (Farr & Patterson, 2009;Goldberg & Smith, 2009). ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to (a) identify whether there are meaningful subgroups of families with distinct post-adoption needs and (b) determine which parent, youth, and adoption characteristics are associated with these collections of needs. Using data from the Modern Adoptive Families study, authors conducted a three-step latent class analysis with a sample of 1,414 families who rated the importance of 16 areas of parent education and support, based on their current level of need. A five-class solution best fit the data. Descriptively, the classes reflect families with low needs, families with needs related to adoption adjustment, families with adoption-specific needs, families wanting support specific to their youths’ special needs, and families with needs that are both adoption-specific and related to youth special needs. Results from the multinomial logistic regression model found class membership differences based on parent, youth, and adoption characteristics. These classes may help adoption professionals to recognize the types of post-adoption services different families may need and to develop targeted interventions for specific types of families.
... The potential benefits of supportive interventions can be contrasted with the adverse developmental trajectories often associated with long-term out-of-home (e.g., institutional, unstable foster home) care (Berlin et al., 2011). Adoption and permanent placement in one foster home are an exception to this claim (Palacios et al., 2019), since they can, and often do, provide safe, continuous, good-enough family-based care. Other forms of long-term out-ofhome care, however, have been robustly linked to a wide range of problems, including "maltreatment, drug abuse, suicidal behaviour, psychiatric morbidity, unemployment, poor school performance, teenage parenting… even after control for pertinent confounds" (van IJzendoorn et al., 2018b, p. 653). ...
... For instance, adverse outcomes are likely due in part to the high risk of unstable care arrangements and placement breakdowns (e.g., the child is later returned to its original home, only to be removed once more). With variations between countries, between one fifth and two thirds of all long-term placements are broken prematurely (Konijn et al., 2018;Sallnäs et al., 2004;Wulczyn et al., 2003), with some research reporting similar findings for adoption breakdowns (Palacios et al., 2019). This comprises yet another attachment-related disruption for these already vulnerable children, with such instability leaving these children with the experience of unreliable access to a familiar safe haven. ...
Article
Full-text available
Attachment theory and research are drawn upon in many applied settings, including family courts, but misunderstandings are widespread and sometimes result in misapplications. The aim of this consensus statement is, therefore, to enhance understanding, counter misinformation, and steer family-court utilisation of attachment theory in a supportive, evidence-based direction, especially with regard to child protection and child custody decision-making. The article is divided into two parts. In the first, we address problems related to the use of attachment theory and research in family courts, and discuss reasons for these problems. To this end, we examine family court applications of attachment theory in the current context of the best-interest-of-the-child standard, discuss misunderstandings regarding attachment theory, and identify factors that have hindered accurate implementation. In the second part, we provide recommendations for the application of attachment theory and research. To this end, we set out three attachment principles: the child’s need for familiar, non-abusive caregivers; the value of continuity of good-enough care; and the benefits of networks of attachment relationships. We also discuss the suitability of assessments of attachment quality and caregiving behaviour to inform family court decision-making. We conclude that assessments of caregiver behaviour should take center stage. Although there is dissensus among us regarding the use of assessments of attachment quality to inform child custody and child-protection decisions, such assessments are currently most suitable for targeting and directing supportive interventions. Finally, we provide directions to guide future interdisciplinary research collaboration.
... Across the world there are differences in how the term is defined e.g. in the United Kingdom (UK) "adoption disruption" has been used to describe the breakdown of placements both preand post-Adoption Order, whereas in the United States (US) only the ending of a pre-Order adoption placement is described with this term. Terminological differences are considered one reason that researchers have reported a wide range of adoption breakdown rates: between 1% and 27% with lower rates in Europe than the US (Palacios, Rolock, et al., 2019). ...
... (3) Factors relating to adoption providers: shortcomings in adoption services e.g. poor preparation and inadequate support (Palacios, Rolock, et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Context Adoption can provide a lifetime of benefits for children. Some adoptions however, experience severe challenges resulting in disruption, with children leaving home prematurely. Method This qualitative study in Northern Ireland used interviews with parents from thirteen families whose adoptions had disrupted, to explore their perspective on the experience. Findings Key findings focused on issues relating to firstly, the adopted child; secondly, adoption services; and finally, the parents and other family members. The impact of early adverse experiences on the children (developmental trauma) played out through behaviours, often violent, that their parents found extremely challenging. These increased as the children aged and had serious effects on family life. The adoptive parents thought they could have been better prepared through the adoption process to face challenging behaviours and more appropriately supported to prevent disruption. When their adopted child was admitted to state care, the parents typically felt initial relief but also guilt and loss. After the child had left home, they generally wished for more involvement with him or her despite the difficulties experienced. Discussion This study confirmed previous findings about the extent of trauma experienced by some adoptive children, and the challenges that this may present to the adoptive parents. It highlighted how the manifestation of the trauma experienced by the child may lead to adoptive parents themselves experiencing primary or secondary trauma or compassion fatigue (defined in the Discussion section below) or a combination of all three. The preparation of adoptive parents should include greater awareness of possible challenges, and how to cope with these. The development of trauma-informed approaches to practice and service delivery is required to support families with adopted children more effectively. Co-production models for service development may assist in addressing the types of issues identified in post-adoption support services.
... For this review, the term LAC will represent those children who have been removed voluntarily or involuntarily from their biological home and placed in an 'out of home' care setting in either residential, foster or kinship including adoption [70]. Although the adopted child is no longer considered a LAC after completing the adoption process, a large majority of these children would have previously been LAC [71,72]. The adoption can also be reverted if the relationship breaks down or the parent wishes to reclaim the child during the process [71,72]. ...
... Although the adopted child is no longer considered a LAC after completing the adoption process, a large majority of these children would have previously been LAC [71,72]. The adoption can also be reverted if the relationship breaks down or the parent wishes to reclaim the child during the process [71,72]. To address this possible limitation, a distinction will be made in the results to acknowledge any difference in care profiles, and a sensitivity analysis will be conducted to differentiate the prevalence rates between the groups. ...
Article
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Background Looked after children (LAC) that are placed in either a foster, kinship, residential care setting or transition to adoption continue to develop debilitating disorders that significantly impact their overall health and social well-being. The prevalence of these disorders is often depicted under broad categories such as mental, behavioural or neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Limited in research is the prevalence of what specific disorders fall under these broad categories. NDDs such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) which fall under an umbrella group in the expert field of genetics and neuropsychiatry will be explored. Unsupported, these disorders can lead to suboptimal health and social outcomes for both the child and family. In the general population, the prevalence of these NDDs and impacts on health and social well-being are relatively well documented, but for minority groups such as LAC, research is extremely limited. This review aims to estimate the prevalence of NDDs among LAC and explore how they might impact the health and social well-being of these vulnerable children. If feasible, the review will compare the prevalence rates to those children who are not looked after, to illuminate any differences or similarities between populations. Methods PubMed, ASSIA, IBSS, Web of Science, PsychINFO, Scopus, Psych articles, Social Care Online, secondary, grey literature and government publications will be searched to identify any eligible studies. No restrictions will be placed on country, design or year of publication. Studies must provide primary data on the prevalence or incidence of NDDs for individuals < 25 years of age, supported by either a diagnostic code, standardised diagnostic assessment tool or survey response. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tools will be utilised to assess the quality and bias and the random-effects model used to estimate a pooled prevalence of NDDs. Discussion Attaining an estimated prevalence of these NDDs and identifying any impacts on health and social well-being might inform key stakeholders in health, educational and social sectors with important information that might aid in the early identification and intervention to safeguard and meet the unique needs of these children. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD4201913103 .
... Discontinuity might arise prior to adoption finalization or post-finalization. Several authors refer to adoption disruption as occurring prior to finalization and adoption dissolution occurring post-finalization (Coakley & Berrick, 2008;Palacios, Rolock, Selwyn, & Barbosa-Ducharne, 2019). Here, we attend to the phenomenon of adoption dissolution only; adoption disruption, though concerning and distressing for all involved, can be conceptualized as another form of placement instability. ...
... A GAO report from about 20 years ago, using data collected from almost half of the states, showed the incidence of dissolution at about one percent. A more recent study by Smith (2014, as cited in Palacios et al., 2019) reported a dissolution rate of 2.2%. Some studies have reported dissolution rates that are higher. ...
Article
An intense appetite for reforming and transforming child welfare services in the United States is yielding many new initiatives. Vulnerable children and families who become involved with child welfare clearly deserve higher quality and more effective services. New policies, programs, and practices should be built on sound evidence. Reforms based on misunderstandings about what the current data show may ultimately harm families. This review highlights 10 commonly held misconceptions which we assert are inconsistent with the best available contemporary evidence. Implications for better alignment of evidence and reform are discussed.
... Despite the substantial amount of research into adoption, little is known about the emotional and psychological impact of transitioning to parenthood from the perspective of the adopters (Meakings, et al., 2018;Selwyn, et al., 2006). This is likely to be significant as adoption disruption has been linked to parental factors at time of transition, such as adopters' unrealistic expectations, idealised view of adopted children, help-seeking behaviour and motivation to adopt (Goldberg, 2009;Palacios, et al., 2019;Randall, 2013;Rushton and Dance, 2004;Selwyn, Wijedasa and Meakings, 2014). ...
... Although the prevalence of adoption breakdown is low, approximately 3% in England and Wales (Selwyn, Wijedasa and Meakings, 2014), this encouraging figure should be seen in the wider context where adoptive parents struggle with their child's challenging behaviour and poor emotion regulation from the onset of placement (Palacios, at al., 2019;Selwyn, Wijedasa and Meakings, 2014). ...
Article
This qualitative retrospective recall study utilised nine in-depth, semi-structured interviews with adoptive mothers involved with an online support group often used by adoptive parents facing difficulties. The aim was to explore their transition to adoptive motherhood. The study was unusual because it covered a lengthy period, from pre-adoption and the motivation to adopt to 12 months post child placement and used Reflexive Thematic Analysis to analyse the data. Findings include the mothers’ sense of misaligned expectation, uncertainty, powerlessness, isolation, and emotional and physical fatigue. The most prominent findings centred on the high level of mental health issues reported by the mothers which included post-adoption depression, anxiety and trauma. New insights are discussed along with implications for future research and practice, along with the limitations of the study.
... No Brasil, são escassos os estudos sobre o fenômeno (Rossato & Falcke, 2017), possivelmente por não haver previsão legal para a ocorrência da dissolução da adoção (Brasil, 1990;Brasil, 2009). Entretanto, não é possível negar a ocorrência do fenômeno e as inúmeras consequências a todos os envolvidos: adotados, adotantes e componentes das equipes de suporte (Palacios, Rolock, Selwyn, & Barbosa-Ducharne, 2019). ...
... Também permite perceber posicionamentos diferentes da equipe profissional que acompanhava o caso (juiz, assistente social e psicóloga), assim como ausência de um efetivo e contínuo acompanhamento durante o período de aproximação e estágio de convivência. Crawford (2017), Ní Chobhthaigh e Duffy (2019) e Palacios et al. (2019), em seus estudos, apontam para a necessidade de capacitação de profissionais e articulação da equipe para dar suporte às famílias por adoção, já que existem enormes demandas e grandes desafios para atender adequadamente essa população. Indicam, ainda, que o funcionamento familiar adotivo, o comportamento de pais e filhos e as relações iniciais que vão sendo desenvolvidas mediam o vínculo entre as adversidades pré-adoção e os resultados posteriores. ...
Article
Full-text available
A adoção é um processo complexo, que nem sempre terá um desfecho bem sucedido. A partir de um estudo de caso, objetivou-se compreender as experiências de uma mulher, mãe por adoção de cinco filhos, que vivenciou a dissolução da adoção. A filha mais velha solicitou o retorno para a instituição de acolhimento, após sete anos de convivência com a família adotiva. Os dados foram obtidos pela construção do genograma e entrevista semiestruturada com a mãe. Na visão da participante, a dificuldade na constituição de vínculos afetivos entre mãe e filha levou à dissolução da adoção, associada ao não acesso ao acompanhamento profissional no período pós-adoção. Discute-se a questão da irrevogabilidade da adoção, a aplicabilidade dos termos devolução e duplo abandono e a importância da rede de apoio.
... Guardianship was seen as a promising alternative to adoption and its expanded application viewed as a key contributor to a reduction of children available for adoption in many States by the early 2000s (Testa, 2004). And while some researchers have found adoption and legal guardianship arrangements to be relatively stable in some studied US and international jurisdictions (Palacios, Rolock, Selwyn, & Barbosa-Ducharne, 2019;Pérez, 2014;Rolock & White, 2016), the standard Eurocentricinformed government law and policy for children who cannot return home continued to be domestic adoption until very recently (Brodzinsky & Livingston Smith, 2019;Groze, Haines-Simeon, & Barth, 1994;Testa, 2004). Additionally, this increase in rates of adoption and legal guardianship in several US States has largely not been witnessed to a similar degree in Canada. ...
Article
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Permanency has been a cornerstone concept in child welfare since the 1960s. Despite its endorsement as a best practice principle in promoting the wellbeing of children in child welfare care, debate persists about the key elements of the concept and their effects, particularly in relation to the emphasis on legal permanency when children in care cannot be reunited with their parents. This article describes results from a demonstration project using a Family Finding service model. It aimed to operationalize a multi-dimensional permanency definition where most of the children served were Indigenous.
... An extreme expression of tension for adoptive families is the disruption of the adoption, estimated to occur in less than 5 percent of cases according to European research, and in 5 to 10 percent of cases according to studies conducted in the US. The chief causes of adoption disruption have been established as a sustained accumulation of risk factors, chronic or escalating difficulties, and either a lack of specialized support, or support arriving too late (see Berástegui, 2017;Festinger, 2014;Palacios, Rolock, Selwyn, & Barbosa-Ducharne, 2019;Verbovaya, 2016, for an in-depth analysis). Various studies therefore point to the importance of an early holistic and integrated therapeutic approach (e.g. ...
Chapter
https://www.routledge.com/The-Routledge-Handbook-of-Adoption/Wrobel-Helder-Marr/p/book/9781138362505
... System differences and lack of comprehensive data render inter-country comparisons of adoption breakdown rates challenging (seePalacios et al. 2018). 2 Exceptions include older children wishing to be adopted by adults they have a close relationship with, including stepparents they are already living with. ...
Chapter
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Full text available here: https://library.oapen.org/handle/20.500.12657/47833
... Research in this area is rather limited, but findings suggest that adoptees' relationship quality with their adoptive parents is usually favorable (e.g., Groza & Muntean, 2016). However, some research suggests that challenging relationships with adoptive parents might be one of the contributing factors to adoption disruption and dissolution (Palacios, Rolock, Selwyn, & Barbosa-Ducharne, 2019;Verbovaya, 2016). Heterogeneity in parent-child relationship quality is related to adoptees' demographic backgrounds (e.g., special needs status) and country of origin . ...
Chapter
This chapter discusses internationally adopted (IA) children’s post-adoption social development. Findings on child–parent attachment, relationship quality, peer relations, ethnic identity development, self-esteem, and social and academic competence are synthesized in the chapter. The general conclusion from existing research is that IA children perform less well socially and academically than non-adoptees. In addition, differences within IA children and differences between IA children and non-adopted counterparts in all social developmental areas have been widely documented. Typically, when between-group differences exist, they favor adoptees from Asian countries such as China and South Korea. While IA children fare reasonably well social-academically, they have more issues than non-adoptees. Risk factors associated with pre-adoption adversity (e.g., pre-adoption adverse social and emotional experiences) increase vulnerability to develop less optimal social developmental outcomes. This chapter emphasizes that, like the normative non-adoptive population, there are individual and group differences in social and academic outcomes in IA children. Policy implications are discussed in association with promoting post-adoption development.
... The proliferation of publications reviewing the existing literature on adoption breakdown (Faulkner, Adkins, Fong, & Rolock, 2017;Festinger, 2014;Palacios, Rolock, Selwyn, & Barbosa-Ducharne, 2019;Rosnati, Ranieri, & Ferrari, 2017;White, 2016) indicates the importance of the problem and the existence of a significant number of empirical studies. In comparison, studies with the broader view of adoption instability have been far scarcer (Smith, 2014). ...
Chapter
This chapter refers to those cases in which adoption fails to achieve full permanence and the connection between adopters and adoptees becomes unstable, at times ending in permanent breakdown.
... Given that certain factors associated with adoption disruption or dissolution (Coakley & Berrick, 2008;Palacios et al., 2019) are permanent, it is necessary to offer specific interventions, focused on mitigating the impact of such factors on the adoption process and increasing the chances of postadoption well-being and stability. Achieving lasting success in adoption requires not just preparation and support for the pre-adoptive parents but also direct pre-placement work with the child (O'Dell et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Child adoption is a highly demanding process for all those involved, including the child, parents, and professionals. Support is needed to maximize the chances of adequate preparation, focusing on not just the parents’ preparedness but also the child’s preparation for adoption. Preparing a child for adoption is an ethical obligation. Assuming that the child is at the center of the adoption process, this paper highlights the importance of acknowledging the child’s specific needs and giving them adequate opportunity to develop into a fully engaged agent throughout the process. This article focuses on the Program for Preparing Children for Adoption (PPCA), a specific manual intervention designed to help professionals prepare children for adoption. The program is based on theoretical concepts of the psychology of adoption, the bioecological development perspective and a narrative psychology approach. First, the PPCA’s theoretical background is presented, followed by each one of its core aspects and specific activities. The article concludes with a summary of this program’s major contributions to child preparation as well as recommendations for future research and practice.
... For instance, adverse outcomes are likely due in part to the high risk of unstable care arrangements and placement breakdowns (e.g. the child is later returned to its original home, only to be removed once more). With variations between countries, between one-fifth and twothirds of all long-term placements are broken prematurely (Konijn et al., 2018;Sallnäs et al., 2004;Wulczyn et al., 2003), with some research reporting similar findings for adoption breakdowns (Palacios, Rolock, et al., 2019). This comprises yet another attachment-related disruption for these already vulnerable children, with such instability leaving these children with the experience of unreliable access to a familiar safe haven. ...
... 4. Some children do return to care after having been adopted (Palacios et al. 2018;rolock 2015). However, states differ with respect to whether it is possible to track adopted children who later return to care. ...
Article
To understand what placement outside of one’s home means to the young people involved, we must understand foster care from a life course perspective. I analyze young people’s experiences in foster care from this perspective, accounting for when foster care happens, how long it lasts, and what happens when foster care placements end. I show that the population of children coming into foster care is younger and less urban than it was 20 years ago. I also show reliable measures of exposure to foster care over the life course. Children who enter care early in life are the children who spend the largest proportion of their childhood in foster care—a fact that rarely weighs on the policymaking process. We know very little about state and local variation in foster care placement rates, not to mention the influence of social services, the courts, foster parents, and caseworkers over foster children, so I close by arguing investment in research should be a clear policy priority.
... Children who are older at the time of adoption are more likely to experience psychological and behavioral problems, with children placed in their adoptive homes over the age of 4 being the most troubled [17,18]. Older children placed for adoption are likely to have entered care at an older age, to have accumulated more pre-placement risk factors, including ACEs, and are at greater risk for their adoptive placement breaking down, termed a disruption [9,19]. Although age at placement has been used to predict children's outcomes in recent work [20], age at adoption as a sole indicator of preadoptive adversity is problematic. ...
Article
Full-text available
Children adopted from the public care system are likely to experience a cluster of inter-related risk factors that may place them on a trajectory of mental health problems that persist across the life course. However, the specific effects of putative risk factors on children’s mental health post-placement are not well understood. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study of children placed for adoption between 2014 and 2015 (N = 96). Adoptive parents completed questionnaires at approximately 5, 21, 36, and 48 months post-placement. We used time series analysis to examine the impact of pre-adoptive risk factors [adverse childhood experiences [ACEs], number of moves, days with birth parents and in care] on children’s internalizing and externalizing problems, and prosocial behavior over 4 years post-placement. Adoptees’ internalizing and externalizing problems remained consistently high over the 4-year study period, but more ACEs predicted increases in internalizing and externalizing problems. Contrary to expectations, more pre-placement moves and time in care predicted fewer problems over time, but exploratory analyses of interactive effects revealed this was only the case in rare circumstances. We identify pre- and post-removal factors that may incur benefits or have a deleterious impact on adoptees’ outcomes in post-adoptive family life. Our findings provide knowledge for front-line professionals in the support of adoptive families and underscore the vital need for effective early intervention.
... Os resultados da pesquisa ainda destacaram que, mesmo não havendo um controle sobre a taxa de dissoluções das adoções no Brasil, o número deve ser alto. Tal questão é um problema de saúde pública nacional, pois repetidos e novos abandonos tendem a revitimizar e desproteger essas crianças (Palacios et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to describe the experience of developing the intervention program “Adoption: beginning of new bonds” using the IDEAS Impact Framework methodology, which facilitates the development, implementation, evaluation and rapid cycle interaction of programs, through multiple forms of testing. of hypotheses. Three feasibility tests were carried out to develop and evaluate the initial version of the program. The importance of the contributions of the target audience and the experts in the preparation of materials was highlighted, which made it possible for the contents to be developed in order to reflect the reality of the families, and in an accessible and personalized language. The construction of the implementation guide with a step-by-step guide helped the facilitators to assimilate the program strategies easily. The experience of developing this program highlighted the importance of using feasibility tests to test and adapt the main strategies, which makes it possible to make assertive decisions in the elaboration of intervention programs.
... Για την ανάλυση των ποιοτικών δεδομένων της παρούσας έρευνας επιλέχθηκε η μέθοδος της ανάλυσης περιεχομένου κατά θεματικούς άξονες. Κατά την εφαρμογή της μεθόδου αυτής ακολουθούνται 6 βήματα: α) εξοικείωση με τα δεδομένα, β) κωδικοποίηση των δεδομένων, γ) αναζήτηση κοινών θεμάτων, δ) αναθεώρηση των θεμάτων με αναφορά στο σύνολο των δεδομένων, ε) προσδιορισμός και ονομασία των θεμάτων και στ) παραγωγή/συγγραφή της ερευνητικής αναφοράς (Palacios, Rolock, Selwyn, Barbosa -Ducharne, 2019). ...
Preprint
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Στο παρόν άρθρο παρουσιάζεται το πλαίσιο της παιδικής προστασίας στην Ελλάδα και αναλύονται οι παιδοκεντρικοί θεσμοί της αναδοχής και της τεκνοθεσίας ανηλίκων, σύμφωνα με το υπάρχον και το πρότερο Νομοθετικό πλαίσιο οργάνωσης και εφαρμογής τους. Συγκεκριμένα, σκοπός της παρούσας μελέτης είναι να εξετάσει τους θεσμούς της Αναδοχής και της Τεκνοθεσίας, μέσα από μία συγκριτική σκοπιά του παλαιού και του νέου Νομοθετικού πλαισίου για τους δύο αυτούς σημαντικούς θεσμούς στην παιδική προστασία. Για την εκπλήρωση του σκοπού αυτού εξετάστηκαν οι στάσεις, οι αντιλήψεις, οι απόψεις και οι προτάσεις των επαγγελματιών Κοινωνικών Λειτουργών που είναι ο βασικότερος επαγγελματικός κλάδος για την προώθηση και υλοποίηση των σημαντικών αυτών θεσμών και οι οποίοι εργάζονται στα Κέντρα Κοινωνικής Πρόνοιας των Περιφερειών της χώρας και στις Κοινωνικές Υπηρεσίες των Περιφερειακών Αυτοδιοικήσεων (Αντιπεριφέρειες). Το δείγμα της ποιοτικής έρευνάς μας αποτέλεσαν 10 Κοινωνικοί Λειτουργοί με πάνω από πέντε (5) έτη εργασίας στην παιδική προστασία. Κατά τη διάρκεια των εις βάθος συνεντεύξεων που πραγματοποιήθηκαν εξετάστηκε συγκριτικά το νέο και το παλαιό νομοθετικό καθεστώς για τους θεσμούς της Αναδοχής και της Τεκνοθεσίας στην Ελλάδα, καθώς και τα πλεονεκτήματα και τα μειονεκτήματα που εντοπίζονται στην εφαρμογή των θεσμών αυτών στην παιδική προστασία, ως μια πρώτη αποτίμηση του αρχικού διαστήματος εφαρμογής του νέου Νόμου 4538/2018.
... The use of case records and document analysis is common in research on adoption and fostering disruptions (Palacios et al, 2018;Holloway, 1997), but often used for quantitative analysis only (Vanderfaeillie et al, 2018). Using a purely quantitative approach can lead to a focus on factors leading to disruptions, without an in-depth understanding of the context in which disruptions occur and how this is experienced by the people involved. ...
Research
Full-text available
Research study about the disruption of adoption and permanent fostering placements in Scotland. This research was undertaken by AFA Scotland and the University of Dundee in 2021-22, based on analysis of reports and minutes of meetings held following the disruption of permanent placements, conducted by or on behalf of local authorities.
... For instance, adverse outcomes are likely due in part to the high risk of unstable care arrangements and placement breakdowns (e.g. the child is later returned to its original home, only to be removed once more). With variations between countries, between one-fifth and twothirds of all long-term placements are broken prematurely (Konijn et al., 2018;Sallnäs et al., 2004;Wulczyn et al., 2003), with some research reporting similar findings for adoption breakdowns (Palacios, Rolock, et al., 2019). This comprises yet another attachment-related disruption for these already vulnerable children, with such instability leaving these children with the experience of unreliable access to a familiar safe haven. ...
Article
Full-text available
La théorie et les recherches sur l’attachement sont utilisées dans de nombreux cadres d’application, y compris dans les tribunaux compétents en matière familiale [1], mais les incompréhensions sont fréquentes et sources d’erreurs lorsqu’il s’agit de les mettre en pratique. L’objectif de cet article de consensus est donc d’accroître la compréhension, de lutter contre la désinformation et d’améliorer l’utilisation de la théorie de l’attachement dans les tribunaux compétents en matière familiale sur la base des données probantes, en particulier concernant la protection de l’enfance et les décisions relatives au mode de résidence des enfants de parents séparés. L’article est divisé en deux parties. Dans la première, nous abordons les problèmes liés à l’utilisation de la théorie et de la recherche sur l’attachement dans les tribunaux compétents en matière familiale, et nous évoquons les raisons qui en sont à l’origine. Pour cela, nous examinons les applications de la théorie de l’attachement dans les tribunaux compétents en matière familiale dans le contexte actuel de la norme relative à l’intérêt supérieur de l’enfant ; nous discutons des incompréhensions concernant la théorie de l’attachement et nous identifions les facteurs qui ont pu entraver sa bonne utilisation. Dans la deuxième partie, nous formulons des recommandations pour une meilleure application de la théorie et de la recherche sur l’attachement. Dans ce but, nous énonçons trois principes fondamentaux à propos de l’attachement : le besoin de l’enfant d’avoir des caregivers [2] familiers et non abusifs ; la valeur de la continuité des soins suffisamment bons ; et les avantages inhérents à la construction d’un réseau de relations d’attachement. Nous discutons également de la pertinence des outils d’évaluation de la qualité de l’attachement et des comportements de caregiving [3] pour éclairer les décisions des tribunaux compétents en matière familiale. Nous concluons que l’évaluation des comportements de soin des parents ou de toute personne en position de donneur de soins à l’enfant (caregivers) devrait être au centre des préoccupations. Bien qu’il existe un désaccord entre nous concernant l’utilisation des outils d’évaluation de la qualité de l’attachement pour éclairer les décisions relatives à la résidence et à la protection des enfants, ces outils apparaissent actuellement comme les plus appropriés pour cibler et mettre en place des programmes de soutien à la parentalité. Pour conclure, nous fournissons quelques orientations afin de guider les chercheurs dans le développement de futures collaborations au niveau interdisciplinaire. Attachment theory and research are drawn upon in many applied settings, including family courts, but misunderstandings are widespread and sometimes result in misapplications. The aim of this consensus statement is, therefore, to enhance understanding, counter misinformation, and steer family-court utilization of attachment theory in a supportive, evidence-based direction, especially with regard to child protection and child custody decision-making. The article is divided into two parts. In the first, we address problems related to the use of attachment theory and research in family courts, and discuss reasons for these problems. To this end, we examine family court applications of attachment theory in the current context of the best-interest-of-the-child standard, discuss misunderstandings regarding attachment theory, and identify factors that have hindered accurate implementation. In the second part, we provide recommendations for the application of attachment theory and research. To this end, we set out three attachment principles : the child’s need for familiar, non-abusive caregivers ; the value of continuity of good-enough care ; and the benefits of networks of attachment relationships. We also discuss the suitability of assessments of attachment quality and caregiving behavior to inform family court decision-making. We conclude that assessments of caregiver behavior should take center stage. Although there is dissensus among us regarding the use of assessments of attachment quality to inform child custody and child-protection decisions, such assessments are currently most suitable for targeting and directing supportive interventions. Finally, we provide directions to guide future interdisciplinary research collaboration.
... Για την ανάλυση των ποιοτικών δεδομένων της παρούσας έρευνας επιλέχθηκε η μέθοδος της ανάλυσης περιεχομένου κατά θεματικούς άξονες. Κατά την εφαρμογή της μεθόδου αυτής ακολουθούνται 6 βήματα: α) εξοικείωση με τα δεδομένα, β) κωδικοποίηση των δεδομένων, γ) αναζήτηση κοινών θεμάτων, δ) αναθεώρηση των θεμάτων με αναφορά στο σύνολο των δεδομένων, ε) προσδιορισμός και ονομασία των θεμάτων και στ) παραγωγή/συγγραφή της ερευνητικής αναφοράς (Palacios, Rolock, Selwyn, Barbosa -Ducharne, 2019). ...
Article
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Το παρόν άρθρο μελετά τη λειτουργία των Επιτροπών Διαγνωστικής Εκπαιδευτικής Αξιολόγησης και Υποστήριξης (Ε.Δ.Ε.Α.Υ.), ως μέσο για την ψυχοκοινωνική και μαθησιακή στήριξη των μαθητών πρωτοβάθμιας και δευτεροβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης στην Ελλάδα. Είναι μια από τις ελάχιστες αποτιμήσεις του έργου των Ε.Δ.Ε.Α.Υ., οι οποίες δημιουργήθηκαν πριν 7 περίπου χρόνια. Για τη μέχρι σήμερα αποτίμηση του έργου των Ε.Δ.Ε.Α.Υ. πραγματοποιήθηκαν 20 συνεντεύξεις με στελέχη των Ε.Δ.Ε.Α.Υ. (Διευθυντές Σ.Μ.Ε.Α., Εκπαιδευτικούς Ειδικής Αγωγής, Κοινωνικούς Λειτουργούς και Ψυχολόγους), οι οποίοι υπηρετούν στις περιφερειακές ενότητες Καβάλας, Δράμας και Ξάνθης και μελετήθηκαν μέσα από την εμπειρία και τις απόψεις των στελεχών αυτών τα πλεονεκτήματα και τα οφέλη, αλλά και οι μέχρι σήμερα αδυναμίες και ελλείψεις των Ε.Δ.Ε.Α.Υ. στην πρωτοβάθμια και δευτεροβάθμια εκπαίδευση. Τέλος, διατυπώθηκαν προτάσεις από τα στελέχη των Ε.Δ.Ε.Α.Υ. για την αποτελεσματικότερη λειτουργία τους στο μέλλον, μέσα από τα προσωπικά τους βιώματα, αλλά και τα διεθνή παραδείγματα καλών πρακτικών αντιστοίχων θεσμοθετημένων φορέων. Λέξεις Κλειδιά : Ε.Δ.Ε.Α.Υ., Ψυχοκοινωνικά προβλήματα, Μαθησιακές δυσκολίες, Διαχείριση κρίσεων, Συμβουλευτική.
... Similarly, children's emotional and behavioural difficulties can have a significant deleterious impact on adoptive and foster families and placement stability (e.g. Wijedasa and Selwyn, 2017;Palacios et al. 2019). These issues are highlighted in studies about the mental health needs of care-experienced children and young people (e.g. ...
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Literature review and exploration of stakeholder views regarding the need for Allied Health Professional support and intervention for Looked After Children.
... Por ejemplo, es probable que los resultados adversos se deban en parte al alto riesgo inherente a alternativas de cuidado inestables y con riesgo de ruptura (por ejemplo, el niño o niña acaba volviendo a su familia para después ser separado de nuevo). Con variaciones entre países, entre un quinto y dos tercios de todas las alternativas de cuidado fuera del hogar fracasan prematuramente (Konijn et al., 2018;Sallnäs et al., 2004;Wulczyn et al., 2003), con algunas investigaciones que informan de datos semejantes en los fracasos en adopción (Palacios, Rolock, et al., 2019). Esto implica una nueva ruptura en las relaciones de apego de niños y niñas que ya eran vulnerables, una inestabilidad que refuerza en ellos la experiencia de desconfianza respecto a la base segura conocida. ...
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La teoría y la investigación sobre el apego se utilizan en muchos contextos aplicados, incluidos los juzgados de familia, pero hay malentendidos muy extendidos y que a veces dan lugar a aplicaciones erróneas. El objetivo de este documento de consenso es, por lo tanto, mejorar la comprensión, contrarrestar la desinformación y dirigir el uso de la teoría del apego por parte de los juzgados de familia en la dirección de un apoyo basado en la evidencia, especialmente en lo que respecta a la protección de niñas y niños y las decisiones sobre su custodia. El artículo se divide en dos partes. En la primera abordamos los problemas relacionados con el uso de la teoría y la investigación sobre apego en los juzgados de familia, analizando las causas de tales problemas. Para ello examinamos las aplicaciones de la teoría del apego en los juzgados de familia en el marco del concepto de interés superior de niños y niñas, analizamos los malentendidos relacionados con la teoría del apego e identificamos los factores que han obstaculizado su adecuada aplicación. En la segunda parte ofrecemos recomendaciones para la aplicación de la teoría y la investigación sobre apego. Para ello establecemos tres principios del apego: la necesidad de niñas y niños de cuidadoras y cuidadores habituales que no maltraten, el valor de la continuidad de cuidados de calidad suficientemente buena y los beneficios de las redes de relaciones de apego. También analizamos la idoneidad de las evaluaciones de los estilos de apego y del comportamiento de los cuidadores para fundamentar la toma de decisiones de los juzgados de familia. Llegamos a la conclusión de que las evaluaciones de quienes cuidan deberían ocupar un lugar central. Aunque no hay consenso entre nosotros sobre el uso de las evaluaciones del estilo de apego para fundamentar las decisiones sobre custodia y protección infantil, dichas evaluaciones son actualmente las más adecuadas para orientar y dirigir las intervenciones de apoyo. Por último, proporcionamos orientaciones para guiar la futura colaboración en la investigación interdisciplinaria.
... Primary caregiver and family wellbeing is known to have a direct influence on child wellbeing across the life course [4]. Similarly, children's emotional and behavioural difficulties can have a significant deleterious impact on adoptive and foster families and placement stability [33,34]. Research indicates the critical need for support for care experienced children's primary caregivers, including birth families, with half of all children in care in NI (50%) returning to live with their birth parents [8]. ...
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This study argues that moral theory is an important aspect of our use of self in adoption practice. Within this context, the authors examined the extent to which ethical theories were explicitly incorporated in the peer-reviewed adoption literature – published between 1996 and 2019 – that purported to focus on ethical issues. Findings from our review suggest that the inclusion of moral theories was largely implicit (e.g., informed by relevant codes of ethics, professional standards, and/or legislation) rather than explicit. Our literature review also revealed a wide range of ethical issues in adoption. Recommendations are made in the context of these findings.
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Some brief psychotherapies aim to increase parental sensitivity in the post-adoption period. However, there is a lack of systemic approaches to evaluate the psychotherapeutic process. The current study aimed to understand how parental representations changed during ten psychotherapy sessions of a brief intervention to promote parental sensitivity during the post-adoption period. A couple (35-year-old mother and 39-year-old father) who were having severe difficulties bonding with their recently adopted children (three, five, and eight years old boys) participated in the study. The construct ‘sensitivity’ was used to analyze the psychotherapy process using a theme analysis applied to the psychotherapy transcriptions. The frequency of the deductive themes and the construction of new ones (inductive) through sessions guided the analyses. Initially, parents interpreted their children’s intentions negatively, which caused a chain of hostilities in the relationship. Throughout the intervention, parents gradually became better able to represent their children in a more complex way and understand how their children communicate their needs. Along with the sensitivity improvements noted, the couple reported an improvement in the parent-child bond, and adoption breakdown was no longer a topic of the sessions as it was in the beginning.
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Differences of Sex Differentiation (DSDs) are a number of conditions which often present as atypical genitalia in relation to the chromosomes or gonads at birth. In some cases, DSDs may be discovered later in life, at the age of puberty, or when trying to conceive. According to ILGA, approximately 1.7% of the world population is Intersex. In other words, almost 130 million people around the world were born with one of the known variations of DSDs. Considering that this number also corresponds to the number of naturally born redheads in the world, one may wonder why intersex people are still practically socially invisible. In Malta, as in much larger countries, intersexuality is a well-kept secret. The secrecy is possibly the result of two main factors: the sense of fear and shame for having been born different, and the Medical Professionals’ drive to correct what they deem aberrant. Ignorance and confusion are at the basis of both factors. For years on end, Intersex people have had to contend with the mistaken idea that their body is ‘wrong’, ‘disordered’, or even ‘freakish’. Fearing the child would not fit neatly in either of the two socially accepted genders, physicians would attempt to eliminate the ‘problem’ through surgery at a time when the child would be too young to participate in the decisionmaking process. The parents would then be encouraged to forget the child’s early life in favour of whatthey believed to be a more ‘acceptable’ future. As a result, Intersex people barely, if ever, got the holistic care they have the right to.
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This study uses longitudinal administrative data from twenty U.S. states to examine the risk of returning to foster care after children are either reunified with their parents or placed with guardians outside the foster care system. Our sample for this analysis includes all children who, before age 18, exited their first spell to either reunification or placement with guardians between 2003 and 2010 with follow-up through December 31, 2017 (N = 607,289). Focusing on demographics of the children, placement history and elapsed time since the exit from care as risk factors, a discrete time hazard model was specified to integrate children’s development as a factor predictive of re-entry. Subgroup analyses identified which children are most at risk of returning to care. Of all children who exited their first spell to reunification, 27% reentered care by 2018 and of all children who exited their first spell of foster care to live with a guardian, 17% reentered care by 2018. The study found older teens, children who experienced changes in care type before reunification, children who were discharged to reunification within six months of entering care, and children whose last placement was congregate care all show significant risks of re-entry into care. Additionally, while the number of infants who enter, leave and return to care before their first birthday is relatively small, the children in this group have a substantial risk of re-entering care. State and local child welfare agencies can use the results of this study to target their service investments such as those they might support with federal Family First Prevention funds.
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Disclosing one’s sexual orientation or incongruent gender identity to others is often an ordeal which one would rather avoid, especially if one is brought up as Catholic. Telling others about such matters is not done in a vacuum but is embedded within a social and a moral context. Dreading the imagined reactions of others, LGBT Catholics often delay revealing their ‘secret’, suffering in silence, praying that they will change, and fearing the consequences if they do not. This study is based on two years of fieldwork with LGBT Catholics in Malta and, to a lesser extent, in Palermo conducted during 2014 and 2015. It describes the experiences of having to reveal one’s ‘secret’, the tactics used to minimise conflict and how individuals seek to negotiate the approval and blessing of significant others. The recent social and legal changes in Malta, are likely to have a positive impact on the ‘coming out’ experiences of LGBT Catholics. However my informants grew up in a social milieu where such changes were still a dream. Challenging the norms of heterosexuality and disregarding the morality structures of the Church had their consequences.
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Integrating work and family demands can be challenging for families caring for a child with one or more disabilities. The pandemic and its changes to work, schooling and service delivery potentially added to these challenges. This exploratory mixed methods study sought to understand how the pandemic affected adoptive parents' work–life fit and service use. A total of 200 participants responded to survey questions about parenting an adopted child with a disability prior to, and after, the onset of Covid‐19. More than half of the parents (59.2%) reported that it was somewhat to very difficult to integrate both work and family demands. Parents with greater access to workplace flexibility and supportive supervisors had significantly less difficulties combining work and family. Families who reported more problems with accessing mental health services, special education and respite care reported significantly more challenges with work–family fit. Parents reported increased stress due to the pandemic changes, but many also shared positive changes such as more time for family. Online services were experienced as effective for some children and reduced time spent driving to appointments. Recommendations for workplace and social service practice and policy supporting adoptive parents of children with disabilities are discussed.
Article
Background Adopted children and children placed in foster care are at increased risk of developing a range of mental health, behavioural, and psychosocial adjustment problems. Previous studies suggest that due to early experiences of separation and loss some children may have difficulties forming a secure attachment relationship with the adoptive/foster parents. Objectives The objectives of the present review were: (1) to assess the efficacy of attachment-based interventions on measures of favourable parent/child outcomes (attachment security, dyadic interaction, parent/child psychosocial adjustment, behavioural and mental health problems, and placement breakdown) within foster and adoptive families with children aged between 0 and 17 years. (2) to identify factors that appear to be associated with more effective outcomes and factors that modify intervention effectiveness (e.g., age of the child at placement and at intervention start, programme duration, programme focus). Search Methods Relevant studies were identified through electronic searches of bibliographic databases, governmental and grey literature repositories, hand search in specific targeted journals, citation tracking, contact to international experts and Internet search engines. The database searches were carried out to October 2020. Selection Criteria The interventions of interest were parenting interventions aimed at helping the foster/adopted children and their parents to form or sustain a secure attachment relationship. The interventions had to be at least partly informed by attachment theory. Data Collection and Analysis The total number of potentially relevant studies constituted 17.822 hits after duplicates were removed. A total of 44 studies (27 different populations) met the inclusion criteria and were critically appraised by the review authors. Due to critical study quality, missing numeric data and re-use of the same data, only 24 studies analysing 16 different populations could be used in the data synthesis (children, N = 1302; parents, N = 1344). Meta-analysis using both child and parent outcomes were conducted on each metric separately. All analyses were inverse variance weighted using random effects statistical models. Random effects weighted mean effect sizes were calculated using 95% confidence intervals (CIs). When possible, we conducted moderator analysis using meta-regression and single factor sub group moderator analysis. Sensitivity analysis were conducted across study design and domains of the risk of bias assessment. Main Results Ten studies analysed the effect of attachment-based interventions on the overall psychosocial adjustment of foster or adopted children as reported by their caregivers post intervention. Measures used include the Child Behaviour Checklist, The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Brief Infant–Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) and Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory. The random effects weighted standardised mean difference (SMD) favouring the intervention group was 0.37 (95% CI, 0.10–0.65) and statistically significant. Three studies analysed the effects of attachment-based interventions on the observed attachment security of foster and adopted children as measured by independent observation. Measures include the Strange Situation Procedure, Attachment Q-Set, and The Emotional Availability Clinical Screener. The random effects weighted SMD was 0.59 (95% CI, −0.40–1.57) and not statistically significant. Four studies analysed the effect of attachment-based interventions on positive child behaviour post intervention as measured by independent observation of video-taped interaction between the child and caregivers. Measures include Disruptive Behaviour Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) and Emotional Availability Scales). The random effects weighted SMD was 0.39 (95% CI, 0.14–0.64) and statistically significant. Ten studies analysed the effect of attachment-based interventions on positive parenting behaviour post intervention as measured by independent observation of video-taped interaction between the child and caregivers or coding of audio-taped recordings of parental speech. Measures include Adapted Ainsworth Scales for sensitivity and noninterference, Measurement of Empathy in Adult–Child Interaction, The Dyadic Parent–Child Interaction Coding System, Reflective functioning scale, and Emotional Availability Scales. The random effects weighted SMD was 1.56 (95% CI, 0.81–2.31) and statistically significant. Nine studies analysed the effect of attachment-based interventions on self-reported post intervention parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index). The random effects weighted SMD was 0.24 (95% CI, 0.03–0.46.) and statistically significant. Three studies analysed the effect of attachment-based interventions on parental post intervention self-reported depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory). The random effects weighted SMD was 0.59 (95% CI, −0.08–1.25.) and not statistically significant. Follow-up analyses were carried out for the outcomes externalising behaviour, positive parenting, and parenting stress, but due to the low number of studies, results should be viewed with caution. Results of the single factor sub group moderator analysis suggest that it cannot be ruled out the effects differ depending on whether the interventions take place in the family home or in a clinical setting. However, it is unclear which location is associated with more positive effects as our findings differ between child and parent outcomes. Results of the sensitivity analysis showed no appreciable changes in the results following the removal of any of the studies in any of the analyses. Authors' Conclusions Parenting interventions based on attachment theory increase positive parent/child interactional behaviours, decrease parenting stress, and increase the overall psychosocial adjustment of children in foster and adoptive families postintervention. Due to the low number of studies evidence regarding the effects of attachment-based parenting interventions on attachment security and disorganised attachment in foster and adopted children was inconclusive. Theoretically, it is possible that child attachment security and/or attachment disorganisation cannot change within the relatively short period of time that parenting interventions typically last. It is possible that if postintervention improvements in parenting behaviours are sustained over time, it may lead to possible improvement in child attachment security and a decrease in child disorganised attachment. Thus, more longitudinal research is needed. Furthermore, evidence regarding the long-term effects of attachment-based parenting interventions on any outcomes was inconclusive due to too few studies, but findings suggest that attachment-based interventions increase positive parenting behaviour at follow-up points 3–6 months after the intervention. No study included in the present review provided a measure of placement stability or breakdown as an outcome, which could be used in the meta-analysis. This further emphasises the need for future longitudinal research in prevention of placement breakdown.
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This chapter considers how far the Barnardos adoptees achieved legal, residential and emotional permanence after adoption. It draws on minimal follow-up data, available for 124 adoptees (59% of the original cohort); extensive data collected through responses to an online survey concerning 93 adoptees (44% of the cohort) 5–37 years after placement; and interviews focusing on 24 adult adoptees. Ages at follow-up ranged from 5 to 44. All adoptees had achieved legal permanence. Many had achieved residential permanence after numerous placements in care: 34% of those aged 18 or over were still living with their adoptive parents. Twelve (13%) placements had disrupted, but all except eight (9%) adoptees had achieved psychological permanence. Relationships between adoptees and adoptive parents were twice as likely to persist as those between care leavers and foster parents.
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Rates of adoption breakdown have often been underestimated in international adoption. While several relevant studies have been published in Spain, there is no research addressing this issue in the autonomous community of Catalonia, which has been one of the main centers of international adoption in Spain since the 1990s. Our research provides specific data on this phenomenon and identifies the significant and critical variables contributing to adoption breakdown, by analyzing all the case files on failed adoption between 1998 and 2014: 1883 documents, corresponding to a total of 74 children and 62 families.
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Background: Media stories over the past decade have sensationalized cases of intercountry adoption discontinuity, a phenomenon largely missing from the research literature. Objective: This study sought to understand how intercountry adoptees with adoption discontinuity histories experience legal, relational, and residential permanency losses through the framework of ambiguous loss and trauma. Participants and setting: Twenty intercountry adoptees in the United States who experienced adoption discontinuity as minor children. Methods: Participants were recruited through social media sites and professional and informal organizations serving intercountry adoptees. Results: Participants described multiple experiences with legal, residential, and relational permanency losses often in multiple combinations, multiple times, and in multiple settings. Participants also experienced racial, ethnic and cultural identity losses in addition to their permanency ruptures. Conclusion: More research on the lived experiences of intercountry adoptees with adoption discontinuity histories is needed. Adoptees experience trauma in their pre-adoptive histories as well as in the adoption process itself and need adoptive parents skilled in trauma-informed parenting. In addition, there is a need for robust trauma-informed support for adoptees throughout their lifetime.
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Purpose This study examines foster care reentry after adoption, in Illinois and New Jersey. The provision of services and supports to adoptive families have garnered recent attention due to concern about the long-term stability of adoptive homes. Method This study used administrative data to examine the pre-adoption characteristics associated with post-adoption foster care reentry. Children were tracked longitudinally, using administrative data, for five to fifteen years (depending on their date of adoption), or the age of majority. Results Results indicated that most (95%) children did not reenter foster care after adoption. Findings from survival models suggested key covariates that may help to identify children most at risk for post-adoption reentry: child race, age at adoption, number of placement moves in foster care, and time spent in foster care prior to adoption. Conclusion Study findings may help identify families most at-risk for post-adoption difficulties in order to develop preventative adoption service.
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Purpose The study investigated whether sibling relationships influenced the outcomes of a sample of adoptive placements in England and Wales that had broken down postorder or were in crisis. Method The study used secondary analysis drawing on in-depth interviews with 41 families who had experienced an adoption disruption and 42 families who described the adoptive placement as being in crisis in England and in Wales. The families contained 214 adopted and birth children. Results Siblings placed together were statistically more likely to disrupt in comparison with sequential placements. Only 18 of the 83 families described normal sibling relationships. Placements intended to maintain sibling relationships had not done so. Conclusion Assessments need to pay more attention to sibling dynamics. Children’s relationships might be better supported by separate placements with planned contact. Interventions are needed to improve sibling relationships.
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Our commentary highlights the authors’ conceptual and empirical contributions for understanding the incidence and dynamics of varying types of adoption breakdowns and their impact on adopted youth and their families. Important distinctions are made between legal, residential, and psychological/relational permanence for children. To date, most research has focused on factors supporting or undermining legal and residential permanence but has largely ignored children’s sense of psychological or relational permanence. Recommendations for future research and implications of findings for policy and practice are discussed.
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Purpose This paper reports findings from two research studies that set out to calculate the rate and predictors of post-order adoption disruption in England and Wales. Methods All available national level administrative data on adopted children in England and Wales were analysed, supplemented by national surveys adoption managers. Complete national datasets were available 12 years in England and for 11 years in Wales. Results Of the 36,749 and 2317 adoptions considered, 565 in England and 35 in Wales had disrupted over the follow up period. Kaplan-Meier analyses indicate that cumulative post-order adoption disruption rates were 3.2% and 2.6% respectively for England and Wales. Cox regression models indicate that being older than four years adoptive placement, adoptive parents taking longer than a year to legalise the adoption, being a teenager and previous multiple placement in care were risk factors for post-order adoption disruption. Conclusion The post order adoption disruption rate is low. Implication for policy and practice are discussed.
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Children who have suffered early abuse or neglect may later present with significant health and behavior problems that may persist long after the abusive or neglectful environment has been remediated. Neurobiological research suggests that early maltreatment may result in an altered psychological and physiologic response to stressful stimuli, a response that deleteriously affects the child's subsequent development. Pediatricians can assist caregivers by helping them recognize the abused or neglected child's emotional and behavioral responses associated with child maltreatment and guide them in the use of positive parenting strategies, referring the children and families to evidence-based therapeutic treatment and mobilizing available community resources.
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Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), recently renamed Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Adolescents (TFCO-A) is an internationally recognised intervention for troubled young people in public care. This paper seeks to explain conflicting results with MTFC by testing the hypotheses that it benefits antisocial young people more than others and does so through its effects on their behaviour. Hard-to-manage young people in English foster or residential homes were assessed at entry to a randomised and case-controlled trial of MTFC (n = 88) and usual care (TAU) (n = 83). Primary outcome was the Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) at 12 months analysed according to high (n = 112) or low (n = 59) baseline level of antisocial behaviour on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents. After adjusting for covariates, there was no overall treatment effect on CGAS. However, the High Antisocial Group receiving MTFC gained more on the CGAS than the Low group (mean improvement 9.36 points vs. 5.33 points). This difference remained significant (p < 0.05) after adjusting for propensity and covariates and was statistically explained by the reduced antisocial behaviour ratings in MTFC. These analyses support the use of MTFC for youth in public care but only for those with higher levels of antisocial behaviour. Further work is needed on whether such benefits persist, and on possible negative effects of this treatment for those with low antisocial behaviour. Trial Registry Name: ISRCTN Registry identification number: ISRCTN 68038570 Registry URL:www. isrctn. com
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For over two decades, practitioners, advocates, and scholars involved with the U.S. child welfare system have engaged in coordinated efforts to increase the number of foster youth who find stable, permanent homes through adoption or guardianship, and these efforts have been shaped and guided by federal policies and directives. As a result, the number of children adopted or placed into guardianship out of foster care has increased significantly. This trend has significant implications for child welfare research, policy, and practice. However, the risk and protective factors for post-permanency discontinuity, or placement changes that occur after legal finalization of an adoption or guardianship, have received little attention in the literature. Also, many previous studies that investigated post-permanency adjustment for former foster youth have been limited by serious design and/or conceptual flaws. The purpose of this study is to investigate the peer-reviewed literature that examines risk or protective factors for discontinuity, or outcomes proximal to discontinuity, for older foster youth. A systematic search located 18 quantitative, quasi-experimental studies published in peer-reviewed journals that implemented multivariable methods. This review finds that the quality of the research evidence is generally weak, but previous studies do suggest several risk and protective factors for post-permanency discontinuity, including child, family, and service characteristics.
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Journal of Public Child Welfare Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: A new dynamic faces the U.S. child welfare system. Since 1998 there has been a simultaneous decrease in children in state custody and increase in children in subsidized adoptive and guardianship homes. In 2013 there were 2.8 children in federally assisted adoptive or guardianship homes for every child in a federally assisted foster home. While generally lauded as positive, little empirical research chronicles the post-adoption or post-guardianship outcomes of these children, and there is no agreed-upon terminology for children who leave their legally permanent homes prior to becoming adults. This study examined outcomes for 21,629 children adopted or taken into guardianship, and tracked for at least 10 years, or until age 18. Most (87%) did not reenter foster care or experienced another type of temporary or long-term interruption in care. Based on the experiences of the 13%, this study suggests new terminology, postpermanency discontinuity, to describe these experiences.
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This paper describes the Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care program (MTFC), an evidence based approach for providing psychotherapeutic treatment for very troubled children and adolescents that is an alternative to residential care. Versions of the MTFC program have been developed and validated for young children with a history of maltreatment as well as for older children and adolescents who are involved with the youth justice system. In the paper we describe the development of the MTFC program and its foundations in the social learning model that originated at the Oregon Social Learning Center in the 1960's and 70's. We present information about program elements. We then review the research that has been conducted on MTFC.
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The original thinking behind permanency planning for foster children was to secure a caregiver's intention to provide a permanent home, not to guarantee it. Little is known, however, about how intentions change after permanence or what effect this change has on post-permanency continuity of care. This study examined the mediating effects of caregivers' thoughts about ending an adoption or guardianship, and how this mechanism may be contingent on primordial and bureaucratic factors that child welfare agencies rely on to ensure family continuity after legal permanence. In 2006, a sample of 346 Illinois caregivers who finalized an adoption or guardianship between 1998 and 2002 completed surveys about child behavior problems, the adequacy of financial assistance, and thoughts about maintaining the permanency relationship. Responses were linked to administrative data that tracked continuity of care through 2012. Simple mediation and moderated mediation hypotheses of the effects of caregiver thoughts on post-permanency continuity were tested. At last observation, 8% of caregivers were no longer living with the child or stopped receiving subsidies on the child's behalf. Thoughts expressed at survey time about ending the permanency relationship mediated the effect of child behavior problems on post-permanency discontinuity rates. This indirect effect was more pronounced among distantly related kin, lone caregivers, and caregivers who felt the subsidy was inadequate to cover their expenses. Our findings suggest that post-permanency services should target a narrow segment of caregivers who express weakened permanency commitments that arise from the challenges of parenting a child with multiple behavioral problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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In order to identify risk factors associated with adoption disruption, a group of 74 disrupted cases is compared with a group of 74 legalized adoptions, matched for age. Factors that emerge as significant include the child's history of sexual abuse, strong attachment to the birth mother, and specified behavior problems pre- and postplacement. Other variables related to the adopting family, agency practices, and causes of disruption are explored.
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The aim of this review is to map the literature on the adoption of children from public care, to identify the extent of research-based knowledge and to note gaps in the evidence. Adoption research has grown over the last 40 years but, as the methodological quality has increased, so has the complexity of the questions to be answered. This review covers research on the problem profiles of placed children and the challenges to new parents, matching and preparation, contact arrangements, medium and long-term outcomes and interventions with adoptions in difficulty. The article recommends that adoption research needs to be considered as an integral part of general research into placement choices for children. Looking to the future, the commissioning of large-scale studies is recommended to gain a life-long perspective on adoption, to identify predictors of outcome, the consequences of contact arrangements for all the parties, and the cost-effectiveness of different types of adoption support. Many smaller scale studies need to be commissioned to monitor the progress of the various policy initiatives and legislative changes designed to increase the use of adoption as a placement choice in the UK.
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Adoption disruptions have been usually studied in special needs domestic adoptions. Much less is known about disruptions in international adoptions. Case records for 20 disruptions of international adoptions in Spain were analyzed in-depth. Factors related to parents' and children's characteristics, as well as professional intervention were found to be present in most cases of disruption. Whereas there seemed to be no single factor that can be considered responsible for the adoption breakdown, the accumulation of risk factors is associated with disruption.
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Approximately 800 special needs adoptive parents responded to a mailed questionnaire as part of a study of special needs adoption in relation to race and social class. Most parents reported good outcomes of the adoption as well as good relationships with their children. Minority parents, low-income parents, and less-educated parents reported more positive parent-child relationships. Controlling for numerous variables, these factors were modest predictors of good relationship in multivariate analyses. Strengths of minority and low-income adoptive families are discussed, and policy recommendations are advanced.
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Surveyed the disruption rate for older child adoption in 1,155 adoptive placements over a 5-yr period. A decreased disruption rate of 10.2% was attributed to the greater use of foster parent adoptions. Contrary to expectations, placements in which siblings were together were not exceptionally likely to disrupt. Transracial adoptions were no more likely to disrupt than other placements. Older children and children with previous adoptive placements were generally at greatest risk. A classification of cases using 6 variables routinely available at placement correctly predicted 70% of adoption disruptions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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While adoptions in general are highly successful, families do experience disappointment and disruption, outcomes that may be reduced by provision of post-adoption services. Studies show that adoptive parents request a variety of services, yet few demonstration projects have been done to evaluate their effectiveness. In this paper, we recognize the predominance of attachment theory in post-adoptive services and identify alternative approaches that may have a better fit with the needs and preferences identified by families. We also identify service adaptations for adoptive families that may amplify the power of existing service programs.
Article
Purpose The two goals of this article are the analysis of the duration of adoptive placements ending in breakdown and the role of age at placement in the breakdown experience. Method All known cases of adoption breakdown during a whole decade in Andalusia, a Spanish region, were studied. Preadoption and formalized adoptions, domestic and intercountry adoptions were included. Data were analyzed using survival analysis, Cox regression, χ ² , and rate ratio analyses. Results The duration of adoptive placements ending in breakdown, significantly shorter in intercountry adoptions, is associated with a configuration of characteristics in the child, the adoptive parents and adoptive family life, and professional intervention. Among child-related factors, age at placement is of special relevance for the breakdown experience. Conclusions Placements involving older children last less and break down more frequently, but are not condemned to failure. They need to be better supported with protective factors compensating the risks.
Article
Purpose The main goals were to determine the incidence of preadoption breakdown in Portugal, describe preadoptive parents’ reasons for ending placement, compare intact/disrupted placements, and identify adoption disruption risk and protective factors. Method A matched design involving a case file analysis of 71 disrupted and 71 intact preadoptive placements was used. Results The accumulated incidence of preadoption disruption was 5.8%. Adoptive parents’ motives for requesting removal included the child’s behavior, their own parenting limitations, and dissatisfaction with professional interventions. These three domains were present in the group comparisons and explained 54% of the variance, predicting group membership for 80.8% cases. Conclusion Besides age at placement, other risk factors related to the child, the adopters, and the professional practices help to gain a more complete understanding of adoption disruption.
Article
The experience of being adopted and the development of an adoption related identity are unique and dependent on both individual and interpersonal variables. The way the adoption story is lived can have an impact on the adoptee's wellbeing and adaptation, both at home and in the school context. The goal of this study is to analyze, from the adoptee's point of view, the experience of being adopted in the school context and the impact of the child's social competence, adoption social disclosure and social reaction to the adoptive status. Ninety-four children, aged 8 to 10, participated in this study. The child's school experience of being adopted, adoption social disclosure and the social reaction to the adoptive status were assessed by interviewing the children. SSIS-RS was used to evaluate the child's self-report of social competence. Results showed that the adoption social disclosure, the social reaction to the adoptive status and the adoptee's social competence predicted the child's school experience of being adopted. Additionally, in the cases of children who reported a less positive social reaction, social skills moderated the impact of adoption social disclosure on negative feelings toward being adopted. As such, social skills can be seen as a protective factor on the personal adoption experience against negative social reactions.
Article
A growing and compelling body of evidence demonstrates that children born into poverty, whether in high-, middle-, or low-income countries, 1 are at heightened risk for compromised health and developmental outcomes throughout the life course. 2-6 It is estimated that 80.8 million children ages 3 and 4 years in low-and middle-income countries experienced low cognitive and/or socioemotional development in 2010 based on Early Childhood Development Index scores, with the largest number of affected children in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and the East Asia and Pacific region. 6 Recent evidence has also underscored the importance of interventions to foster healthy neurodevelopment from preconception through adolescence in light of findings that the early years of life are a sensitive period for countering adverse exposures that threaten the integrity of neural, neuroendocrine, and immune systems. 7 Consequently, there is an increasing recognition by the global health community of the need to expand initiatives to address not only the ongoing need for reduced child mortality, but also to decrease child morbidity and adverse exposures toward improving health and developmental outcomes. The bridging of the child survival and child development fields has recently been prioritized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and other agencies as being essential for optimizing global health, equity, and sustainable development. 8 In fact, a recent review found significant overlap between public health strategies for improving child survival and child development interventions, the latter of which typically include enriching learning components.
Article
For over two decades, federal policies and case practices in child welfare have shifted to prioritize legal permanence for children in foster care, and increasing numbers of children have been placed in permanent adoptive or guardianship homes. Despite this change, little research has examined the long-term stability of legally permanent adoptive and guardianship homes for former foster youth. This study used child welfare administrative records to track a population of 51,576 children in Illinois who exited foster care through adoption or guardianship for ten years or until the age of majority. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to describe the population, and a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was estimated to examine the relationship between child age and discontinuity, controlling for several pre-placement characteristics. Results indicated that the vast majority (87%) of children did not experience post-permanency discontinuity. In addition, African American children and children who had more moves in foster care had a higher hazard of discontinuity, while children placed with siblings and children who spent three or more years in foster care had a lower hazard of discontinuity. Study findings also indicated that prevention efforts should be targeted at families with adolescents. This study contributes significantly to the scant literature on long-term outcomes for adoptive and guardianship families, and suggests several areas for future research.
Article
Multisystemic therapy (MST) is an evidence-based treatment originally developed for youth with serious antisocial behavior who are at high risk for out-of-home placement and their families; and subsequently adapted to address other challenging clinical problems experience by youths and their families. The social-ecological theoretical framework of MST is presented as well as its home-based model of treatment delivery, defining clinical intervention strategies, and ongoing quality assurance/quality improvement system. With more than 100 peer-reviewed outcome and implementation journal articles published as of January 2016, the majority by independent investigators, MST is one of the most extensively evaluated family based treatments. Outcome research has yielded almost uniformly favorable results for youths and families, and implementation research has demonstrated the importance of treatment and program fidelity in achieving such outcomes.
Article
The mental health of children in public care has received considerable attention in recent years. There are significant differences in the prevalence rates compared to children living at home and not in public care and these are added to by other adverse lifestyle issues. Considerable attention has been focused on the importance of stable and secure placements supported by access to a range of services including education, health and mental health. Identifying and classifying mental health needs proves to be challenging as the childs genetic inheritance, pre- and post-birth experiences, including maltreatment, interact with the uncertainty and delays commonly associated with child protection processes, action in the legal system and the difficulty in establishing secure and permanent placements. Clinical need is also related to the age of the child and the reasons they came into care and the length of time they remain. A case illustrating many of these issues, publicly reported in a court judgement, is used as the basis for exploring the complexity for the identified child in understanding and making sense of their experiences as placement plans are made for them.2 These are used to explore the difficulties in establishing clinical protocols such as those recently published in the UK and USA. Particular emphasis is given to the issues faced by children and their carers in establishing new family relationships where they are combine the opportunities available from that family and the long shadow cast from previous family and in care experiences especially where these are traumatic and conflicted in origin.
Article
The Adopted Person Microsystem Mesosystem Exosystem Macrosystem
Article
This article describes a follow-up of a complete cohort of fifty-nine children involved in care proceedings (legal proceedings to determine whether a local authority should be given parental responsibility for a child) in the year 2004–05 in an English local authority. The study took place between four and six years after the conclusion of proceedings. It looked, first, at whether the plan agreed at the final hearing had been implemented and (where relevant) what had happened in the interim. Second, it looked at whether placements had been successful, factors associated with success or failure, and the nature and outcome of new plans when these had had to be made. At the time of the study, the care plans of 97 per cent of the children had been implemented, either immediately or within eighteen months. Sixty-six per cent of the children were still in their designated permanent placements, 15 per cent had experienced moves either within or back to their immediate or extended family and 15 per cent had experienced a placement breakdown. The reasons for changes and breakdowns are discussed and the possibility raised that a more flexible approach to permanency might, in some cases, be helpful.
Article
Child maltreatment is associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders, and a range of health problems later in life. Research suggests that adverse events early in life can lead to changes in gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms that alter stress reactivity, brain function, and behaviour. Although epigenetic changes are often long lasting, they can be reversed with pharmacological and environmental manipulations. The complexity of the epigenome is not fully understood. The aim of this Review is to assess emerging data for the role of epigenetic mechanisms in stress-related psychiatric disorders with a focus on future research. We describe the epigenetic processes, key findings in this specialty, clinical implications of research, and methodological issues. Studies are needed to investigate new epigenetic processes other than methylation and assess the efficacy of interventions to reverse epigenetic processes associated with the effects of early life adversity.