This chapter aims to shed light on the nature of the current paradigm shift in the field of architecture and building sector towards a concern for environmental problems, ecological awareness, and thus, sustainable design, green technologies, and materials. Having conceived architecture and building practices as one of the leading economic activities globally, this chapter elucidates the role of ... [Show full abstract] architecture in creating business opportunities. The chapter tackles the subject from the perspective of technology and it analyzes the recent debates as well as developments in theory of architecture and building practice in construction industry. This chapter mainly argues that the ongoing paradigm shift moves beyond mere concern with environmental issues and creates an industry and economy of its own. The chapter introduces key concepts in the fields of green building and green architecture.