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Review Article Traditional Indian Herbal Plants Tulsi and Its Medicinal Importance



Tulsi has got the great medicinal value. Studies have also shown Tulsi to be effective for diabetes, by reducing blood glucose levels. The same study showed significant reduction in total cholesterol levels with Tulsi. Another study showed that Tulsi's beneficial effect on blood glucose levels is due to its antioxidant properties. The Rama Tulsi is the effective remedy for the severe acute Respiratory Syndrome. Juice of its leaves gives relief in cold, fever, bronchitis and cough. Tulsi oil is also used as the ear drop. Tulsi helps in curing malaria. It si very effective against indigestion, headache, hysteria, insomnia and cholera. The fresh leaves of Tulsi are taken by the millions of people every day. For over the centuries Tulsi (the queen of herbs) has been known for its remarkable healing properties. Modern scientific research offers impressive evidence that Tulsi reduces stress, enhances stamina, relieves inflammation, lowers cholesterol, eliminates toxins, protects against radiation, prevents gastric ulcers, lowers fevers, improves digestion and provides a rich supply of antioxidants and other nutrients. Tulsi is especially effective in supporting the heart, blood vessels, liver and lungs and also regulates blood pressure and blood sugar. Recent studies suggest that Tulsi may be a COX-2 inhibitor, like many modern painkillers, due to its high concentration of eugenol (1-hydroxy-2methoxy-4-allylbenzene). Tulsi also shows some promise for protection from poisoning and cataracts. The oil extracted from the Karpoora Tulsi is mostly used in the herbal toiletry. Its oil is also used against the insects and bacteria. Tulsi can not only keep the dreaded Swine flu or H1N1 flu at bay but also help in fast recovery of an afflicted person, Ayurvedic practitioners claim. "The anti-flu property of Tulsi has been discovered by medical experts across the world quite recently. Tulsi improves the body's overall defence mechanism including its ability to fight viral diseases.
Research J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2010; 2(2): 103-108 KP Sampath Kumar et al
ISSN 0975- 2331
Research Journal of
Pharmacognosy and
Phytochemistry. 2(2): March -April
2010, 103-108
Review Article
Corresponding Author:
KP Sampath Kumar
Department of Pharmaceutical
sciences, Coimbatore medical
college, Coimbatore,Tamilnadu
Received on 07.07.2009
Accepted on 10.08.2009
© A&V Publication all right
Traditional Indian Herbal Plants Tulsi and Its
Medicinal Importance
KP Sampath Kumar*, Debjit Bhowmik, Biswajit, Chiranjib, Pankaj and
KK Tripathi Margret Chandira
Department of Pharmaceutical sciences, Coimbatore medical college,
Tulsi has got the great medicinal value. Studies have also shown Tulsi to
be effective for diabetes, by reducing blood glucose levels. The same study
showed significant reduction in total cholesterol levels with Tulsi. Another
study showed that Tulsi's beneficial effect on blood glucose levels is due to
its antioxidant properties. The Rama Tulsi is the effective remedy for the
severe acute Respiratory Syndrome. Juice of its leaves gives relief in cold,
fever, bronchitis and cough. Tulsi oil is also used as the ear drop. Tulsi
helps in curing malaria. It si very effective against indigestion, headache,
hysteria, insomnia and cholera. The fresh leaves of Tulsi are taken by the
millions of people every day. For over the centuries Tulsi (the queen of
herbs) has been known for its remarkable healing properties. Modern
scientific research offers impressive evidence that Tulsi reduces stress,
enhances stamina, relieves inflammation, lowers cholesterol, eliminates
toxins, protects against radiation, prevents gastric ulcers, lowers fevers,
improves digestion and provides a rich supply of antioxidants and other
nutrients. Tulsi is especially effective in supporting the heart, blood vessels,
liver and lungs and also regulates blood pressure and blood sugar. Recent
studies suggest that Tulsi may be a COX-2 inhibitor, like many
modern painkillers, due to its high concentration of eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-
methoxy-4-allylbenzene). Tulsi also shows some promise for protection
from poisoning and cataracts. The oil extracted from the Karpoora Tulsi is
mostly used in the herbal toiletry. Its oil is also used against the insects and
bacteria. Tulsi can not only keep the dreaded Swine flu or H1N1 flu at bay
but also help in fast recovery of an afflicted person, Ayurvedic practitioners
claim. "The anti-flu property of Tulsi has been discovered by medical
experts across the world quite recently. Tulsi improves the body's overall
defence mechanism including its ability to fight viral diseases.
Tulsi is considered to be a ubiquitous plant in India. Ocimum
tenuiflorum ( tulsi) is an aromatic plant in the family Lamiaceae. It is an
erect, much branched sub shrub 30-60 cm tall with hairy stems and simple
opposite green leaves that are strongly scented. tulsi plays a vital role in
our everyday life and is said to be the queen of herbal plants. it is the most
common household plant in india and it is sacred in hindu tradition. Many
Hindu epics explain the importance, properties and uses of tulsi. Tulsi is an
erect sweet scented shrub which grows upto a height of 3 -5 feet. it is
commonly grown in gardens and in the periphery of temples. it has got a
pungent taste and fragrant smell. it is the only plant that can absorb carbon
di oxide through-out its life. it releases the oxygen in the early morning
which is beneficial for the people in breathing dis-orders. Tulsi plant has a
lot of significance for mankind, due to the manifold medicinal benefits it
provides. Tulsi leaves are widely used in the preparation of Ayurvedic
medicines. It is known to promote the longevity of life.
Research J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2010; 2(2): 103-108 KP Sampath Kumar et al
The extracts obtained from the plant are extensively
brought to use for curing various diseases such as the
common cold, inflammation, malaria, heart disease,
headaches, stomach disorders, kidney stones, heart
disorders, and many more. The Indian basil Tulsi also
aids in the purification of atmosphere. Tulsi plant serves
as a fabulous repellant in fighting against flies,
mosquitoes and insects. It is especially valuable in
combating malarial fever. It is said that at the time of
establishment of Victoria gardens in Bombay (now
Mumbai), the workers became victims of mosquito bites
and suffered from chronic malaria. Seeing the pitiable
situation of the workers, some of the Hindu managers
recommended the plantation of Tulsi plant in the garden.
On following their advice, fruitful results were obtained.
Thus, holy basil Tulsi helped to abate the growth of
mosquitoes and control malaria. There are numerous
uses of Tulsi plant. The plant is increasingly finding its
way in the Ayurvedic treatment of diseases. Tulsi leaves
are widely used due to their healing power. It is a tonic for
the nervous system and thus, helps a great deal in
sharpening the memory. This aromatic plant supports the
removal of phlegm and catarrhal matter from the
bronchial tube. It also works wonders in preventing
stomach disorders. The herb Tulsi is known to cure the
respiratory disorders. The decoction prepared by mixing
honey, ginger and Tulsi leaves is quite helpful in
combating bronchitis, influenza and asthma.
The leaves of Tulsi plant are extremely beneficial during
the rainy season, when diseases like malaria and dengue
victimize the country. Boil the tender leaves of Tulsi in tea
and give it to the patient. The juice extracted from Tulsi
leaves serves as the best remedy to bring down fever.
Tulsi is an essential ingredient in the preparation of
Ayurvedic cough syrups. It is highly useful in getting rid of
cold and flu. Even, for sore throat, the leaves of medicinal
plant Tulsi is of great value. Just boil the leaves of Tulsi in
water and ask the patient to gargle with this
decoction. Tulsi has the ability to strengthen the kidneys.
For those suffering from the problem of renal kidney
stones, the decoction prepared by mixing the juice of
Tulsi leaves with honey, if taken sincerely for six
consecutive months can oust these stones via the urinary
tract. For maintaining healthy heart, Tulsi is of utmost
value. It helps in lowering the level of cholesterol in blood.
Thus, Tulsi plant serves as the most effective remedy to
combat cardiac diseases.
Antispasmodic, appetizer, carminative, galactagogue,
stomachic. Basil is antispasmodic, appetizer, carminative,
galactagogue, and stomachic. It is used for stomach
cramps, gastric catarrh, vomiting, intestinal catarrh,
constipation, and enteritis. It had been sometimes used
for whooping cough as an antispasmodic.
1. Tulsi has antioxidant properties and reduces blood
glucose levels. Thus it is useful for diabetics.
2. Tulsi reduces total cholesterol levels. Thus it is useful
for heart disease patients..
3. Tulsi reduces blood pressure.
4. Tulsi is also used to prepare herbal tea. It helps in
building up stamina.
5. It has been used for gastric disorders, cough, common
colds, malaria, and headaches.
6. It is used as mouth wash for reducing tooth ache
7.Tulsi oil shows larvicidal activity against malarial larva.
8. It has immuno-modulatory properties.
9. It contains phyto-chemicals which provide all these
beneficial effects.
10. Many herbal cosmetics contain tulsi. It is also used in
skin ointments due to its anti-bacterial properties. Oil
extracted from Karpoora Tulsi is used in these
11. Tulsi acts as insect repellant. So it is used to store
12. Recent research shows that tulsi does have analgesic
( pain killer) properties similar to COX 2 inhibitor drugs.
13. Ursolic acid, a chemical in tulsi may have a role as
antifertility ( contraceptive) agent in future.
14.It has antiviral, antibacterial, antitubercular, antifungal,
antimalarial properties.
Healing Power: The tulsi plant has many
medicinal properties. The leaves are a nerve tonic and
also sharpen memory. They promote the removal of the
catarrhal matter and phlegm from the bronchial tube. The
leaves strengthen the stomach and induce copious
perspiration. The seed of the plant are mucilaginous.
Fever and Common Cold: The leaves of basil
are specific for many fevers. During the rainy season,
when malaria and dengue fever are widely prevalent,
tender leaves, boiled with tea, act as preventive against
theses diseases. In case of acute fevers, a decoction of
the leaves boiled with powdered cardamom in half a liter
of water and mixed with sugar and milk brings down the
temperature. The juice of tulsi leaves can be used to bring
down fever. Extract of tulsi leaves in fresh water should be
given every 2 to 3 hours. In between one can keep giving
sips of cold water. In children, it is every effective in
bringing down the temperature.
Coughs: Tulsi is an important constituent of
many Ayurvedic cough syrups and expectorants. It helps
to mobilize mucus in bronchitis and asthma. Chewing tulsi
leaves relieves cold and flu.
Sore Throat: Water boiled with basil leaves can
be taken as drink in case of sore throat. This water can
also be used as a gargle.
Respiratory Disorder: The herb is useful in the
treatment of respiratory system disorder. A decoction of
the leaves, with honey and ginger is an effective remedy
for bronchitis, asthma, influenza, cough and cold. A
decoction of the leaves, cloves and common salt also
gives immediate relief in case of influenza. They should
be boiled in half a liter of water till only half the water is left
and add then taken.
Kidney Stone: Basil has strengthening effect on
the kidney. In case of renal stone the juice of basil leaves
and honey, if taken regularly for 6 months it will expel
them via the urinary tract.
Heart Disorder: Basil has a beneficial effect in
cardiac disease and the weakness resulting from them. It
reduces the level of blood cholesterol.
Children's Ailments: Common pediatric
problems like cough cold, fever, diarrhea and vomiting
respond favorably to the juice of basil leaves. If pustules
of chicken pox delay their appearance, basil leaves taken
with saffron will hasten them.
Stress: Basil leaves are regarded as an
'adaptogen' or anti-stress agent. Recent studies have
shown that the leaves afford significant protection against
stress. Even healthy persons can chew 12 leaves of basil,
twice a day, to prevent stress. It purifies blood and helps
prevent several common elements.
Research J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2010; 2(2): 103-108 KP Sampath Kumar et al
Mouth Infections: The leaves are quit effective
for the ulcer and infections in the mouth. A few leaves
chewed will cure these conditions.
Insect Bites: The herb is a prophylactic or
preventive and curative for insect stings or bites. A
teaspoonful of the juice of the leaves is taken and is
repeated after a few hours. Fresh juice must also be
applied to the affected parts. A paste of fresh roots is also
effective in case of bites of insects and leeches.
Skin Disorders: Applied locally, basil juice is
beneficial in the treatment of ringworm and other skin
diseases. It has also been tried successfully by some
naturopaths in the treatment of leucoderma.
Teeth Disorder: The herb is useful in teeth
disorders. Its leaves, dried in the sun and powdered, can
be used for brushing teeth. It can also be mixed with
mustered oil to make a paste and used as toothpaste.
This is very good for maintaining dental health,
counteracting bad breath and for massaging the gums. It
is also useful in pyorrhea and other teeth disorders.
Headaches: Basil makes a good medicine for
headache. A decoction of the leaves can be given for this
disorder. Pounded leaves mixed with sandalwood paste
can also be applied on the forehead for getting relief from
heat, headache, and for providing coolness in general.
Eye Disorders: Basil juice is an effective
remedy for sore eyes and night-blindness, which is
generally caused by deficiency of vitamin A. Two drops of
black basil juice are put into the eyes daily at bedtime.
The Tulsi herb is found quite commonly all over the Indian
sub continent. The plant can grow in the wild in the
tropical warm regions. The plant’s height varies from 2 to
4 feet. The flowering season is winter (December to
February). The Tulsi leaves have a marked strong aroma
and an astringent taste. There are some biologically
active compounds like urosolic acid, luteolin and apigenin
that can be extracted from the Tulsi leaves. Though it is
the leaves that are usually used the flowers, seeds and
roots also find good usage. There are two main varieties of
Tulsi- the dark variety or Krishna Tulsi and the light variety
or Rama Tulsi. The Tulsi has also got a close cousin- the
Thai Basil. This is smooth and hairless unlike the Tulsi that
is slightly hairy. Besides the Thai basil has a strong aniseed
or licorice smell while the Tulsi or Holy Basil has a hot and
spicy flavor that is comparable to the flavor of the clove.
Other names : It is known as Holy Basil in English and
Tulasi in Sanskrit. Other names used for the Tulsi are
Manjari, Krishna Tulsi, Trittavu, Tulshi and Thulsi.
Description: Tulsi is a heavy branched having hair all
over. It attains the height of about 75 – 90 cm. It has
round oval shaped leaves which are up to 5 cm long. The
leaves are 2- 4 cm in length. Its seeds are flat. Its flowers
are purple – creamish in colour. The Tulsi with the green
leaves is called the Shri Tulsi and one with the reddish
leaves is called the Krishna Tulsi. Its seeds are yellow to
reddish in colour. Leaves of Tulsi contains very essential
Other species of Tulsi:
Ocimum canum (Ram tulsi or KaliTulsi)
Ocimum Kilmand
Ocimum scharicum
Ocimum Sanctum.
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Ocimum
O. tenuiflorum
Binomial name
Ocimum tenuiflor
Ocimum sanctum
According to Organic India, an organization dedicated to
organic agriculture and sustainable development, one of
the qualities that make the Tulsi plant such a potent
medicinal herb is its ability to reduce stress. Tulsi is
abundant in essential oils and antioxidants, which are
tremendously effective in reducing the effect of stress. on
the body. Tulsi has got diverse healing properties. Though
traditionally used by Hindus or Indians now others are
using it too recognizing its immense therapeutic
properties. The Tulsi has the property of acting as an
adaptogen. It balances different processes in the body
and is of great help in stress management. The extracts of
Tulsi have been used in traditional Indian Ayurvedic
system of medicine. It is also used in the Unani system of
medicine. Ayurvedic remedies for common colds,
headaches, stomach disorders, inflammation, infections,
heart disease, poisoning, cataracts and malaria make use
of the Tulsi. The Tulsi acts on the nervous system and
strengthens it. It strengthens the heart. It acts as an
appetizer and promotes digestion too. It facilitates the
secretion of digestive enzymes and prevents flatulence.
Having detoxifying properties the Tulsi purifies blood of
any toxins that might be present in it. Studies have also
shown the Tulsi to be effective in reducing blood sugar
levels and in controlling diabetes. It has also been proved
to be effective in reducing cholesterol levels. Having anti
bacterial and anti parasitic properties makes it suitable for
combating infectious diseases of various types. Recent
findings have indicated that the Tulsi may well provide
protection from radiation poisoning. It has also been
indicated that Tulsi possesses anti cancerous properties.
There has come up a belief that a Tulsi leaf swallowed
daily will ensure protection from cancer. Apart from its
religious significance it is of great medicinal significance,
and is a prime herb in Ayurvedic treatment. Marked by its
strong aroma and a stringent taste, tusli is a kind of "the
elixir of life" as it promotes longevity. The plant's extracts
can be used to prevent and cure many illnesses and
common ailments like common cold, headaches, stomach
disorders, inflammation, heart disease, various forms of
poisoning and malaria. Essential oil extracted from
karpoora tulsi is mostly used for medicinal purposes
though of late it is used in the manufacture of herbal
toiletry. The Plant Cultures project of the Medicines and
Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) of the
United Kingdom notes that in Ayurvedic medicine the
Tulsi plant has been used topically for skin conditions like
eczema, ringworm and insect bites. It is also commonly
used to reduce fevers, improve lung and digestion issues,
Research J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2010; 2(2): 103-108 KP Sampath Kumar et al
reduce the effects of colds, eliminate toxins/poisons and
as a preventative antibacterial for infections.
Tulsi in Modern Medicine:
In modern medicine there has been research indicating
Tulsi might potentially be an effective treatment for
conditions like ulcers, high cholesterol, Type 2 diabetes,
obesity and compromised/suppressed immune systems
(from conditions like cancers and AIDS). Plant Cultures
says the traditional uses of Tulsi in Ayurveda might be
due to some intrinsic properties in many varieties of Tulsi-
-such as the essential oils containing an anti-inflammatory
compound called eugenol, and various acids with
antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that could
support the claims of Tulsi being a treatment for so many
conditions, according to Ayurveda.
Tulsi in your home:
The Tulsi plant, like most herbs, is a delicious way to
enhance the flavor of your cooking, or make an excellent
tea. This sub-shrub looks quite attractive in a decorative
pot, is not harmful to animals and it is fairly easy to grow.
Even outside of its medicinal properties, the Tulsi plant
can make a great addition to your household either in
your spice rack or in your garden.
Diabetes--Western medicine:
According to, "Researchers have
theorized that holy basil (tulsi) leaves may improve
pancreatic beta cell function and thus enhance insulin
secretion." The website reports that a small research
study of patients with type 2 diabetes found blood glucose
fasting levels lower in patients who took 2.5 grams of
powdered tulsi compared to patients who took a placebo. reports that drug interactions with
tulsi have not been reported; however, some interactions
might be possible in "diabetics treated with insulin or
insulin secretagogues such as sulfonylurea (glyburide,
glipizide, Amaryl), Prandin or Starlix." Because of this,
diabetics who might consider using tulsi should check
with their physicians first.
Snake and Insect Bites--Traditional Medicine:
According to, oil from tulsi is a natural
antiseptic and natural anti-inflammatory. According to, tulsi effectively treats snake bites,
including those of poisonous snakes, when all parts of the
plant are either ingested or mixed with other plants to
form a paste that is applied to the bite area. Residents of
the Asian subcontinent often put tulsi leaves into bowls of
water outside their homes and in their bath water to ward
off insects, which do not like the smell.
Natural Medicinal Uses:
Sidha, Unani and Ayurvedic medicine use tulsi to treat a
wide variety of skin conditions, fevers, coughs and
internal ailments. Ayurvedic medicine treats bronchitis
with a liquid tonic made from tulsi leaves, which Indians
mix with cardamom or lemon juice. All three medicinal
systems date to ancient times and are based on natural
remedies and treatments, primarily based on herbs and
The chemical composition of Tulsi is very complicated. It
is eugenol, or 1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene. This
chemical formula contains many phyto-chemicals referred
as compounds. These numerous compounds present in
entire plant consist of antioxidant, adaptogenic, anti-
inflammatory, antibacterial and immune-enhancing
properties. With these properties when anyone consumes
Tulsi in any form their body gets prepared to fight against
the diseases and other health problems.
Antioxidant - Polyphenol Rosmarinic acid
present in the Tulsi chemical composition acts as the
powerful antioxidant. It protects the cells in the body from
smash up due to the presence of free radicals. Excess of
oxidation in the body also causes the cell damage. This
acid prevents the formation of excess oxidation.
Antibacterial – Carvacrol and terpene are the
antibacterial agents present in this remarkable plant.
Sesquiterpene B-caryophyllene also severs the same
purpose. This constituent is FDA approved food additive
which is naturally present in Tulsi. It helps keeping the
body safe from bacterium that causes illness.
Anti-inflammatory - Rosmarinic acid also is a good
source of anti-inflammatory along with being an
antioxidant. Pegenin is one more compound available in
the composition serving the same function. Apart from
these two, the most important anti-inflammatory driving
force in Tulsi is ‘eugenol’. It is main ingredient responsible
for controlling the blood sugar levels in the body. It rigs
the beta cell function of the pancreas and as a result
augments the insulin secretion.
Adaptogenic Tulsi is ideal source of
adaptogenic properties that controls the frequent mood
swings and provide the mental peace and clarity. Eugenol
and caryophyllene are the most imperative adaptogen
agents present in the chemical formula of Tulsi. These are
very effective in lowering the corticosterone levels that are
main cause of stress. It also enhances the memory and
minimizes the risk of mental problems that occur due to
growing age. Ursolic acid and oleanolic acid also perform
the same function of adaptogen and are very effectual in
dropping the stress levels.
Immuno-modulator It is very vital to have
some immuno-modulator in the body that stabilizes,
recovers and maintains the proper balanced functioning of
the immune system. Tulsi possess excellent immune-
enhancing properties that prepare the body against
foreign elements like bacteria, viruses, microbes,
allergens etc. Thus, it maintains the overall balance in the
Other medicinal uses, supported by studies conducted
across the subcontinent, of tulsi include treating asthma,
arthritis and heart problems. According to, "The essential oil (of tulsi) has been
found to have antibacterial, anti-yeast and insecticidal
action. The seeds and oil have also been found to show
mild antibiotic effects."Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum),
commonly known as Holy Basil, is an herb indigenous to
South Asia. Tulsi's healing attributes have been
documented for centuries, and it remains the core of
Ayurveda (India's herbal medicine). Tulsi has long been
one of the most common medicinal plants used in India,
though the West is just waking up to its powers. Cosmetic
companies have recognized its bactericidal attributes and
now use it in a wide array of beauty products.
Research J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2010; 2(2): 103-108 KP Sampath Kumar et al
Steven Maimes talks about the uses and benefits of Holy
Basil in an article about his ongoing research for Salam
Research, an independent company in Rochester, N.H.
Published in November 2004, Maimes says Tulsi
"reduces eczema and psoriasis ... and helps skin
diseases like leprosy and staph infection." With its
antibacterial properties, Tulsi flushes out dangerous
toxins and regenerates skin.
Tulsi contains ursolic acid, a compound that prevents
wrinkles and helps retain the elasticity prevalent in young
faces. No wonder Tulsi became an instant hit with the
beauty industry and a prime ingredient in herbal
cosmetics, including face packs, creams and many other
products. For fresh and youthful skin, mix Tulsi powder
(available online) with water and apply to your face. Once
dried, rinse your face thoroughly with water.
Beauty and Restoration:
Tulsi enhances beauty; many Indian women make it a
part of their daily beauty ritual.
Applying Tulsi powder removes spots from your face. For
natural freshness, boil water with Tulsi leaves and lemon
juice. Cover your head with towel and refresh your face
with the emanating steam. Tulsi cleanses and purifies the
blood. Hecapedia recommends using Tulsi paste to treat
acne. A homemade cure of Tulsi paste helps people with
Other Uses of tulsi:
Referred to as an "elixir of life," Tulsi has a long and
varied history. Drinking tea or a decoction imbued with
stress-resilient Tulsi calms the mind and body.
Extensively used in Ayurveda, Tulsi juice heals
respiratory illnesses such as bronchitis, excessive cough
and fever. Tulsi can help lower cholesterol and protect
heart and blood vessels. Gargle with Tulsi and warm
water to relieve a sore throat. In Ayurveda, a paste of tulsi
and black pepper treats ringwormTulsi's beneficial
compounds, which work together to "promote general
Antibiotic Protection:
Offers significant natural antibacterial, antiviral and
antifungal protection and is, thereby, helpful in treating
many serious systemic diseases, as well as localized
infections. Heart and Vascular Protection Lowers
dangerous cholesterol and stress related high blood
pressure, protects the heart and blood vessels, and has
mild blood thinning qualities, thereby decreasing the
likelihood of strokes.
Liver Support:
Generally contributes to healthy liver function, improves
the metabolic breakdown and elimination of dangerous
chemicals in the blood, and counteracts various liver
diseases. Lung and Bronchial Support In addition to
contributing generally to respiratory health, Tulsi has been
shown to be helpful in the treatment of a variety of serious
allergic, infl amatory and infectious disorders affecting the
lungs and related tissues.
Contains vitamins C and A, and minerals calcium, zinc
and iron, as well as chlorophyll and many other
phytonutrients. Also enhances the effi cient digestion,
absorption and use of nutrients from food and other herbs.
Allopathic Medicine Complement:
Enhances the effectiveness and reduces the negative and
often dangerous side eff ects of many standard modern
medical treatments. Other Benefit Lowers fevers, protects
against gastric ulcers, reduces dangerous blood sugar
levels in diabetics, and supports dental and periodontal
health (and diminishes bad breath”). Also protects
against mercury poisoning, speeds healing of bone
fractures, reduces nausea, vomiting and cramping, and
repels insects, including mosquitoes and lice.
High Safety Margin:
Research indicates that Tulsi has a very high safety
margin with exceptionally low toxicity, providing general
beneficial effects at doses without adverse reactions or
other undesirable side effects. Tulsi’s Botanical Identity
Tulsi is identified by botanists primarily as Ocimum
sanctum (Rama and Krishna Tulsi varieties) or more
recently Ocimum tenuiflorum, and Ocimum gratissimum
(Vana Tulsi variety). Belonging to the Lamiaceae/Labiatae
mint family, these and other closely related species and
varieties (e.g., Ocimum canum) are cousins of the familiar
sweet basil cooking herb Ocimum basilicum.In parts of
India, all of the basils are honoured as Tulsi.Tulsi is
traditionally taken in a variety of forms, including cold and
hot fresh or dried leaf tea infusions (herbal teas), fresh
green leaf, leaf juice, ground or powdered leaf, alcohol
tinctures, poultices and oil (ghee) preparations, as well as
seed, root and stem formulations, both internally and
topically. In addition, modern human clinical studies and
animal experiments also employ various extracts and
isolated compounds, sometimes administered by
injection. differing Tulsi preparations likely vary to a
considerable degree, both chemically and in their overall
pharmacological off ects.Substantial evidence has
accumulated that, in addition to Tulsi’s many specifi c
therapeutic applications, the herb’s powerful general
adaptogenic properties offer significant preventative and
curative potential with respect to the stress-related
degenerative diseases endemic to industrialized societies.
Ongoing clinical investigation of Tulsi’s health promoting
qualities is sure to bear rich fruit.
Pharmacological Effects: –
In traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine, several
medicinal properties have been attributed to this
plant.Recent pharmacological studies have established
the anabolic, hypoglycemic , smooth muscle relaxant,
cardiac depressant,antifertility,adaptogenic and
immunomodulator properties of this plant.
Antimicrobial effects :–
Essential oil of Tulsi have antibacterial, antifungal and
antiviral properties.It inhibites the growth of E coli,
B.anthracis, M.tuberculosis etc. It's antitubercular activity
is one-tenth the potency of streptomycin and one-fourth
that of isoniazid.Preparations containing Tulsi extract
significantly shorten the course of illness, clinical
symptoms and the biochemical parameters in patients wit
h viral hepatitis and viral encephalitis
Antimalarial effects: –
Essential oil of Tulsi has been reported to possess 100%
larvicidal activity against the Culex mosquitoes. Trials
have shown excellent antimalarial activity of Tulsi. It's
Research J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2010; 2(2): 103-108 KP Sampath Kumar et al
extracts have marked insecticidal activity against
mosquitoes.It's repellant action lasts for about two hours
Antiallergic and Immunomodulator effects: –
Essential oil of Tulsi was found to have anti-allergic
properties. When administered to laboratory animals, the
compound was found to inhibit mast cell degranulation
and histamine release in the presence of allergen. These
studies reveal the potential role of Ocimum sanctum
extracts in the management of immunological disorders
including allergies and asthma.
Anti diabetic effect: –
A randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over single blind
trial on 40 human volunteers suffering from Type II
diabetes was performed. During the four week trial,
subjects alternately received a daily dose of 2.5 g of Tulsi
leaves powder or a placebo for two week periods. The
results showed 17.6 % reduction in fasting blood glucose
and 7.3% decline in postprandial blood glucose on
treatment with Tulsi as compared to the blood glucose
levels during treatment with placebo.
Antifertility effect: –
One of the major constituents of the leaves,ursolic acid
has been reported to possess antifertility activity in rats
and mice, This effect has been attributed to it's
antiestrogenic effect which may be responsible for arrest
of spermatogenesis in males and inhibitory effect on
implantation of ovum in females. This constituent may
prove to be a promising antifertility agent devoid of side
For Heart ailments: –
As 'Tulsi' (basil) has a positive effect over blood pressure
and also a de-toxicant, its regular use prevents heart
attacks. A tonic may be prepared by mixing 1 gm of dry
'Tulsi' leaves with a spoonful of butter and some candy
sugar or honey. Take twice a day; first thing in the
morning and before going to bed at night. The drinking of
Tulsi-leaf tea keeps the blood pressure even.
Other effects :–
The leaves in the form of a paste are used in parasitical
diseases of the skin and also applied to the finger and toe
nails during fever when the limbs are cold. The juice of
the leaves is given in catarrh and bronchitis in children.
The plant is said to have carminative, diaphoretic and
stimulant properties. A decoction of the plant is used for
cough and also as mouth wash for relieving tooth ache. It
is good for headache, convulsions, cramps, fevers and
cholera.The drinking of Tulsi-leaf tea keeps one free from
cough and colds and other ailments associated with
'Kapha' dosha in the body. This tea is an instant pick-me-
up (energy drink) also.
Tulsi Tea:
Wash 10 to 20 fresh leaves of Tulsi, and pound them to a
pulp. Mix this pulp with a cupful of water. Spice the
mixture with proper amounts of powdered dry ginger,
cardamom seeds and roots of peepar (piper longum). Add
a spoonful of sugar, and boil. Drink this decoction while it
is still hot. Do not strain the decoction. Chew and swallow
the cooked pulp of Tulsi leaves after drinking the
decoction. Take this decoction every morning. This
decoction is believed to be capable of curing various
diseases, stimulating appetite, and imparting a feeling of
freshness and vigour.
Alternatively, 10 grams of Tulsi leaves are boiled in 250
grams of water till only half or one-fourth of the water
remains. An equal amount of milk is added, and 20 to 25
grams of crystal sugar dissolved in it, the amount being
adjusted as needed. Tulsi tea prepared thus. is not only a
palatable drink, but also an effective cure for a number of
disorders such as colds, fevers, lack of appetite, lassitude,
burning sensation in the stomach, excess of vata and
pitta, etc.
Boiling 10 grams or more of Tulsi leaves in 250 grams of
water till one-half or one-quarter of the water has been
boiled away yields another kind of Tulsi tea which is very
effective in the treatment of disorders like fevers, a
disinclination for exertion, lassitude, lack of appetite,
burning sensation in the stomach and disorders caused
by excess of vata (vayu) and pitta.
Cold extract of Tulsi:
Grind five to seven leaves of Tulsi with three or four black
pepper seeds in a mortar with a little water till a
homogeneous thick liquid is obtained. Drinking a glass of
such a cold extract of Tulsi every morning on an empty
stomach soothes the brain by removing the heat, and
strengthens it. This drink stimulates and strengthens the
heart also. The drink is more desirable in the cold season.
Almonds added to the drink improve its quality and render
it more salubrious.
Vegetable soup:
Clean and cut four bundles of onion saplings, including
the leaves, into small pieces. Keep these other
ingredients ready Water, 3 cups; Celery leaves cut into
small pieces, 1 cup diced carrots, 1 cup skinned and
diced tomatoes (of the larger variety) 3 nos, 1 capsicum
cut into small pieces, salt and pepper according to taste
some neem leaves, one spoonful of ajwan seeds, one
spoonful of Tulsi, one spoonful of oregano.
Method of preparation: Fry the pieces of onion and
capsicum in a little oil. Then add the rest of the ingredients
and cook till they are done. If it is desired to thicken the
soup, cook a cupful of phanasi or other beans, mash them
and add the paste to the soup. Add one-fourth of a cup of
rice to the soup and boil till the rice is cooked.
Mixed pulse soup:
250 grams of dry pulse seeds (such as French beans,
Bengal grams, string beans, lentils, etc.); 3 carrots of
ordinary size, diced; one potato of average size, diced;
one pumpkin, peeled and diced; 2 medium-sized
tomatoes cut into slices or pieces; broken noodles;
onions, garlic, and green pepper cut into pieces and fried,
according to taste; and salt and pepper according to
Two spoonfuls of celery leaves; one spoonful of oregano;
half a spoonful of ajwan seeds; half a spoonful of Tulsi
leaves or tamalpatra; one spoonful of jaggery; one
spoonful of ajwan leaves; some neem leaves.
Method of preparation: Soak the pulses overnight, and
cook in a pressure cooker till they become soft. Mash
them in the water used for cooking them. Now add the
Research J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2010; 2(2): 103-108 KP Sampath Kumar et al
rest of the vegetables and heat till they are cooked well.
Decorate with celery leaves, ajwan leaves or Tulsi leaves
when the soup is served.
A nutritious sweet (pak) prepared from Tulsi seeds:
Tulsi seeds are used extensively in the preparation of
medicines, eatables, essences, perfumes antiseptics, etc.
The seeds of the Shyam Tulsi are considered to be of
greater medicinal value than those of Ram Tulsi. The
clusters of flowers, or inflorescences, of the Tulsi plants
are known as “maanjars” (from ‘manjari’, inflorescences).
The seeds are formed in these flowers, and are released
from the dry maanjars on shaking. More seeds are
produced by Ram Tulsi. The seeds are of the size of
poppy seeds, and resemble mustard seeds in colour. The
seeds are formed in abundance in the month of Ashvin,
i.e. around October. A medicinal sweet which is nutritious
and imparts strength to the body (i.e. a ‘pak’) can be
prepared from these seeds.
Pound or grind Tulsi seeds to a fine powder like flour.
Before beginning the preparation, keep the following
ingredients ready Tulsi seed flour, 125 grams; black
pepper seeds, 10 grames; bhang (cannabis),5 grams;
Saffron, 2 grammes; almond seeds, 125 grams; khova
(khoya), 125 grams; Bengal gram flour, 125 grams crystal
sugar, 250 grams; ghee (clarified butter), 250 grams.
Mix a major part of the ghee with the gram flour. Sprinkle
a little milk over the flour. Take the remaining portion of
ghee in an iron or brass pan and put it on the stove.
When the ghee is fairly hot, add the gram flour and let it
cook the ghee over a low flame. When the flour is nearly
halfcooked, break up the khova into small lumps, mix it
with the gram flour, and continue heating till both the
khova and the flour have been cooked completely, and
have begun to turn brown. Now add the almond seeds,
cut into small pieces, and let them cook for some time.
Now add the Tulsi seed flour, immediately after that add
the cannabis powder, cardamom and pepper powder
according to your taste, mix well, and take the pan off the
Meanwhile, prepare thick syrup from the sugar, add the
saffron to it. The thickness of the syrup should be
adjusted to suit the weather conditions. The thickness (or
consistency) of the syrup should preferably be a little
greater in monsoon, otherwise the sweet is liable to spoil
easily, and become soft due to moisture in the air; a
thicker syrup gives better result. In the winter, on the
contrary, the syrup should not be made so thick and
viscous; thicker syrup results in greater hardness of the
sweet. If it is desired to increase the proportion of ghee in
the sweet so as to increase its nutritive value, somewhat
thinner syrup will be needed. Once syrup of the proper
consistency has been prepared, and the saffron added,
mix the roasted flours into the syrup with constant stirring.
Now the sweet is ready. Spread it in a flat plate while it is
still hot, and allow it to set. When it has set, cut it up into
pieces of desired shape and size.
This pak should be taken every day in the morning.
Depending on your constitution, 20 to 100 grams of the
sweet can be taken daily. The sweet should be followed
up with 200 to 250 grams of milk. It would be better not to
take any oil, chillies, tamarind, hot spices and such other
additives to one’s food during the period of regular
consumption of this pak, or at least reduce the proportion
of these materials in the daily food. This will permit the
pak to have its full effect on the body.
It is stated in Ayurveda that Tulsi seeds are highly
nutritious and greatly strengthen the body. The
component of the body responsible for the strength and
virility of the body is built up and the secretion of semen
increases. Many diseases caused by vata (vayu) and
kapha are cured. Digestion becothes more efficient.
Numerous disorders including diseases of the digestive
system, disorders caused by abnormal amounts of vata,
wounds, weakening of the brain, chronic cold, cough,
debility and dyspepsia are cured by taking this sweet
Refreshing drink:
Pour one cup of boiling water into a teapot. Add 12 to 15
Tulsi leaves, two pieces of lemon grass (green tea), and
12 to 15 mint leaves. Allow to brew for 15 minutes, and
strain. Add lemon juice and honey to improve the taste.
Drink this decoction every morning on an empty stomach.
It stimulates digestion, purifies the blood, and imparts a
feeling of freshness. Honey is used for slimming and
lemon juice for reducing the harm caused by excess of
bile. A piece of ginger can be added to the brew with
Arishta assay:
Pulverise 700 grams of the bark of the babool tree. Boil it
in 1500 grams of water, till only one—fourth of the water is
left. Strain the extract, Add 80 grams of the panchang
(five parts of the plant) of Tulsi, 500 grams of jaggery, 10
grams of peepar (piper longum), and 80 grams of flowers
of the anvia (Indian gooseberry) plant. Take 10 grams
each of black pepper,. small cardamoms, nutmeg,
cinnamon, sheetalchini (cubebs),. tamal patra and naag
kesar (Hon wood). Pulverise them and mix with the above
extract. Put this mixture in a vessel, and seal its mouth.
Keep aside for one month, then open the vessel and
strain the contents.
This aasav removes deficiencies of the semen such as a
low sperm count and thinness. It also cures coughs,
debility and poor digestion, and imparts strength and
Ghrit (medicated ghee):
Grind 125 grams of Tulsi leaves and 125 grams of guruch
(serpent stone) in the presence of 750 grams of water.
Add 500 grams of cow’s ghee and boil till a homogeneous
liquid is obtained. Strain and store the liquid. This ghrit is
used to treat abnormalities of the blood and skin diseases
like leucoderma and leprosy.
Medicated oil:
Grind 125 grams of Tulsi leaves in a mortar to a paste.
Cook this paste in two kilograms of Tulsi juice to which
one kilogram of seasame oil has been added. Continue
boiling till all the water is boiled away. Then cool the oil,
strain it and store in a glass bottle. This oil is very useful in
the treatment of skin diseases.
Choorna (medicinal powder) :
Take equal quantities of the leaves, inflorescences,
seeds, roots and stem of the Tulsi plant. Dry them in the
shade. Then pulverize this panchang.
Research J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2010; 2(2): 103-108 KP Sampath Kumar et al
Swallow 5 gram of this choorna with cold water every
morning. This choorna is useful in the treatment of
abnormalities of the blood, disorders caused by pitta,
insomnia and gonorrhoea.
Sheetajwarantakvati (pills that end malaria) :
Pulverize 10 grams of Tulsi leaves, 40 grams of Bengal
gram powder, 10 grams of black pepper and 10 grams of
the leaves of the bitter gourd creeper. Add some water,
mix and roll into pea-sized pills. Regular use of these pills
in seasons favouring malaria will prevent an attack of the
disease. Taking one of these pills three times a day, or
two of them every morning and every evening, is
beneficial in fevers preceded by cold rigours and fevers
prevalent in winter. These pills should not be taken for
periods longer than two months.
Choorna (powder) for colds:
Pulverize black pepper to a fine powder which can pass
through cloth. Subject the powder to the process
described as bhavna with the help of Tulsi. Dry the
powder in the shade. Five grams of this powder should be
taken with tea or hot water for treating colds.
Best Remedy For Many Skin Disorders:
The essence of holy basil is used in many medicinal and
beauty soaps. You can put some tulsi leaves in your
bathing water, a few minutes before taking bath, to make
the skin smooth and disease free. It helps in getting rid of
many skin disorders, like ringworms, rashes and eczema.
Holy basil also imparts a soothing and cooling effect to
the body. It cures skin disorders from both outside and
inside, without any side effects.
Promotes Digestion and Prevents Flatulence:
The juice of holy basil leaves works as appetizer, apart
from promoting digestion, preventing flatulence and
healing many other stomach problems. It helps treat
constipation and several other abdominal disorders as
Helps In Oral Care:
Tulsi contains ingredients that destroy the bacteria
responsible for plaque and cavities. Its leaves also work
as an excellent mouth fresher. It is also effective in
treating ulcer, although you should avoid keeping it in
your mouth for longer periods.
Promotes Longevity:
Holy basil is called the “elixir of life”, not just because of
its religious significance, but also because it helps
promote longevity. It boosts immunity and protects the
body from the harmful effects of free radicals.
A Great Beauty Product:
Holy basil helps in increasing hair luster. It also gives
volume to hair and cures lice problem. The leaves of this
plant contain anti-aging elements. They also purify the
blood and help in treating acne. The juice of holy basil
leaves removes dark spots from the face and provides
glow and radiance.
Helps Improve Memory:
Holy basil is an excellent rejuvenator, which has been
known to help reduce stress, relax the mind and assist
the body in improving memory. You just need to swallow
eight to ten crushed tulsi leaves, along with some honey,
almond and black pepper.
De-pollutes The Atmosphere:
Holy basil is considered to have some elements which
help in purifying the environment. In addition, it cleanses
the polluted water as well. Although regular tending and
caring is needed, growing it in your courtyard will not only
give you medicinal advantage, but will purify your
environment too.
Excellent Mosquito Repellent:
It has been found that tulsi has excellent anti-malarial
properties. Planting it in your courtyard will keep the
mosquitoes and bugs away. It can be consumed as anti
malarial medicine as well and applied directly to the skin
in case of insect-bite.
Remarkable Healing Properties:
Tulsi oil contains hundreds of beneficial components and
is a strong anti-septic against many disease-causing
organisms, like bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Also, the
antioxidants present in basil help in reducing the
damaging effect of stress on the body. It works as pain
killer and increases the natural immunity system and
enhances the defense mechanism of the body as well.
Persistent use of this herb could be extremely beneficial in
getting relief from a number of ailments. A few of them are
enlisted below:
Jaundice: Tulsi is one of the best remedy for jaundice.
Prepare a combination of 10 tulsi and radish juice (10 gm)
and take it thrice daily on a regular basis with jaggery for
one month. It would alleviate jaundice completely.
Eye problem: This herb is often used for treating eye
disorders. A thick liquid prepared by crushing tulsi leaves
is often applied to the eyes for healing up night blindness
and inflammation.
Mouth ulcer: Tulsi effectively cures mouth ulcers, lesions,
and other related disorders. It is quite useful for sensitive
teeth and gums. Tulsi extract in the paste form or by
simply chewing tulsi leaves could give you relief from
these mouth problems.
Piles: Tulsi is also useful for treating piles. Soak five tulsi
leaves in drinking water for 30 minutes and drink the
water afterwards. By following this process regularly you
could get rid of piles.
Cold: If you have got common cold and associated fever
then tulsi could be a good choice of medicine. Take
pieces of 7 holy basil leaves and 5 cloves and mix them
well in one glass of water and boil them until the volume
of water becomes half of the original. Add rock salt into it
and drink it hot and make the whole body sweat by
covering with clothes. Fever immediately gets alleviated
and the symptoms of cold also get improved. For children
tulsi juice with 5 to 7 drops of honey could give instant
relief from the symptoms of cold and stringy mucus in the
respiratory tract.
Stomachache: Prepare tulsi and ginger juice and take
one spoonful of each of these extracts daily for healing up
cramps and stomachache.
Research J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2010; 2(2): 103-108 KP Sampath Kumar et al
Worms in Stomach: Take one spoon of hot tulsi and
ginger juice after every interval of 3 hours and continue
this for two days in order to remove worms with stools.
Acidity: Tulsi is also useful for seminal problems. Prepare
a mixture of 50 g of sugar candy and tulsi seeds and take
2.5 g of this mixture with milk on a daily basis. In absence
of tulsi seeds you could also use tulsi roots. Regular use
of this medication would help in thickening and
strengthening sperms in male.
Tulsi can not only keep the dreaded Swine flu or H1N1
flu at bay but also help in fast recovery of an afflicted
person, Ayurvedic practitioners claim. "The anti-flu
property of Tulsi has been discovered by medical experts
across the world quite recently. Tulsi improves the body's
overall defence mechanism including its ability to fight
viral diseases. It was successfully used in combating
Japanese Encephalitis and the same theory applies to
swine flu," Dr U K Tiwari, a herbal medicine practitioner
says. Apart from acting as a preventive medicine in case
of swine flu, Tulsi can help the patient recover faster.
"Even when a person has already contracted swine flu,
Tulsi can help in speeding up the recovery process and
also help in strengthening the immune system of the
body," he claims. "Tulsi can control swine flu and it
should be taken in fresh form. Juice or paste of at least
20-25 medium sized leaves should be consumed twice a
day on an empty stomach."
Tulsi's effectiveness against Swine Flu may have come
as news to people who are unaware of the wealth of
benefits that the humble herb has to offer. Traditionally,
Hindu temples provide water that has Tulsi leaves soaked
in it to devotees. Tulsi leaves are boiled in water and the
essence is given to children and adults who suffer from flu
and common cold.
Tulsi (Occinum sanctum) chosen for its anti-pollutant anti-
oxidation and air-purifying properties making it an ideal
ornamental shrub in the vicinity of the Taj Mahal. Now
Tulsi is being used to help Taj Mahal to retain its pristine
allure. Even as the monument of love yellowing with age
awaits its promised beauty pack for well over two years,
forest department has come up with another quick-fix
project -- plant a Tulsi drive in Agra. The recommended
complexion care regimen, officers claim, has full backing
from ancient texts which hold Tulsi to be the panacea for
all problems from cosmic to cosmetic. The department is
all set to launch the Tulsi plantation drive from January
2009. The public-private joint venture is expected to
provide an eco-protection cover to sensitive Taj trapezium
zone surrounding the 17th century monument as well as
the other two world heritage monuments -- Agra Fort and
Aitma-ud-Daula tomb.
All these medicinal ingredients makes Tulsi a must have
for longer and peaceful life. This small plant is certainly a
very good source of medicinal properties. After in depth
and rigorous research it has been proved and certified
that it is safe to consume Tulsi in any form. All these
remedial properties are well accepted and honored by
modern science. Tulsi is the herb that cures the mankind
from all odds naturally in today’s superficial not-so good
lifestyle. It is considered as India’s Queen of herbs. They
are largely used in ayurvedic meidicines. It has got
medicinal properties as well as cosmetic properties. Tulsi
is grown in almost all Indian homes. Water boiled with
tulsi leaves is good for sore throat. It can also be gargled.
Chewing tulsi leaves treats cold and flu.Tulsi leaf when
eaten in the morning purifies blood. It can be used as
tooth powder by drying its leaves and mixed with water. It
helps in protecting the entire respiratory tract.Its has many
cosmetic properties and used in herbal soap and also for
body scrub. It helps in controlling dandruff. Tulsi oil can be
used for controlling dandruff. It can be used by mixing with
coconut oil.Tulsi leaves juice and ginger juice cures
stomach ache, cramps and also gets relief from stomach
worms.Tulsi or Basil leaves mixed with 1tsp of honey will
cure severe cold.
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Longevity and Rejuvenation. CRC Press. pp. 272–
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of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes by Ocimum sanctum
and its role in protection against radiation injury. Indian
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... Neem is used as an antifungal and anti-inflammatory and it is also used to reduce scar, pigmentation, redness and itching of the skin [1,4]. Tulsi is used to add glow to the skin and to promote wound healing [5]. ...
Full-text available
Objective: To formulate and evaluate herbal cream using Aloe Vera gel, dimethyl sulphoxide extracts of Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Tulsi (Ocimumtenuiflorum) to give multipurpose effect. Methods: The cream was prepared by using the cream base that is bee’s wax, liquid paraffin, borax, methylparaben, distilled water, rose oil, Aloe Vera gel, dimethyl sulphoxide extracts of Neem and Tulsi. The cream was prepared by using the slab technique/extemporaneous method for geometric and homogenous mixing of all the excipients and the herbal extracts. By using slab technique, we have developed three batches of our herbal cream, namely F1H, F2H, and F3H. All three batches were evaluated for different parameters like appearance, PH, viscosity, phase separation. Results: All the three formulations F1H, F2H, F3H showed good appearance, PH, adequate viscosity and no phase separation was observed. Also, the formulations F1H, F2H, F3H showed no redness, erythema and irritation during irritancy study and they were easily washable. All the three formulations F1H, F2H, F3H were stable at room temperature. Conclusion: All three herbal ingredients showed significant different activities. Based on the results, we can suggest that all the three formulations F1H, F2H, F3H were stable and can be safely used on the skin.
Full-text available
Cilantro, lemon grass, and ginger root provide the distinctive flavor of many Asian and Pacific Rim dishes. In Hawai'i these herbs are used in everyday cooking as well as in the elaborate cuisine created by some of the Island's most innovative chefs. Yet even in Hawai'i, people find it difficult to identify these common herbs in the market or garden. Ethnic Culinary Herbs is a fully illustrated guidebook that describes more than thirty herbs grown, sold, and used in Hawai'i. (Many can also be found in ethnic produce markets throughout North America.) Unlike most herb books, which cover the same limited range of species (largely those of European and Mediterranean origin), this volume brings together information about herbs from other parts of the world and not only identifies the plants but also explains their use and cultivation. Each species is identified by its scientific name, and common names are listed for several languages spoken in Hawai'i. (For example, the Chinese or garlic chive is also identified by its Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Thai, and Vietnamese names.) A brief, nontechnical description of each herb is accompanied by a full-page line drawing and one or more color photographs. Entries on culinary use are followed by specific instructions for the herb's cultivation and best methods of propagation. Pests and diseases are discussed as well as their control and treatment. An index of common and scientific names permits access to main entries using any name available to the reader. For those interested in observing growing plants, an appendix provides the location of all Honolulu Community Garden sites, where many of the herbs can be found. Herb fanciers, chefs, gardeners, and botanists will be delighted with this thoroughly reliable and useful guide.
An ideal resource for courses on Hinduism or world religions, this accessible volume spans the entire field of Hindu studies. It provides a forum for the best scholars in the world to make their views and research available to a wider audience. Comprehensively covers the textual traditions of Hinduism Features four coherent sections covering theoretical issues, textual traditions, science and philosophy, and Hindu society and politics Reflects the trend away from essentialist understandings of Hinduism towards tradition and regional-specific studies Includes material on Hindu folk religions and stresses the importance of region in analyzing Hinduism Ideal for use on university courses.
Objective: To study the effect of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) on experimental cataract in rates and rabbits. Methods: Two models of experimental cataract were induced: (1) Galactosaemic cataract in rats by 30% galactose, (2) Naphthalene cataract in rabbits by 1 gm/kg naphthalene. Ocimum sanctum (O.S.) was administered orally in both models at two dose levels 1 and 2 gm/kg of body weight for curative and prophylactic effects. The study was conducted for 40 days. Results: O.S. delayed the onset of cataract as well as the subsequent maturation of cataract significantly in both models. In addition to delay in reaching various stages of development of cataract. IV stage did not develop with high doses till completion of 40 days of experimental period. Conclusion: O.S. delayed the process of cataractogenesis in both models. The higher doses are more effective and have got promising prophylactic role rather than curative one. This effect is more clear in galactosaemic cataract.
Ocimum tenuiflorum L.f. (syn. O. sanctum L.) (Lamiaceae) is an indigenous ayurvedic medicinal plant of India and is popularly known as holy basil/sacred basil. Oils obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves, stems, inflorescence and whole herb were analyzed by GC and GC/MS and retention indices. Methyl eugenol was the major constituent of all the oils (72.5%, 75.3%, 83.7% and 65.2% in oils from whole herb, leaf, stem and inflorescence, respectively). β-Caryophyllene was the second most dominant constituent and the respective concentration in each oil (5.5%, 6.4%, 2.7% and 12.0%).
Aqueous extract (OE) of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum, the Indian holy basil, has been found to protect mouse against radiation lethality and chromosome damage and to possess significant antioxidant activity in vitro. Therefore a study was conducted to see if OE protects against radiation induced lipid peroxidation in liver and to determine the role, if any, of the inherent antioxidant system in radioprotection by OE. Adult Swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 10 mg/kg of OE for 5 consecutive days and exposed to 4.5 Gy of gamma radiation 30 min after the last injection. Glutathione (GSH) and the antioxidant enzymes glutathione transferase (GST), reductase (GSRx), peroxidase (GSPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as lipid peroxide (LPx) activity were estimated in the liver at 15 min, 30 min, 1, 2, 4 and 8 hr post-treatment. LPx was also studied after treatment with a single dose of 50 mg/kg of OE with/without irradiation. OE itself increased the GSH and enzymes significantly above normal levels whereas radiation significantly reduced all the values. The maximum decline was at 30-60 min for GSH and related enzymes and at 2 hr for SOD. Pretreatment with the extract checked the radiation induced depletion of GSH and all the enzymes and maintained their levels within or above the control range. Radiation significantly increased the lipid peroxidation rate, reaching a maximum value at 2 hr after exposure (approximately 3.5 times that of control). OE pretreatment significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced the lipid peroxidation and accelerated recovery to normal levels. The results indicate that Ocimum extract protects against radiation induced lipid peroxidation and that GSH and the antioxidant enzymes appear to have an important role in the protection.