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Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Almond (Prunus amygdalu Var. Dulcis) Seed Milk

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Plant milk was produced from almond (Prunus amygdalu var. dulcis) seeds and home prepared soy milk served as control. The milk samples were subjected to proximate, mineral and sensory qualities evaluation using standard methods. A difference and preference test was carried out on milk samples for sensory evaluation. Almond milk sample had a characteristic white colour and milk yield was 82.5%. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in the proximate, mineral and mean sensory scores of milk samples. Almond milk had significantly higher ash and crude fibre contents. It also contained appreciable and significantly higher amounts of calcium (13.1mg/100ml), potassium(65.33mg/100ml), phosphorus(75.2mg/100ml),magnesium (42.05mg/100ml), iron (1.40mg/100ml) and zinc (4.58mg/100ml). Sensory evaluation of the milk samples showed significant differences between samples. Almond milk (1.90) was comparable to soymilk (2.10) in mouth feel (p>0.05). However, almond milk was more preferred in terms of colour, flavor, taste and overall acceptability (p<0.05). Almond milk is nutrient dense with lower calories than soy and dairy milks. Noteworthy is its nutritional benefits of promoting cardiovascular health and reduction of trace mineral deficiencies especially iron and zinc.
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World Journal of Dairy & Food Sciences 10 (2): 117-121, 2015
ISSN 1817-308X
© IDOSI Publications, 2015
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wjdfs.2015.10.2.9622
Corresponding Author: Yetunde Alozie, Department of Human Ecology, Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Agriculture,
University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria Tel: +2348039385198.
117
Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Almond (Prunus amygdalu Var. Dulcis) Seed Milk
Alozie Yetunde E. and Udofia, Ukpong S.
Department of Human Ecology, Nutrition and Dietetics,
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
Abstract: Plant milk was produced from almond (Prunus amygdalu var. dulcis) seeds and home prepared soy
milk served as control. The milk samples were subjected to proximate, mineral and sensory qualities evaluation
using standard methods. A difference and preference test was carried out on milk samples for sensory
evaluation. Almond milk sample had a characteristic white colour and milk yield was 82.5%. Significant
differences (p<0.05) were observed in the proximate, mineral and mean sensory scores of milk samples. Almond
milk had significantly higher ash and crude fibre contents. It also contained appreciable and significantly
higher amounts of calcium (13.1mg/100ml), potassium(65.33mg/100ml), phosphorus(75.2mg/100ml),magnesium
(42.05mg/100ml), iron (1.40mg/100ml) and zinc (4.58mg/100ml). Sensory evaluation of the milk samples showed
significant differences between samples. Almond milk (1.90) was comparable to soymilk (2.10) in mouth feel
(p>0.05). However, almond milk was more preferred in terms of colour, flavor, taste and overall acceptability
(p<0.05). Almond milk is nutrient dense with lower calories than soy and dairy milks. Noteworthy is its
nutritional benefits of promoting cardiovascular health and reduction of trace mineral deficiencies especially
iron and zinc.
Key words: Plant Milk Almond Milk Proximate Composition Sensory Evaluation Trace Mineral
INTRODUCTION milk and its products are hardly major items of the diets.
The continuous increase in population and that are able to afford animal milk, there is always an
inadequate supply of protein has advertently increased increasing concern about its fat and cholesterol contents.
the occurrence of malnutrition in developing countries [1]. Thus there is a gradual shift from overdependence on
However, in order to meet the protein demands in animal fat and proteins because of the attendant health
developing countries where animal protein is grossly implications to that of plant origin that have less
inadequate and relatively expensive, research effort is incidence of cardiovascular and degenerative diseases [6].
geared towards finding alternative sources of protein from This factor coupled with the huge foreign expenditure on
plant foods [2]. The adequacy of protein in the diet for milk importation because of limited supply from local dairy
effective body building and metabolism cannot be producers favour the development from alternative milk
overemphasized as it is considered of immense nutritional sources from plant materials with functional properties.
importance to man and animals. A daily protein intake of West Africa is blessed with diverse, readily available and
67g is recommended for an average Nigerian of which 58% high quality protein and fat sources that are relatively
must be from foods of animal origin which includes milk inexpensive.
and its products [3]. Milk has been described as a Plant seeds form an important part of human diets
compulsory part of daily diet for the expectant mothers as and their significance especially in the diet of the
well as growing children because of its balance of protein, population of developing countries is increasing for
lactose, fat, non-protein nitrogen and ash [4]. Eneobong several reasons [7]. The seeds are good sources of
[5] described the precarious state of food supply in proteins, edible oils and fats in the diet as well as potential
developing countries including Nigeria and posited that raw materials for local industries [8]. Plant milk is a general
However, it must be stressed that for the selective few
World J. Dairy & Food Sci., 10 (2): 117-121, 2015
118
term for a product that is derived from a plant source that MATERIALS AND METHODS
resembles milk but contains neither milk fat nor other
important dairy product [9]. The similarity of the Sample Collection: The mature ripe almond fruits were
functional properties, nutritive value and sensory obtained by hand picking from trees located in the annex
characteristics of these milk analogues allow them to be and town campuses of the University of Uyo, Uyo Akwa
used as substitutes for animal milks [10]. Ibom State located in South-east Nigeria in February,
Milk from nuts, seeds and grains represent an 2014. Soybean, granulated sugar and vanilla essence were
alternative to animal milk. These alternatives have been procured from Akpan Andem Market in Uyo Local
characterized by a profile of healthy fatty acids and Government Area.
carbohydrates with low glycaemic index as well as
constituents of vitamins B and E, antioxidants Sample Preparation: The collected almond fruit was
(Phytosterols and/or polyphenols) and dietary fibre. They sorted to remove the spoilt and/or infested ones. They
are also rich sources of potassium and low sodium thus were washed, peeled and pulp scrapped off with a knife to
promoters of healthy balance of electrolytes as well as obtain the kernel. The kernels were sundried for four days
good calcium/phosphorus ratio. Development of milk and cracked along the ventral sutures to obtain the nuts.
substitutes extracted from plants serves as an alternative One kilogramme of the nuts was dehulled after soaking in
source of producing acceptable nutritious drinks. Among hot water then rubbing off the skin between fingers. Milk
the sources of vegetable milk, soybean has received the was extracted from the dehulled nuts by soaking in
highest research attention while little attention has been deionized water at 4°C for six hours after which it was
given to bambara groundnut [11], baobab [12], peanut drained, rinsed and wet milled in a kitchen blender
[13], melon seed [14], tigernut [15] and breadfruit [16] but (Kenwood, England) using maximum speed with nuts to
no attention has been given to underutilized seeds such water ratio as 1:3 (w/v) for five minutes. The resultant
as almond seeds. slurry was strained through a double layered cheese
Almond (Prunus amygdalu var. dulcis) is a cloth. 200ml sugar syrup (Made by boiling and cooling
common fruit in Nigeria. The outer flesh is commonly 200g of granulated sugar in 50ml water) was added to the
eaten by children and the kernel often thrown as waste. It filtrate which was homogenized and pasteurized at 121°C
belongs to the family Roseceae and genus, prunus. It is a for fifteen minutes. The milk extract was flavoured with
drupe with a thick leathering grey-green exocarp called the 15ml vanilla essence prior to bottling in sterilized screw
hull. It has been shown to be a nutritious food with a 100 capped plastic bottles and stored at 4°C. The control
gram serving providing more than 20% of the daily value vegetable milk sample, soybean milk was processed using
of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin E, calcium, iron, magnesium, the Illinois method described by Iwe [18].
manganese, phosphorus and zinc. The same serving size
is also a good source (10-19% RDI) of thiamine, vitamin Chemical Analysis: The plant milk samples was analysed
B6 and folate; choline and the essential mineral for proximate composition using standard methods
potassium. They are also rich in dietary fiber, described by AOAC [19]. Mineral analysis was carried
monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats which out using the dry ashing method. Calcium, iron,
potentially may lower LDL cholesterol [17]. Typical of magnesium and zinc were determined using absorption
nuts and seeds, almonds also contain phytosterols such spectrophotometry, potassium and sodium by flame
as beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, sitostanol photometry and phosphorus by molybdovanadate
and campestanol, which have been associated with method.
cholesterol-lowering properties [17]. The call for food
diversification through the promotion and wider Sensory Evaluation: Sensory evaluation was conducted
application of underutilized indigenous food plants that in two stages. The first stage was conduction of a
are traditionally known will add to food security and could difference test. Triangle test described by Iwe [20] was
be a viable option in ameliorating shortage of protein used. Twenty panelists consisting of staff and final year
among the populace in developing countries. The aim of students of the Department of Human Ecology, Nutrition
this study is to ascertain the potential of almond fruit seed and Dietetics, University of Uyo were divided into two
as a plant milk source and evaluate its chemical and groups (A and B). The samples were three digit coded.
sensory characteristics. Group A was presented with two almond milk samples and
World J. Dairy & Food Sci., 10 (2): 117-121, 2015
119
one sample of soymilk while group B were presented two milk (1.62%) and Treculia africana seed milk (0.89-0.96%)
samples of soymilk and one of almond milk in a [14, 16, 21]. The higher ash content of samples in this
randomized manner and were asked to identify the odd study in comparison with dairy milk is suggestive of the
sample as well as indicated degree of difference and the richness of the samples as micronutrient sources.
more acceptable sample. The second stage was a Noteworthy is the crude fibre content of the almond milk
consumer preference test which involved the presentation which was significantly higher than value obtained for
of the two vegetable milk samples that were three digit soymilk and an advantage over dairy milk as it will aid
coded to a panel of twenty members who were familiar stomach motility. The carbohydrate content of milk
with plant milk products and rated the products on a nine samples in this study were lower than the values reported
point hedonic scale where 1=Excellent, 5= neither like nor for dairy milk (5.0%), human milk (6.8%) and melon seed
dislike and 9=Very poor for parameters of colour, taste, milk (5.90%) [16, 21]. Energy values obtained for the milk
mouth-feel, flavor and overall acceptability. samples in this study were lower than cow’s milk
Statistical Analysis: Data on proximate and mineral lower (p>0.05) than that for soybean milk (57.36kcal). Fat
analyses were presented as mean of triplicate analyses and carbohydrates are the major energy sources in a
while mean of sensory scores for each attribute was based given food sample. Thus the contribution of these
on twenty judgments and subjected to Student’s t- test. components to the energy value of almond milk (48.6kcal)
Means were considered significant at probability level is similar to value obtained for the same components in
of 5%. melon seed milk (50.97kcal) and are sufficient as energy
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Proximate Composition: The result of the proximate milk samples is shown in table 2. Results showed
composition of milk samples is shown in table 1. significant differences between the milk samples in all
Significant differences were observed between the mineral assayed. The values obtained for almond milk
samples in all parameters evaluated with exception of were generally higher (p<0.05) except for sodium. The
moisture and crude fat contents. Almond milk showed variation in the mineral composition of the milk samples is
significantly higher values of ash, crude fibre and a reflection of their ash content which was significantly
carbohydrate contents. Moisture level obtained in this higher in almond milk. Mineral composition of plant milk
study for both samples were similar to values reported for samples have been reported to vary with the level of
melon seed milk (88.0%) and cow milk (87.10%) [21]. minerals in the seed of extraction, extraction method,
Concentration of other nutrients and specific gravity of seed/extractant ratio among others [16. Almond milk
milk samples is affected by moisture level [21]. The protein sample contained appreciable amounts of calcium,
content of soymilk was significantly higher than that of magnesium, potassium and phosphorus. Almond milk has
almond milk. Protein value obtained for almond milk in this been reported to lessen resistance of veins and arteries
study (1.70%) was lower than value reported for melon resulting in better flow of blood, oxygen and nutrients due
seed milk (3.67%) reported by Akubor [14] and benniseed to the presence of these natural minerals [24]. The
milk (2.86%) [22]. It was also lower than values of protein observed level is expected as almond seeds have been
in dairy milk (3.30 and 3.50%) [21, 23]. It is however reported to be rich sources of these minerals [25]. The
noteworthy that protein content of almond milk (1.70%) high potassium low sodium content of almond milk is a
obtained in this study was higher than value reported for plus in the promotion of cardiovascular health making
melon seed milk (1.30%) [21]. Generally, the composition almond milk an especially good choice in protecting
and balance of amino acid of milk samples is of greater against high blood pressure and atherosclerosis. The
importance than quantity of protein. The amount of fat in amount of trace minerals, iron and zinc in almond milk
almond milk (3.40%) met the minimum requirementlevel of samples is appreciably high. Values obtained for iron
3% specified by Codex Alimentarius [23] and was similar (1.40mg/100ml) was higher than values for soy milk
(p>0.05) to value obtained for soymilk (3.2%) in this (0.58mg/100ml) and the previously reported values for
study. The total ash content of almond milk was higher soymilk (0.56mg/100ml) [9] African breadfruit (0.40-
than values reported for dairy milk (0.70%), melon seed 0.52mg/100ml) [16] and dairy milk (0.1-0.3mg/100ml) [23].
(68.3kcal).The energy value for almond milk (55.4kcal) was
sources thus producing a protein sparing effect [21].
Mineral Composition: The mineral composition of the
World J. Dairy & Food Sci., 10 (2): 117-121, 2015
120
Table 1: Proximate composition of plant milk samples (g/100ml)
Parameters Soymilk Almond Milk
Moisture 88.12 ± 0.20a 86.11 ± 0.3a
Protein 2.36 ± 0.24a 1.70 ± 0.20b
Fat 3.20 ± 0.15a 3.40 ± 0.18a
Ash 0.84 ± 0.10b 3.04 ± 0.05a
Fibre 0.70 ± 0.04b 1.25 ± 0.10a
Carbohydrate 4.78 ± 0.14a 4.50 ±0.20a
Energy value(Kcal) 57.36 ± 0.22a 55.40 ± 0.45a
Mean of ten samples± SD *Values with different alphabets following along
the same row is significantly different at p<0.05
Table 2: Mineral composition of plant milk samples (mg/100ml)
Parameters Soymilk Almond Milk
Calcium 3.90± 0.02b 13.10 ± 0.05a
Phosphorus 49.00 ± 0.14b 75.20 ± 0.13a
Magnesium 30.00 ± 0.10b 42.05 ± 0.10a
Potassium 50.00 ± 0.15b 65.33 ± 0.03a
Sodium 25.00 ± 0.20b 6.38 ± 0.00a sensory scores were however significantly higher for
Iron 0.58 ± 0.12b 1.40 ±0.05a
Zinc 0.70 ± 0.17b 4.58 ± 0.10a
Mean of ten samples± SD *Values with different alphabets following along
the same row is significantly different at p<0.05
Table 3: Sensory qualities of plant milk samples
Parameters Soymilk Almond Milk
Colour 3.25± 1.48b 2.15 ± 0.50a
Mouthfeel 2.10 ± 0.24a 1.90 ± 0.23a
Flavour 3.90 ± 0.64b 2.50 ± 0.05a
Taste 3.00 ± 1.89b 2.10 ± 0.08a
Overall Acceptability 3.20 ± 0.20b 1.70 ± 0.15a
Mean ± SD *Values with different alphabets following along the same row
is significantly different at p<0.05
The zinc value (4.58mg/100ml) was also higher than values
reported by authors for plant milk such as Treculia
africana (0.32-0.42mg/100ml), soy bean milk
(0.7mg/100ml), melon seed milk (0.38mg/100ml) and
African yam bean milk (3.25mg/100ml) [16, 21, 22].The
level of zinc obtained in this study for almond milk
suggests that its consumption will contribute greatly to
the reduction of “Hidden hunger” in the developing world
including Nigeria where 27.5% and 26% of under-fives
suffer from varying degrees of iron and zinc deficiencies
respectively as a result of prevalence of infectious and
parasitic diseases [26].
Sensory Qualities: Result of difference test conducted
using triangle test indicated significant difference
between the samples as thirteen of the judges were able
to correctly identify the odd sample where a minimum of
eleven correct answers was needed to establish
significance at 5% [20]. The degree of difference (mean of
panelists scores) indicated by the thirteen judges who
correctly identified the odd sample when calculated on a
four point scale (where slight =1, moderate=2, much=3 and
extreme=4) was 1.2 which is equivalent to slight [27]. The
triangle test revealed that the odd sample was more
acceptable as eleven out the thirteen judges who were
able to identify correctly the odd sample found the
almond milk sample more acceptable (p<0.05) [27].The
mean sensory scores of milk samples for preference test
on a nine point hedonic scale are presented in table 3. The
result indicated significant differences between samples.
Milk samples were comparable in mean sensory scores for
mouth-feel. The similarity in mouth feel may be attributed
to the fat content of the samples which were similar as fat
is known to be associated with good mouth feel. Mean
almond milk samples in colour, flavor, taste and overall
acceptability as values were closer to 1(Excellent).
However milk samples in this study were both acceptable
as mean sensory scores for all attributes were below the
average score of 5.0.
CONCLUSION
Almond milk is nutrient dense if compared to
other plant milks such as soybean. Its high content
of fibre and potassium is essential for gastrointestinal
and cardiovascular health. Its high level of trace
minerals especially iron and zinc is of great nutritional
significance especially in the developing world
where iron and zinc deficiencies are high and the
fact that dairy milk has relatively low levels of these
minerals.
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... Additionally, some A total of 32 studies were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies were conducted in 13 different countries: Brazil (59.38%; n = 19) [30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48]; India (6.25%; n = 2) [49,50]; Argentina (3.13%; n = 1) [51]; Belgium (3.13%; n = 1) [52]; Canada (3.13%; n = 1) [23]; Denmark (3.13%; n = 1) [53]; Germany (3.13%; n = 1) [54]; Ghana (3.13%; n = 1) [55]; Iran (3.13%; n = 1) [56]; Ireland (3.13%; n = 1) [57]; Nigeria (3.13%; n = 1) [58]; Pakistan (3.13%; n = 1) [59]; Turkey (3.13%; n = 1) [60]. ...
... A total of 36.36% (n = 8) of the matrices belong to the group of nuts that constituted 41.80% (n = 51) of beverages: almond (Prunus dulcis) (9.84%, n = 12) [23,36,[52][53][54]57,58]; sapucaia nut (Lecythis pisonis) (9.02%, n = 11) [47]; cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) (6.56%, n = 8) [23,32,33,52,54,57,59]; coconut (Cocos nucifera) (6.56%, n = 8) [23,[52][53][54]57]; hazelnut (Corylus avellana) (3.28%, n = 4) [53,54,57]; cupuaçu almond (Theobroma grandiflorum) (2.46%, n = 3) [35]; tucumã almond (Astrocaryum vulgare) (2.46%, n = 3) [35]; macadamia nut (Macadamia spp.) (1.64%, n = 2) [54,57]. ...
... Regarding the origin of the 122 beverages and how the nutritional data were obtained, 54.92% (n = 67) of the beverages were prepared for the study, of which 50.82% (n = 62) were analyzed to determine their nutritional composition [31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51]55,56,[58][59][60]; 3.28% (n = 4) had their nutritional values determined based on the label of the product of origin [30]; 0.82% (n = 1) had their nutritional data taken from Brazilian Nutritional Composition [41,61,62]. ...
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Abstract The present study aimed to develop and perform physicochemical and sensory analyses of new vegetable beverage with cashew nuts (C), brown rice, and prunes (P). Four formulations (F) were developed: F1: 3% C + 9% P; F2: 6% C + 9% P; F3: 3% C + 12% P; F4: 6% C + 12% P. All formulations had good acceptance with grades ranging from 6.14 to 7.23. Among formulations, F3 showed more promising from a functional and sensory point of view, since presented a higher content of oleic acid and antioxidant activity, and showed lower values for calories, lipids and viscosity compared to all other formulations. It was concluded that it was technically possible to develop an alternative vegetable beverage for those allergic to cow's milk, those with lactose intolerance, and people with obesity or cardiovascular and digestive problems.
... Milk and almond milk samples were slightly liked The frozen desserts had similar fat contents but variable protein and sugar contents because of the different compositions of raw materials in the base milk/milk alternative. Results of the present study differ from those of Alozie and Udofia (2015), who reported that consumers preferred almond milk over soy milk in terms of color, flavor, taste, and overall acceptability, but that they gave similar ratings for mouthfeel for the two. However, Alozie and Udofia (2015) investigated the nutritional and sensory properties of vanilla-flavored almond milk and soy milk as beverages, not frozen desserts. ...
... Results of the present study differ from those of Alozie and Udofia (2015), who reported that consumers preferred almond milk over soy milk in terms of color, flavor, taste, and overall acceptability, but that they gave similar ratings for mouthfeel for the two. However, Alozie and Udofia (2015) investigated the nutritional and sensory properties of vanilla-flavored almond milk and soy milk as beverages, not frozen desserts. In the present study, the lack of corresponding vanilla-flavored frozen desserts formulated without sweetpotato puree and using milk, almond milk, and soy milk did not permit for a potential investigation of the interactive effects of milk/milk alternative base and the presence/absence of sweetpotato puree. ...
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A traditional dairy-based frozen dessert (ice cream) was developed with three levels of sweetpotato ( Ipomoea batatas ) puree [20%, 30%, and 40% (by weight)] to determine the impact of sweetpotato content on product functionality, nutritional content, and sensory characteristics. Increased sweetpotato puree resulted in increased orange color, flavor intensity, and sweetpotato flavor, but 40% puree proved difficult to incorporate into the mixture. Additionally, nondairy frozen desserts containing 30% sweetpotato puree were compared with a milk-based control in which all ingredients were the same except that milk was replaced with soy ( Glycine max ) and almond ( Prunus dulcis ) milk. Consumer acceptability tests were conducted with panelists at Mississippi State University (n = 101) and in Pontotoc, MS (n = 43). Panelists in Pontotoc rated the overall acceptability of all three frozen desserts the same, but they preferred the appearance of the milk-based frozen dessert over that of soy- and almond-based milk alternatives. According to the panelists at Mississippi State, the milk-based frozen dessert had greater overall acceptability and aroma than the almond-based dessert and a preferential texture and appearance compared with the soy- and almond-based desserts. Milk-, soy-, and almond-based frozen desserts were rated as “slightly liked” or better by 92%, 80%, and 69% of the panelists, respectively.
... The values of these minerals in samples with 6% turmeric agreed with previous research [43]. The value was higher than commonly reported in the literature [8,44]. The differences in the absorption of iron result not only from individual variability but also from the type of food in which it is supplied. ...
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We studied plant-based milk from soya beans as a means to release and convey the bound antioxidants in turmeric to benefit consumer health. This was compared to cow milk as a carrier because soya milk consumption as an alternative to cow milk is increasing globally. Hence, turmeric paste was added to milk to investigate the release of turmeric antioxidants when changing the matrix (cow vs. soy), the amount of turmeric paste (0%, 2%, and 6%), and the effect of heating (with and without). Proximate, physicochemical, and mineral analysis were carried out for all samples. The total phenol content (TPC) and total antioxidant activity were measured using Folin–Ciocalteu and Quencher methods. Protein ranged from 2.0% to 4.0%, and minerals ranged from 17.8 to 85.1, 0.37 to 0.53, and 0.29 to 0.30 mg/100 mL for calcium, iron, and zinc, respectively. TPC ranged from 0.01 to 0.147 GAE (g/kg) and antioxidant activity from 7.5 to 17.7 TEAC (mmol Trolox/kg sample). Overall, turmeric added nutritional and chemical value to all the samples with and without heat treatment. However, turmeric-fortified soya milk samples showed the highest protein, iron, zinc, TPC, and antioxidant activity. This study identified a cheap, additional nutrient source for developing-countries’ malnourished populations by utilizing soya bean milk to produce golden milk.
... This is as a result of its coarse appearance and lack of sweet taste. [61][62][63] Kundu et al. [11] conducted a sensory evaluation of almond milk alternative and reported that the drink had a very acceptable mouthfeel due to its high fat content, as well as a good score in the overall acceptance. In addition, they also evaluated mixtures of almond milk alternative and soymilk in ratios of 50:50, 40:60, and 60:40 and the third mixture had the highest score due to the incorporation of almond in its formulation. ...
Article
For many years, cow’s milk has been considered as an essential food because of its nutritional value. However, the demand for plant-based milk alternatives (PBMAs) increased over recent years due to lactose intolerance and allergies, as well as different lifestyles. This review aims to provide updated information on the main raw materials used in PBMAs, as well as the production processes, technological functionality, nutritional composition, current consumption, benefits, sensory characteristics, and challenges in the development of PBMAs. Alternatives to formulate PBMAs are growing since traditional seeds or nuts are being rescued from endemic uses. Environmental benefits of PBMA over cow’s milk is still unclear since carbon footprint, eutrophication, and water consumption depend on geographic location. PBMAs are inadequate to cover the nutrimental profile of cow’s milk; however, the enrichment using additives and PBMAs blends are investigated to enhance their composition. Most PBMA physicochemical properties have close values to cow’s milk. However, PBMAs technological uses need improvements since gel formation, water holding capacity, texture, and viscoelastic properties of derived products are poor. Main challenges in PBMA are related to enhance their stabilization, reduced their antinutrients, off-flavors, and allergens. The treatment of PBMAs using emerging technologies seems to help overcome these challenges.
... It is shown that one cup of unsweetened almond milk can be used as a substitute for dairy milk, meanwhile, it contains lower calorie and higher levels of trace minerals such as iron and zinc compared with the cow's milk. In addition, nutritional value of almond milk is higher than other plant-based milk products like soy milk (Al Tamimi, 2016; Alozie Yetunde & Udofia, 2015). Moreover, almond can be a good snack because it can make satiety feeling due to its constituents such as fiber, proteins and fats. ...
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Sweet almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb) is a known nut, which has long been used in several ethnomedical systems, especially in Persian medicine (PM) for its nutritional and therapeutic activities. In this study, we aimed to provide a summary on traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of sweet almond. Thus, we reviewed textbooks of PM and electronic literature on traditional medicine. Moreover, the available data on the usage of sweet almond were searched in electronic databases to find articles on its pharmacological properties and phytochemistry. According to phytochemical investigations, this plant contains macronutrients, micronutrients, essential oils, various phenolic compounds, and phytosterols. Current pharmacological studies represent that Prunus dulcis has several biological activities including prebiotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective, cardiometabolic protection, nootropic, anxiolytic, sedative–hypnotic, and nervous‐improving effects. Further clinical trials and meta‐analysis are required to draw a definitive conclusion on the efficacy and therapeutic activities of almond.
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The research and development of alternatives to meat (including fish) and dairy products for human consumption have been increasing in recent years. In the context of these alternatives, there is a diversity of products such as tofu, tempeh, seitan, pulses, algae, seeds, nuts and insects. Apart from these, some products require new technical processes such as needed by milk drink alternatives, mycoprotein and meat, cheese and fish analogues. The aim of these analogues is to mimic the physical and organoleptic properties of animal origin products through fibrous composition and mix of ingredients from vegetable sources using adequate technology, which allow providing similar texture and flavor. Using a narrative approach to review literature, the objectives of this paper are to systematize the arguments supporting the adoption of meat, eggs and dairy alternatives, to identify the diversity of alternatives to these products on the market, including the related technological processes, and to project the challenges that the food industry may face soon. From a total of 302 scientific papers identified in databases, 186 papers were considered. More research papers on products associated with alternatives to milk were found. Nevertheless, there are products that need more research as analogues to meat and dairy products. A general scheme that brings together the main reasons, resources and challenges that the food industry faces in this promising area of alternatives to meat and dairy products is presented.
Chapter
Recent food industrial and research trends showed that the scientist’s focus is now shifted from basic food role to the indispensable action of bioactive food components with respect to health-related impairments. Growing population, changing dietary patterns and increased consumer knowledge continue to be a major concern to the food chain. Food security in terms of nutrition is a demanding challenge for addressing food security issues especially in terms of nutrition. Plant-based or non-dairy milk alternatives are a fast-growing niche in the functional and specialty beverage development area of newer food products around the world. Cow milk allergy, lactose intolerance, calorie concerns, the incidence of hypercholesterolemia, and a growing desire for vegan diets have all motivated consumers to seek out cow milk substitutes. Market research reveals that there has been upsurge demand for plant-based protein products by vegans and lactose intolerant groups. Many plant-based sources like cereals, legumes, nuts, seeds are explored as a protein source to design plant protein products. Plant-based protein replacements are becoming increasingly popular as a low-cost alternative for impoverished people in developing countries and in areas where animal protein is scarce. With increasing consumer perception and demand plant based-protein industry is also focusing on innovation balance, taste and nutrition.
Conference Paper
Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) is known as the Inca peanut, which is a good source of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this study, the researcher aimed to develop Inca peanut spread product that is good in nutrition with acceptable sensory properties to consumers. There are three main components including roasted Inca peanut, peanuts, and banana chips mix, where the ratio of peanut/banana chips used was fixed at a 1:1 ratio. Three different Inca peanut spreads were prepared using different roasted Inca peanut to peanuts/banana chips mix ratios of 1:0, 1:2, and 1:5 (w/w), then referred to as ‘F1’, ‘F2’, and ‘F3’, respectively. All samples were subjected to analysis on their chemical composition, physicochemical properties, texture, and sensory characteristics. The results showed the increase of roasted Inca peanut ratio varied the chemical composition, physicochemical properties as well as texture characteristics of the final product (p≤0.05). An increase of Inca peanut improved protein composition, which the darker color was observed from the resulting bread-spread. On the other hand, a decrease of hardness with an increase of adhesiveness was obtained with increasing Inca peanut content in a dose-dependent manner. Based on sensory characteristics, F3 Inca peanut spreads (1:5) achieved a good acceptance among panelists with a hedonic liking score of more than 7.0 out of 9.0. Besides, the increasing of Inca peanut ratio showed an adverse effect on consumer acceptance. Therefore, Inca peanut could be utilized as an alternative indigenous source in developing bread-spread and providing more nutritious and health benefits food products. However, the formulation and palatability of Inca peanut-based food products should be studied further, due to their unique natural color and flavor.
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Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed is rich in protein, fat, fiber, and other essential nutrients. Kenaf seed comprises of high protein (22–31%) and oil (22–25%) contents which suggested its high potential food application. This chapter discusses the potential and early development of kenaf-based plant-milk and tofu. The step-by-step processes involved in preparation of kenaf-based milk and kenaf-based tofu at laboratory-scale are illustrated. Soaking conditions (temperature and time) of kenaf seed as pretreatment in preparation of kenaf seed milk were highlighted. Hydration of kenaf seed were found to be faster at elevated temperature, however higher soaking temperature and prolonged soaking time causes some losses of protein (%) and solid content (%) which are unfavorable for production of highly nutritious plant-based milk. Furthermore, in preparation of kenaf-based tofu, soaking temperature of seed also affected the properties of the tofu. As the soaking temperature was increased from 25–65°C, the yield, hardness, and chewiness of kenaf tofu decreased. It was recommended that soaking of kenaf seed at 25°C and the use of aluminum potassium salt at 1.00 g% as coagulant produces kenaf-based tofu with optimum quality.
Article
The chemical composition and nutritional characteristics of seeds of Mucuna pruriens were investigated. The mature seeds contained 314.4 g/kg crude protein, 51.6 g/kg crude fiber, 67.3 g/kg crude fat, 41.1 g/kg ash, and 525.6 g/kg carbohydrates. Potassium, phosphorus, and calcium registered higher concentrations compared with the most commonly consumed pulses. The globulins and albumins together constituted the major storage proteins (22.7 g/100 g of seed flour). The essential amino acids profile of total seed proteins compared favorably with the FAO/WHO reference pattern except for deficiency of sulfo amino acids. When compared with globulins, albumins appeared to be a rich source of valine and tryptophan. However, cystine, methionine, and leucine were deficient in both the protein fractions. Both oleic and linoleic acids constituted the predominant fatty acids (65.5%) along with a substantial quantity of palmitic acid (20.16%). Dry heating as well as autoclaving significantly reduced the antinutritional factors. Protein effeciency ratio, true protein digestibility, biological value, net protein utilization, and utilizable protein were significantly improved by autoclaving as compared with dry heating. However, the values of true protein digestibility and net protein utilization of dry-heated samples were significantly higher than the raw samples. Keywords: Mucuna pruriens; chemical composition; amino acids; fatty acids; antrinutritional factors; heat treatments; biological evaluation
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