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Argan oil: Extraction, categories, chemical composition and health benefits

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  • University of Bisha - University of Manouba

Abstract

The Argan tree (Arganiaspinosa (L.) Skeels; Sapotaceae) is a slowgrowing tree exclusively endemic to the barren lands of southwest Morocco. The oil extracted from argan seed is almost exclusively produced in southwestern Morocco. It is reputed for its unique savor and its several pharmacological and cosmetic properties. The oil extraction requires a tedious multistep process. The first step is a careful fruit drying. This oil extraction requires a prolonged handmalaxing of an aqueous argan kernel dow. The extraction yield can reach 35% and more. The extraction has been improved by the use of electric screw-presses, which allows the discontinuation of the hand-malaxing step, resulting in as much as 60-percent extraction yield. Virgin edible argan oil is a main component of the Amazigh diet. It is prepared from slightly and carefully roasted kernels and it is coppercolored with a slight hazelnut taste. Health benefits of argan oil are attributed to its composition of unsaponiable fraction mainly rich in tocopherols. Argan oil has hepatoprotective, antiproliferative anti-diabetic properties and also cancer preventive potential. It is used in beauty and cosmetology since it has wound healer, anti-aging, anti-sebum, anti-acne and moisturizing properties.
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Argan oil: Extraction, categories, chemical composition and health benefits
( Book Chapter)
, ,
LR17ES03 Physiopathologie, Alimentation et Biomolécules (PAB), Institut Supérieur de Biotechnologie de Sidi Thabet
Biotechpole Sidi Thabet, Université de La Manouba, Sidi Thabet, 2020, Tunisia
Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Products, Faculty of Sciences and
Technology, University of Algarve, Gambelas, Faro, 8005139, Portugal
Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Bisha University, Balgarn PO BOX 60 Balgarn-Sabt Al Olaya, 61985, Saudi Arabia
Univ. Manouba, ISBST, Biotechpole Sidi Thabet, BVBGR-LR11ES31, Ariana, 2020, Tunisia
Abstract
The Argan tree (Arganiaspinosa (L.) Skeels; Sapotaceae) is a slowgrowing tree exclusively endemic to the barren lands
of southwest Morocco. The oil extracted from argan seed is almost exclusively produced in southwestern Morocco. It is
reputed for its unique savor and its several pharmacological and cosmetic properties. The oil extraction requires a
tedious multistep process. The first step is a careful fruit drying. This oil extraction requires a prolonged handmalaxing
of an aqueous argan kernel dow. The extraction yield can reach 35% and more. The extraction has been improved by
the use of electric screw-presses, which allows the discontinuation of the hand-malaxing step, resulting in as much as
60-percent extraction yield. Virgin edible argan oil is a main component of the Amazigh diet. It is prepared from
slightly and carefully roasted kernels and it is coppercolored with a slight hazelnut taste. Health benefits of argan oil
are attributed to its composition of unsaponiable fraction mainly rich in tocopherols. Argan oil has hepatoprotective,
antiproliferative anti-diabetic properties and also cancer preventive potential. It is used in beauty and cosmetology
since it has wound healer, anti-aging, anti-sebum, anti-acne and moisturizing properties. © 2018 Nova Science
Publishers, Inc.
SciVal Topic Prominence
Topic:
Prominence percentile: 79.579
Author keywords
Andiabetic effect Argan oil Cancer prevention Cardiovascular prevention Chemical composition
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Seed Oil: Production, Uses and Benefits
1 January 2018, Pages 175-188
Dhifi, W.aDa Graça Costa Miguel, M.bMnif, W.c,d  
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Argan oil
Guillaume, D. Charrouf, Z.
Physicochemical Characteristics,
Nutritional Properties, and
Health Benefits of Argan Oil: A
Review
El Abbassi, A. Khalid, N. Zbakh,
H.
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FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
SEED OIL
PRODUCTION, USES AND BENEFITS
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FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
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FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
SEED OIL
PRODUCTION, USES AND BENEFITS
NGUYEN KHANH DIEU HONG
EDITOR
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Copyright © 2018 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
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Additional color graphics may be available in the e-book version of this book.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Hong Nguyen Khanh, Dieu, editor.
Title: Seed oil : production, uses and benefits / editor, Hong Nguyen Khanh
Dieu (Department of Petrochemical-Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and
Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam).
Description: Hauppauge, New York : Nova Science Publisher's, Inc., 2018. | Series: Food science and technology |
Includes index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2018013605 (print) | LCCN 2018014949 (ebook) | ISBN
9781536135619 (ebook) | ISBN 9781536135602 (hardcover) | ISBN 9781536135619 (ebook)
Subjects: LCSH: Vegetable oils in human nutrition.
Classification: LCC QP144.O44 (ebook) | LCC QP144.O44 S45 2018 (print) | DDC 613.2/84--dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018013605
Published by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. † New York
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CONTENTS
Preface vii
Chapter 1 Moringa oleifera Seed Oil: Production, Uses and
Health Benefits 1
Silia Boukandoul, Susana Casal and Farid Zaidi
Chapter 2 Neem Seed Oil: Production, Uses and Benefits 29
Sunday A. Dialoke
Chapter 3 Utilization of Calophyllum inophyllum Seed Oil 111
Setiyo Gunawan, Hakun Wirawasista Aparamarta
and Yi-Hsu Ju
Chapter 4 Grape Seed Oil: Chemical Composition,
Biological Properties and Health Benefits 145
Sana Bellili, Sabrine Jazi, Soumaya ben Nasr,
Wissal Dhifi, Maria Alcinda Neves, Maria da
Graça Costa Miguel and Wissem Mnif
Chapter 5 Argan Oil: Extraction, Categories, Chemical
Composition and Health Benefits 175
Wissal Dhifi, Maria da Graça Costa Miguel
and Wissem Mnif
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Contents
vi
Chapter 6 Rubber Seed Oil: Properties, Uses and Benefits 189
Nguyen Khanh Dieu Hong, Nguyen Dang Toan,
Dinh Thi Ngo , Dao Sy Duc and Ta Ngoc Don
About the Editor 215
Index 217
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In: Seed Oil ISBN: 978-1-53613-560-2
Editor: Nguyen Khanh Dieu Hong © 2018 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Chapter 5
ARGAN OIL: EXTRACTION, CATEGORIES,
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
AND HEALTH BENEFITS
Wissal Dhifi1, Maria da Graça Costa Miguel2
and Wissem Mnif3,4,
1LR17ES03 Physiopathologie, Alimentation et Biomolécules (PAB),
Institut Supérieur de Biotechnologie de Sidi Thabet Biotechpole Sidi
Thabet, Sidi Thabet, 2020, Université de La Manouba, Tunisie
2Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Laboratory of Chemistry of
Natural Products, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of
Algarve, Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
3 Faculty of Sciences and Arts in Balgarn PO BOX 60 Balgarn- Sabt Al
Olaya 61985, Bisha University, Saudi Arabia
Corresponding author: Dr. Wissem Mnif, LR11-ES31 Laboratory of Biotechnology and
Valorisation of Bio-GeoRessources, Higher Institute of Biotechnology of Sidi Thabet,
BiotechPole of Sidi Thabet, 2020, Universiy of Manouba, Tunisia. Tel: + (216) 98 94 73 71.
E-mail: w_mnif@yahoo.fr.
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Wissal Dhifi, Maria da Graça Costa Miguel and Wissem Mnif
176
4Univ. Manouba, ISBST, BVBGR-LR11ES31, Biotechpole Sidi
Thabet, 2020, Ariana, Tunisia
ABSTRACT
The Argan tree (Arganiaspinosa (L.) Skeels; Sapotaceae) is a slow-
growing tree exclusively endemic to the barren lands of southwest
Morocco. The oil extracted from argan seed is almost exclusively
produced in southwestern Morocco. It is reputed for its unique savor and
its several pharmacological and cosmetic properties.
The oil extraction requires a tedious multistep process. The first step
is a careful fruit drying. This oil extraction requires a prolonged hand-
malaxing of an aqueous argan kernel dow. The extraction yield can reach
35% and more. The extraction has been improved by the use of electric
screw-presses, which allows the discontinuation of the hand-malaxing
step, resulting in as much as 60-percent extraction yield.
Virgin edible argan oil is a main component of the Amazigh diet. It
is prepared from slightly and carefully roasted kernels and it is copper-
colored with a slight hazelnut taste. Health benefits of argan oil are
attributed to its composition of unsaponiable fraction mainly rich in
tocopherols. Argan oil has hepatoprotective, antiproliferative anti-diabetic
properties and also cancer preventive potential. It is used in beauty and
cosmetology since it has wound healer, anti-aging, anti-sebum, anti-acne
and moisturizing properties.
Keywords: argan oil, chemical composition, cardiovascular prevention,
cancer prevention, andiabetic effect
1. INTRODUCTION
The argan tree [Arganiaspinosa (L.) Skeels; Sapotaceae] is an 80-
million-year-old relic tree species. The argan forest covers about 8,280
km2, mostly in the dry lowlands of the Souss valley and on the sunny
mountain spurs of the Anti-Atlas. The argan tree grows very slowly. It
takes fifteen years to mature. This tree can live for 150 years, and
sometimes more than 200 years, and because of its deep root system, it can
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survive long periods of drought (Kenny et al., 2007; Morton et al., 1987). It
constitutes the major source of Rural Amazigh families. Their life of any
Amazigh family is strongly associated with the argan tree (Kenny et al.,
2007; Benzyane et al., 1999). The oleaginous fruits of the argan tree
furnish edible and marketable oil known as “argan oil”, which provides up
to 25% of the daily lipid diet for the local population and 9% of the annual
oil production in Morocco (Benzyane et al., 1999).
Argan oil has rapidly emerged as the only product able to bring more
wealth to the Berber population (Charrouf et al., 2008), the traditional
argan forest dwellers, because of its unique dietary and physiological
properties (Charrouf and Guillaume, 1999; Charrouf and Guillaume,
2008). Thus, prospects for better economic return have encouraged
dwellers to modernize argan oil production methods for the export market.
2. ARGAN OIL EXTRACTION
The extraction of argan oil is complex and influences significantly its
physicochemical composition as well as its nutritional value and sensorial
properties (Hilali et al., 2005). At present, two methods are used to extract
argan oil for nutritional purposes: the traditional method (hand pressed)
and a semi-industrial method (mechanical cold pressed) (Marfil et al.,
2008). For many years, argan oil has been prepared exclusively by Berber
women by a traditional multistep process (Charrouf et al., 2002). Some
families collect up to six tons per season, others just a few hundred
kilograms. The collect of fallen ripe fruit is done between May and August.
Then the fruit is sun-dried for a few days, and the dried peel is removed
manually to give argan nuts. To produce 60 kilograms of argan nuts
approximately 100 kilograms of dried-fruit and 15 hours are needed. Argan
nuts are then crushed between two stones, and the white kernels are
collected. 6.5 kilograms of kernels are collected from 60 kilograms of
argan nuts. To extract edible argan oil, kernels have to be roasted for a few
minutes. It is worthy to notice that overheating should be avoided since it
has a negative impact on the aroma and the taste of the oil. The roasted
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kernels are subsequently crushed using a millstone, thus giving a brownish
viscous liquid that is mixed with water. This dough is hand-malaxed for
several minutes, and it slowly becomes solid and releases an emulsion
from which the argan oil is finally decanted (Matthaus et al., 2010).
The extraction residue or “press-cake” is dark-brown to black and
generally, the hand-made extraction technique is very slow. In fact, ten
hours are necessary for the production of one liter of oil. The raw oil is
filtered and filled into bottles. Salt is added for its preservation (Charrouf
and Guillaume, 1999).The mechanical extraction produces edible oil from
roasted kernels, and oil for cosmetics and food supplements from
unroasted kernels. The oil produced by hand-press extraction is
characterized by a poor shelf-life (Charrouf and Guillaume, 1999). In the
mechanical technique, kernel roasting is achieved in a rotating oven using
gas burners. The introduction of the mechanical technique by several
women cooperatives and industrial units improved not only the oil yield
but also its quality. Thanks to the mechanical technique, the extraction
time was significantly reduced (Charrouf and Guillaume, 1999). Despite
all these advantages, the full process still remains slow and requires huge
quantities of kernels. This justifies the expensive cost of argan oil
(Charrouf et al., 2008).The mechanical extraction of argan oil can be
classified in two means as follows:
Press extraction: The mechanical press has been recently
introduced to extract argan oil. In this technique, mixing of the
dough and water is unnecessary and the dough can be directly
pressed. The oil yield is of about 43%. Only two hours are needed
to get one liter of oil.
Solvent extraction: This technique is used for industrial or
laboratory purposes (Hatinguais et al., 1983). One or two cycles of
extraction are required. According to Charrouf (1984), the
extraction yield is of 50 to 55%. Despite this advantage, this type
of extraction furnishes an oil with organoleptic defaults compared
to the traditional or press extraction according to Charrouf and
Guillaume (1999). Since the oil produced by solvent extraction is
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reserved for cosmetic uses, additives like tocopherols and
polyphenols are incorporated.
3. ARGAN OIL CATEGORIES
Argan oils available on the market can be classified into two
categories: cosmetic or edible oils. Both are virgin oils (cold-press). It is
worthy to mention that cosmetic grade argan oil is prepared from non-
roasted kernels whereas edible one is extracted by pressing slightly roasted
kernels. This step dramatically modifies the taste of the edible oil and is
responsible for its unique hazelnut taste and flavor. Traditionally, edible
argan oil is eaten on bread. It is exploited as the principle fat source used
for food preparation in the Amazigh diet and (Charrouf and Guillaume,
2010). Edible argan oil is also the main ingredient in Amlou, a Moroccan
culinary specialty.
Some years ago cosmetic argan oil (INCI name: Argania Spinoza
kernel oil) was sometimes extracted using volatile and lipophilic organic
solvents (mostly hexane).Currently, such method is abandoned. Since it is
extracted from non-roasted kernels, cosmetic argan oil is gold colored
whereas edible argan oil is copper colored. Moreover, cosmetic argan oil is
a non-fragrant oil. Its chemical composition is slightly different from that
of edible argan oil (Hilali et al., 2005). Chemical investigation of the
volatiles of edible and cosmetic argan oils has evidenced composition
differences (Charrouf et al., 2006).
4. ARGAN OIL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
Virgin argan oil of edible or beauty grade is mainly composed of acyl
glycerides (99%). This saponifiable fraction is mainly composed of
triglycerides (TG) according to Charrouf and Guillaume (1999). The
remaining fraction consists of the unsaponifiable matter, accounting for 1%
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180
of the whole oil. The unsaponifiable fraction is composed of carotenes,
tocopherols, triterpene alcohols, sterols, and xanthophylls (Chrarouf and
Guillaume, 1999). The nutritional benefits of edible argan oil are due to its
chemical composition. This oil is composed of upto 80%of unsaturated FA
(18%) and of saturated FA (14%) as indicated in table 1. The major Fatty
acids (FA) of argan oil are oleic C18: 1 and linoleic acid C18: 2 whose
respective amounts are of 43-49% and 29-36% (Rahmani, 2005). Oleic
acid is a monounsaturated FA of the omega-9 family, while linoleic acid is
a polyunsaturated fatty acid belonging to the omega-6 family. Palmitic and
stearic acids are saturated fatty acids found at concentrations of 11-15
percent and 4-7 percent, respectively (Rahmani, 2005).
Table 1. Chemical composition of argan oil
(Guillaume and Charrouf, 2013)
Argan oil is particularly rich in tocopherols, which are reputed as
powerful antioxidants. Tocopherol content in argan oil can be up to 900
mg/ kg and is never below 600 mg/kg. Argan oil low content in linolenic
acid and high content in tocopherol are likely to be responsible for its good
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181
stability (Guillaume and Charrouf, 2013). Argan oil phospholipids may
participate in its preservation (Gharby et al., 2012). The amount of
vitamin-E-active compounds in mechanically extracted argan oil generally
varies from 400 to 775 mg/kg (Hilali et al., 2005) and is mainly composed
of -tocopherol (Charrouf& Guillaume, 2007). According to Matthäus et
al., (2010), argan oils contains approximately the same concentration of
vitamin-E-active compounds after 20 weeks of storage. Furthermore, argan
oil includes phenols such as vanillic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid,
tyrosol, catechol, resorcinol, (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin (Charrouf and
Guillaume, 2007; Marfil et al., 2018).
Edible argan oil is also a rich source of Coenzyme Q10 and melatonin,
two antioxidant molecules, but it does not seem to contain Coenzyme Q9.
Only virgin soybean oil shows higher CoQ10 and melatonin levels than
virgin argan oil (Venegas et al., 2011). Argan oil contains schottenol and
spin sterol which are two sterols reputed for their anticancer properties
(Arisawa et al., 1985; Villaseñor and Domingo, 2000). It also contains
Campesterol at a low concentration close to 0.3% (Hilali et al., 2005).
5. HEALTH BENEFITS OF ARGAN OIL
Argan oil has several uses in a multiplicity of sectors (figure 1). Since
argan oil is processed using a cold press, it retains a much larger amount of
its nutritive components than oils pressed using a heated process. Thus, the
particular chemical composition of argan oil confers to its significant
health benefits. The high percentage of unsaturated FA and the important
amount of tocopherols of argan oil are behind some of its pharmacological
properties (Charrouf and Guillaume, 2008).
5.1. Cardiovascular Prevention
Hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of argan oil have been
demonstrated in rats. Blood lipoproteins were significantly due to the
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182
balanced composition of argan oil FA (Berrougui et al., 2003).
Furthermore, argan oil is a source of powerful antioxidants which prevent
cardiovascular diseases by inhibiting LDL-oxidation and enhancing
reverse cholesterol transport (Berrougui et al., 2006). A daily intake of 25g
of argan oil during 3 weeks resulted in a significant increase in high-
density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I as well as a
decrease in triglycerides (Derouiche et al., 2005). This is in concordance
with results of Drissi et al., (2004) who reported that argan oil consumers
have lower levels of plasma LDL and cholesterol compared with the non-
consumers. In addition, the triglycerides content of argan oil may have too
cholesterol-lowering effects (Derouiche et al., 2005).
Figure 1. Therapeutic and cosmetic uses of argan oil (Guillaume and Charrouf, 2011).
The argan oil contains linoleic acid at a small amount. This FA
produces prostaglandins, which play key role in immune system and
circulation functions (Perdomo et al., 2011). Consumption of linoleic acid
yields in an increased production of prostaglandins, which are beneficial
for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and cardio vascular problems
(Semerano et al., 2011).
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183
5.2. Cancer Prevention
Due to the similarity in the composition between olive and argan oils,
an anti-proliferative effect has been claimed for argan oil (Khallouki et al.,
2003). Argan oil is particularly rich in -tocopherol which is considered as
a potent cancer chemo-preventive agent, more active than α-tocopherol
(Gao et al., 2002; Huang et al., 2003).
Bennani (2009) reported that argan oil polyphenols exert a dose-
dependent anti-proliferative action on two human epithelial cell lines PC3
and DPC1 cell lines. Furthermore, squalene in argan oil may act as
protective against skin cancer (Newmark, 1997) and enhances excretion of
xenobiotics in rats and mice (Kamimura et al., 1992).
5.3. Andiabetic Effect
According to Bnouham et al., (2008), argan oil reduced significantly
the amount of absorbed glucose in perfused jejunum segment (2.5mL/Kg).
Bellahcen et al., (2012) confirmed the antidiabetic effect of virgin argan
oil. They reported a significant reduction of blood glucose and an
important increase of hepatic glycogen level compared with the untreated
rats diabetic group (Bellahcen et al., 2012). Further investigations should
be done to explore the antidiabetic effect of argan oil in humans.
CONCLUSION
Argan constitutes a very precious bio-resource specific of the Maghreb
and particularly of Morocco. It gives an oil with several health benefits and
is valorized in cosmetic industry. Despite its multiple nutritional virtues,
the consumption of argan oil remains limited. It should be encouraged.
Further researches and investigations should be conducted to explore its
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184
properties in the human body and to understand its protective mechanisms
against many diseases.
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... При суммарном содержании токоферолов в аргановом масле до 107 мг/100 г (Aithammou, 2019), 81-92 % от этой суммы приходится на долю γ-токоферола (64-81 мг/100 г), известного своей ролью в профилактике окислительного стресса и сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний (El Monfalouti, 2010), и 6-13 % (или, соответственно, 5-11 мг/100 г) -на долю δ-токоферола (Dhifi, 2018;. Наличие β-токоферола анализ арганового масла, как правило, не показывает. ...
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The article provides an overview of the world experience in obtaining and food use of the oil of Argania spinosa. The relationship between technological methods of oil extraction and purification and the composition of its biologically active components: polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, phenolic compounds is considered. The main directions of the usage of argan oil in dietary nutrition are analyzed and the results of international clinical studies based on the inclusion of argan oil in diet therapy for metabolic disorders and psycho-neurological disorders of various nature are summarized. The effectiveness of argan oil components in gene expression and remodulation of steroid and hormone metabolism has been noted. It has been shown that, with regular inclusion in the diet, the components of argan oil provide choleretic, cardio-, hepato- and chemoprotective effects, exhibit neuroprotective effects in relation to the causes of cognitive impairments and neuropsychiatric disorders. Along with the high nutritional value of argan oil, the geographical area of growth of Argania spinosa is very limited, the species does not lend itself well to introduction, which is the leading reason for the overestimated market value of the oil, its falsification and the limited circle of real consumers. In this regard, it is advisable to search for technological solutions that make it possible to include argan oil in the diet of a larger number of consumers and, at the same time, make the very idea of falsifying this product senseless. Such a solution, according to the authors of the article, can be achieved by scientifically grounded combination of argan oil with other edible vegetable oils that have a different composition of fatty acids and associated biologically active components. Promising directions for blending vegetable oils are proposed.
... The chitosan coating showed a color change of ~1.1 compared with uncoated PLA, due to the susceptibility of the polysaccharide chain to UV degradation. The color change was much higher (~1.5) for the AVO-loaded chitosan coating, due to the UV sensible double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids, which are in high amounts (up to 80%) in argan oils [62]. On the other hand, it seemed that the phenolic functional groups in clove essential oil could diminish the UV effect; the color change compared with the uncoated PLA was of 0.96, smaller that for the chitosan coating without embedded oil. ...
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Here we introduce a new method aiming the immobilization of bioactive principles onto polymeric substrates, combining a surface activation and emulsion entrapment approach. Natural products with antimicrobial/antioxidant properties (essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum—clove and vegetal oil from Argania spinosa L—argan) were stabilized in emulsions with chitosan, a natural biodegradable polymer that has antimicrobial activity. The emulsions were laid on poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a synthetic biodegradable plastic from renewable resources, which was previously activated by plasma treatment. Bioactive materials were obtained, with low permeability for oxygen, high radical scavenging activity and strong inhibition of growth for Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli bacteria. Clove oil was better dispersed in a more stable emulsion (no separation after six months) compared with argan oil. This leads to a compact and finely structured coating, with better overall properties. While both clove and argan oils are highly hydrophobic, the coatings showed increased hydrophilicity, especially for argan, due to preferential interactions with different functional groups in chitosan. The PLA films coated with oil-loaded chitosan showed promising results in retarding the food spoilage of meat, and especially cheese. Argan, and in particular, clove oil offered good UV protection, suitable for sterilization purposes. Therefore, using the emulsion stabilization of bioactive principles and immobilization onto plasma activated polymeric surfaces we obtained a bioactive material that combines the physical properties and the biodegradability of PLA with the antibacterial activity of chitosan and the antioxidant function of vegetal oils. This prevents microbial growth and food oxidation and could open new perspectives in the field of food packaging materials.
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Climatic conditions have a significant impact on the chemical composition of grapes and grape seeds. This fact is also relevant for the proposed “Mamaia” grape variety, which was developed by RCVE Murfatlar. This variety has higher production potential in comparison with other traditional varieties and produces a high quality red wine. The paper aims to correlate the climatic conditions with variation in fatty acid profile (FAP) of the oil extracted from grape seeds of this “Mamaia” variety. The samples were collected and analyzed over a 4 years-period. To establish the FAP, NMR method was used, results being provided in short time and without prior sample processing. NMR obtained results were confirmed by GC-MS standard method. The ratio unsaturated/saturated fatty acid was discussed in connection with climatic conditions.
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