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España y Colombia ante la migración de retorno voluntario: un análisis de las iniciativas políticas desde la perspectiva transnacional

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Colombia mantuvo por años una gestión separada de los flujos migratorios de ingreso y salida del país, encargando a entidades diferentes la definición e implementación de sus políticas en dicha materia, adoptando medidas parciales y poco coherentes entre sí. Con el documento CONPES 3603 de 2009 el Estado aprueba la Política Integral Migratoria (PIM) en la que se definen sistemáticamente los lineamientos, estrategias y acciones de intervención para los colombianos en el exterior y para los extranjeros en el país. En este artículo se analiza el proceso mediante el cual el Estado arribó a su formulación, la importancia del derecho y del escenario internacional, y también, de los procesos de integración a nivel regional. Se analiza la PIM y los diversos instrumentos normativos que derivan de ella, que constituyen la base de la actual política migratoria
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This article examines the demographic dimension of foreign emigration, return to country of birth and reemigration of Latin Americans from Spain during 2002-2012. The research is based on registry sources in Spain and on data from the 2010 census round in the destination countries. It describes official immigrant return aid programmes implemented in Spain and some countries of Latin America. The complementarity of the information from these three sources enabled us to directly assess the flow of returnees to their countries of birth. This trend has gathered momentum as the economic crisis in Spain deepened, but it varies in intensity from one group of Latin American immigrants to another. The article also provides an indirect estimate of emigration to third countries. This kind of international mobility is a response on the part of Latin American immigrants who, having achieved legal status in Spain, can move virtually without restrictions in the labour markets of other European countries where the financial crisis has not been as severe. The goals of the study described in this paper were to reflect on the incidence of Spanish sources in the measurement of foreign emigration, estimate the intensity and demographic structure of the various forms of departure from Spain and map the geographical distribution of these movements according to country of birth
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This volume addresses the topic of circular migration with regard to its multiple dimensions and human, political and civil rights implications from a global perspective. It combines theoretical and empirical studies and presents different case studies illustrating circular migration patterns and policies in different world regions. Circular migration processes – understood as the back-and-forth movement of people between countries and regions- form part of the changing nature of migration movements across the world at the beginning of the 21st century. Over the past decades, international, regional and internal migration flows have shown a quantitative increase and have changed in scope, context, origin and nature. Migration projects are every time more open-ended, multi-directional and flexible and often include some type of circularity. Instead of mere “push-pull-scenarios”, people migrate for many different reasons, including personal, family, professional, academic or political ones. In the 21st century migration journeys and the reasons underlying them are multiple and more diverse than ever before.