Article

Awe in Nature Heals: Evidence From Military Veterans, At-Risk Youth, and College Students

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Abstract

The power of nature to both heal and inspire awe has been noted by many great thinkers. However, no study has examined how the impact of nature on well-being and stress-related symptoms is explained by experiences of awe. In the present investigation, we examine this process in studies of extraordinary and everyday nature experiences. In Study 1, awe experienced by military veterans and youth from underserved communities while whitewater rafting, above and beyond all the other positive emotions measured, predicted changes in well-being and stress-related symptoms one week later. In Study 2, the nature experiences that undergraduate students had during their everyday lives led to more awe, which mediated the effect of nature experience on improvements in well-being. We discuss how accounting for people’s emotional experiences during outdoors activities can increase our understanding of how nature impacts people’s well-being.

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... Natural outdoor activities put tourists in touch with nature and induce physical relaxation, which then triggers positive, subjective psychological feelings . In other words, people often visit natural attractions because of the perceived healing power of nature, which is defined in this study as the positive effect of nature-based tourism experience on people's SWB (Anderson et al., 2018). In essence, the improvement of SWB exemplifies the notion of nature's healing power. ...
... Although the relationship between tourist experiences and SWB has been recognized (Su et al., 2016), scant attention has been paid to exploring the underlying emotional mechanism of this effect. Admittedly, the "natural environment where many tourism activities take place" (Ramkissoon et al., 2017, p. 1) could enhance SWB by influencing tourists' emotions (Anderson et al., 2018). During this process, nature's positive influence on tourists' psychological feelings and evaluations can be viewed as the healing power of nature, which is reflected in the fact that nature is eudaemonia-oriented and improves the psychological conditions of tourists (Ma et al., 2021). ...
... Other studies have also found that nature can inspire awe perception in individuals. Anderson et al. (2018) found that in a day-to-day context, the connection between awe and the natural experience was significantly stronger compared with five other positive emotions (e.g., amusement, contentment, gratitude, joy, and pride). Correspondingly, in the tourism field, natural and ecological phenomena and the natural environment have also been found to be elicitors of tourists' emotional responses of awe (Davis & Gatersleben, 2013;Keltner & Haidt, 2003;Pearce et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Nature has healing powers that provide physical and mental benefits to tourists and reduce their anxiety related to COVID-19. However, few empirical studies have examined the emotional mechanism that induces tourists to feel satisfied with, rather than anxious about, their lives. We explain the underlying impact mechanism that connects nature and subjective well-being in a natural heritage context by analyzing data collected from a sample of 534 tourists in Wulingyuan (south-central China). Our study revealed interesting and meaningful findings: (a) nature has healing powers that directly and indirectly (via awe and place attachment) influence tourists' subjective well-being; (b) tourists with a relatively low level of positive emotions who become attached to a destination, subsequently experience a greater degree of healing; and (c) there are significant gender differences concerning the healing powers of nature among tourists. These findings contribute to well-being research by highlighting the underlying emotional mechanism whereby nature influences tourists' subjective well-being. The paper also demonstrates the moderating effects of positive emotions and gender in the proposed model, which offers valuable practical insights for governments in tourist destinations.
... Positive emotions are known to be a reliable determinant of elevated well-being (Fredrickson, 2001;Lyubomirsky et al., 2005). Notably, studies show that positive emotions counteract the physiological effects of stressful experiences (Fredrickson & Levenson, 1998), improve psychological functioning in experiences of bereavement (Bonanno & Keltner, 1997;Keltner & Bonanno, 1997), and improve well-being outcomes in quotidian and stressful contexts (Anderson et al., 2018;Fredrickson et al., 2003). Positive emotions enhance well-being through several processes, including shifts in autonomic nervous system response (see Kreibig, 2010), in patterns of thought (Fredrickson, 2001), and in the social cues these states signal to others, which encourage greater social engagement (Keltner & Kring, 1998;Van Kleef, 2009;Keltner & Shiota, 2021). ...
... Second, in keeping with the coping literature, we predicted that daily adaptive coping would be associated with daily positive emotionality (Studies 1 and 2). Third, in keeping with studies of the effects of positive emotions (Anderson et al., 2018;Fredrickson, 2001;Fredrickson et al., 2003;Lyubomirsky et al., 2005), we predicted that daily positive emotionality would be associated with better daily well-being (Studies 1 and 2) and long-term well-being (Study 2). Fourth, we hypothesized that positive emotions would mediate the effect of adaptive coping on daily well-being (Studies 1 and 2), and long-term well-being (Study 2). ...
... Positive Emotionality. Guided by previous daily diary approaches (Anderson et al., 2018;Impett et al., 2012;Srivastava et al., 2009) and recent studies of positive emotion (Cowen & Keltner, 2017;Shiota et al., 2017), positive emotions were assessed with single items composed of synonym clusters, in which participants rated how much of each of eight positive emotions they experienced each day on scale from 0 (not at all) to 10 (completely): Amusement (amused/having fun/laughing; M across diary = 6.35, SD = 2.38), Awe (awe/amazed/wonder; M across diary = 4.78, SD = 2.50), Compassion (compassionate/sympathetic/concern for others; M across diary = 5.87, SD = 2.56), Contentment (content/ relaxed/peaceful; M across diary = 6.63, ...
Article
In the present article, we use daily diary methodology to investigate how coping influences well-being via the engagement of positive emotions in immigrant farmworkers and university students from diverse ethnic backgrounds. In Study 1, in a sample of Latinx immigrant farmworkers (N = 76), we found that the daily use of adaptive coping strategies predicted greater daily well-being, and that this relationship was accounted for by greater daily experiences of positive emotions. In Study 2, in a sample of college students from Latinx, Asian, and European American backgrounds (N = 336), we replicated the mediating effect of positive emotionality on the effect of adaptive coping on daily well-being and extended these findings to an examination of longitudinal well-being. This work provides evidence of one mechanism by which coping affects well-being and is one of the first studies of these dynamics in Latinx samples. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... This aspect of timelessness can perhaps be an antecedent to a perception of expanded time availability which has been shown to mediate the relationship between awe and momentary life satisfaction (Rudd et al., 2012). Anderson et al. (2018) also found awe to positively mediate the effect of nature experiences on daily life satisfaction and improved well-being at follow-up. In parallel, Hepper et al. (2021) demonstrate that nostalgia helps maintain well-being in the face of limited time perspectives and is an important resource to cope with distress (Sedikides & Wildschut, 2016). ...
... The reduced sample size of coastal residents limited the power of the statistical test to detect small effects (Wilson Van Voorhis & Morgan, 2007). Additionally, perhaps no difference was revealed as green spaces potentially have the capacity to trigger awe and nostalgia as well (Anderson et al., 2018). A stronger contrast might have been found if we could have compared the emotions at the coast with the emotions in urban spaces. ...
... Interestingly, a negative correlation (r = −.32) was found between awe felt at the coast and boredom, such that the higher the frequency of feeling awe, the lower the experience of boredom. Although awe triggered by nature has been found to improve mood (Joye & Bolderdijk, 2015) and to enhance life satisfaction (Anderson et al., 2018), it has yet to be linked with a reduction in boredom. Nonetheless, boredom is shown to be associated with a lack of meaning in life (Fahlman et al., 2009), while positive awe experiences have been shown to increase meaning in life through happiness (Rivera et al., 2020). ...
Article
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There is increasing evidence that blue spaces, particularly coastal environments, are beneficial for well-being. During the first-wave lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic in Belgium, access to the coast was restricted due to restraint in circulation. Making use of this unique opportunity, this study investigated whether access and visits to the coast were positively associated with well-being by using a quasi-experimental design. The emotions of awe and nostalgia were studied as potential mediators between coastal visits and well-being. A total of 687 Flemish adults took part in an online survey that was launched end of April until beginning of June 2020. After controlling for covariates, results showed that access to the coast, but not visit frequency, was positively associated with well-being. More specifically, coastal residents reported less boredom and worry, and more happiness than inland residents. Awe and nostalgia were not significantly associated with coastal visits, but awe was negatively correlated with boredom. The study suggests a potential buffer effect of residential proximity to the coast against negative psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, supporting the notion that the coast has a positive impact on well-being.
... Lastly, theme four revealed that participants were choosing to own and embed these aspects into their identity and life (Naor & Mayseless, 2019). Davis (2012) illustrated that peak experiences and awe are frequently triggered through direct contact with nature, and that such aweinspiring moments may decrease post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, as argued by Anderson et al (2018). Such moments also create greater humility (Stellar et al., 2018), which is an emotion often mentioned in connection with wilderness experiences (Clayton et al., 2017). ...
... This triggered physiological effects such as goosebumps in two coresearchers, the sensation of chills and a change in heart rate, which supports the findings by Keltner and Haidt (2003). Anderson et al. (2018) demonstrated that awe in nature can heal stress-related symptoms. While all co-researchers found tranquillity, none of them mentioned it as a direct link to awe. ...
Article
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This paper presents core findings of the explorative research study on individuals’ living experiences in nature using Moustakas’ (1990) qualitative method of heuristic inquiry. One-on-one interviews were conducted with six co-researchers between the ages of 29–59, lasting between 75–105 minutes, from which several shared themes emerged. Co-researchers revealed how personal difficulties in their lives gave rise to a desire to go into nature to find healing. Nature was deemed to be non-judgemental and provide space for feelings to surface, be acknowledged and integrated, creating the possibility for healing and spiritual growth. Nature was perceived as healer and teacher, providing the opportunity to discover a sense of oneness and connection with nature and the self. This also promoted some degree of altruism and an increase in the intrinsic aspirations of the co-researchers. There was a consensus that language cannot adequately express nature and transformational experiences. Understanding the dichotomy of human and nature as separate appears to be a key step in the journey, resulting in the realisation of our commonality and connection. Results indicate that human-nature connection is essential and intrinsic in human beings and the research findings illustrate the potential psychological, physiological, physical, and spiritual benefits.
... of awe. Awe has been found to increase positive mood, promote prosociality, induce humility, expand time perception, decrease materialism, improve subjective well-being and life satisfaction, and enhance the joy and prosocial emotions of the elderly (e.g., Anderson et al., 2018;Bai et al., 2021;Jiang et al., 2018;Jiang & Sedikides, 2021;Joye & Bolderdijk, 2015;Piff et al., 2015;Rudd et al., 2012;Stellar et al., 2017;Sturm et al., 2020). In addition, awe could act as a coping strategy for protecting people from negative incidents such as daily stress and uncertain waiting periods (Bai et al., 2021;Koh et al., 2019;Rankin et al., 2020). ...
... Our research has practical implications. Awe has a wide range of psychological benefits, such as improving mental health, well-being, and prosociality (e.g., Anderson et al., 2018;Bai et al., 2021;Joye & Bolderdijk, 2015). Emerging research has studied awe as a buffer with which to cope with negative incidents (e.g., Bai et al., 2021;Koh et al., 2019;Rankin et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Research on awe and meaning in life (MIL) is rare. In the current research, we conducted a pre-registered study to examine how awe influences MIL from the perspective of the tripartite model of MIL as well as the construction and detection routes of deriving meaning. The results showed that awe increased MIL via motivating purpose pursuit but decreased MIL by reducing the sense of significance. Overall, awe increased MIL, which was driven mainly by the mediating effect of purpose pursuit. Our findings suggest that awe is not a purely positive emotion, and it affects MIL in a complex way. The implications were discussed.
... Awe, and particularly awe experienced as a result of exposure to natural wonders or landscapes, has been repeatedly linked to stress relief, be it pathological (e.g., [3]), or due to simple, everyday stressors (e.g., [41,47]). This exposure to awesome nature can take the form of actual, in vivo exposure (e.g., [3]), or exposure via images or video (e.g., [47]), as these have both been shown to be effective. ...
... Awe, and particularly awe experienced as a result of exposure to natural wonders or landscapes, has been repeatedly linked to stress relief, be it pathological (e.g., [3]), or due to simple, everyday stressors (e.g., [41,47]). This exposure to awesome nature can take the form of actual, in vivo exposure (e.g., [3]), or exposure via images or video (e.g., [47]), as these have both been shown to be effective. ...
Preprint
When people have the freedom to create and post content on the internet, particularly anonymously, they do not always respect the rules and regulations of the websites on which they post, leaving other unsuspecting users vulnerable to sexism, racism, threats, and other unacceptable content in their daily cyberspace diet. However, content moderators witness the worst of humanity on a daily basis in place of the average netizen. This takes its toll on moderators, causing stress, fatigue, and emotional distress akin to the symptomology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The goal of the present study was to explore whether adding positive stimuli to breaktimes-images of baby animals or beautiful, aweinspiring landscapes-could help reduce the negative side-effects of being a content moderator. To test this, we had over 300 experienced content moderators read and decide whether 200 fake text-based social media posts were acceptable or not for public consumption. Although we set out to test positive emotional stimulation, however, we actually found that it is the cumulative nature of the negative emotions that likely negates most of the effects of the intervention: the longer the person had practiced content moderation, the stronger their negative experience. Connections to compassion fatigue and how best to spend work breaks as a content moderator are discussed.
... However, studies focusing on awe emanating from natural environments (Anderson et al., 2018;Ballew & Omoto, 2018;Davis & Gatersteben, 2014;Keltner & Haidt, 2003;Lu et al., 2017;Piff et al., 2015;Shiota et al., 2007;Stellar et al., 2017) do not always examine post-consumption behaviors related to satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Thus, there is little understanding of the possible beneficial psychological and emotional effects of encounters with night sky on tourist post-consumption behaviors. ...
... Recent research on awe primarily relates it to a positive emotional state (Anderson et al., 2018;Gottieb et al., 2018;Guan et al., 2018;Stellar et al., 2017;Wang et al., 2021;Wang & Lyu, 2019). Positive emotions emanating from tourism experiences have direct effects on behavioral intentions (Erul et al., 2020;Prayag et al., 2013). ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to ascertain the effect of awe on tourist behavioral intentions for astrotourism destinations. Awe is theorized as a multi-dimensional concept with both cognitive and affective elements. A behavioral model depicting the relationships among awe, tourist satisfaction and behavioral intentions is proposed and examined among 304 tourists to the Dark Sky Party Alqueva in Portugal. Using partial-least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), the results indicate that awe directly affects tourist satisfaction and indirectly affects behavioral intentions when mediated by tourist satisfaction. Theoretical and managerial implications are presented.
... This greater perception of available time was also linked to higher levels of life satisfaction; perhaps because this allows us to savour the present moment rather than feeling rushed to get things done (Rudd et al., 2012). On top of this, the experience of awe can help to alleviate stress and anxiety and promote positive feelings when individuals are experiencing uncertainty (Anderson, Monroy, & Keltner, 2018;Rankin, Andrews, & Sweeny, 2019). Positively valanced awe experiences have also been shown to increase meaning in life (Rivera, Vess, Hicks, & Routledge, 2019). ...
Preprint
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The achievement of sustainable prosperity requires the enhancement of human wellbeing alongside increased care for the environment. In recent years, much has been written on the role of different mental states and their potential to influence our way of thinking and, perhaps more importantly, the way we act. In this working paper, we explore the emerging potential of a type of mental state known as Self-Transcendent Experiences (STEs) to deliver beneficial effects on human wellbeing and sustainable attitudes and behaviours. Self-transcendent experiences can be facilitated by experiences of flow, awe and meditation, as well as psychedelic experiences. Some of these experiences can occur naturally, through sometimes unexpected encounters with nature or during immersion in every-day activities that one intrinsically enjoys, as well as through more intentional practices such as meditation or the use of psychedelics. We demonstrate how each of the four alternative types of STEs share some similar neurological underpinnings and review their links to improvements in human wellbeing and sustainable attitudes and behaviours. We also highlight potential risks across the different varieties of STEs and consider factors that need to be considered if they are to be employed as a practical means of supporting sustainable prosperity.
... Following the publication of Keltner and Haidt's (2003) seminal paper, numerous studies have linked awe with higher human wellbeing. For example, awe has been associated with greater levels of life satisfaction (Rudd et al., 2012;Krause and Hayward, 2015), more positive emotions (Anderson et al., 2018;Rankin et al., 2019), and increases in meaning in life (Rivera et al., 2019). Awe might also help to moderate the effects of stress on the body (Chen and Mongrain, 2020) in that it is associated with increased activation of the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) (Chirico et al., 2017) and reduced activation of the sympathetic branch of the ANS (Shiota et al., 2011). ...
Article
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In recent years, much has been written on the role of different mental states and their potential to influence our way of thinking and, perhaps more importantly, the way we act. With the recent acceleration of environmental and mental health issues, alongside the limited effectiveness of existing interventions, an exploration of new approaches to deliver transformative change is required. We therefore explore the emerging potential of a type of mental state known as self-transcendent experiences (STEs) as a driver of ecological wellbeing. We focus on four types of STEs: those facilitated by experiences of flow, awe, and mindfulness, as well as by psychedelic-induced experiences. Some of these experiences can occur naturally, through sometimes unexpected encounters with nature or during immersion in everyday activities that one intrinsically enjoys, as well as through more intentional practices such as meditation or the administration of psychedelics in controlled, legal settings. We explore the evidence base linking each of the four types of STE to ecological wellbeing before proposing potential hypotheses to be tested to understand why STEs can have such beneficial effects. We end by looking at the factors that might need to be considered if STEs are going to be practically implemented as a means of achieving ecological wellbeing.
... The videos were selected based on previous studies of categories that have been shown to elicit awe. These are represented across the 10 videos and include accomplishments, art, music, nature, religious and spiritual moments, space, and social interactions (Allen, 2018;Anderson et al., 2018;Pilgrim et al., 2017;Shiota et al., 2007;Thompson, 2022a). ...
Article
Full-text available
Awe is a complex emotion often associated with experiencing multiple other positive emotions during a captivating and immersive experience. Engaging in awe experiences contributes to enhancing an individual’s personal resilience and well- being. Moreover, the benefits of experiencing awe transcend the individual, as it has been described as a self-transcendent emotion provoking concern beyond the self. Using an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) methodology, this exploratory paper evaluates the impact of The Awe Project, an online resilience and well-being program that can be accessed on mobile devices, on a specific cohort of participants. Data analysis consisted of examining participant post-program surveys and comments made during the program. Results indicate the program supported participants’ resilience and well-being through evoking awe and using other mindfulness and resilience practices, such as having a sense of agency, cognitive reappraisal, connect ciation, meaning and purpose in life, and optimism and prospection.
... Most important here is that although these effects are dose dependent, their primary predictor is the occurrence or not of a peak or fully numinous experience in the session (Griffiths et al., 2006(Griffiths et al., , 2011. Indeed spontaneous numinous experiences in nature can have this same effect, though less intense, in inducing awe and so reducing stress, anxiety, and depression (Anderson et al., 2018;Hood, 1977). Such peak and mysticallike experiences seem to operate by increasing a felt connectness/communality with both others and the expressive dynamics of nature, along with a more abstract sense of identity with a larger cosmos (Krippner & Luke, 2009). ...
Article
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Extending this series of papers on a futural spirituality, and considering the numinous as an inherent human capacity for an awe that confers a sense of all-inclusive meaning, communality, and humility, the question arises whether, in the face of a secularization of traditional world religions, globalization of a techno/capitalist economy of perpetual commodification of planet and person, and a widening sense of loss of meaning and higher purpose, some collective re-newal of the sense of the sacred might be possible —or not. While Jung, Toynbee, and Sorokin regarded such a movement as inevitable, bringing forward to the degree possible the full spectrum of the numinous in an originary ur-shamanism, Bourguignon, Weber, and the later Heidegger foresaw its necessary blockage by the unique complexity and hyper-rationalism of a globalizing materialist economy. The further question becomes whether any such renewal would be constrained to the more “adjustive” movements of Stoicism/Neoplatonism and much of current New Age spirituality—as mainly mirroring the hyper-individualism of Rome and modernity. Or, might it open toward the more revolutionary impact of an early Christianity, and in the present as the futural neo-shamanism variously anticipated by Jung, Reich, Toynbee, and Heidegger? Could such a neo-shamanism, especially as energized by the collective use of now widely available entheogens, resacralize planet and nature in time to address this looming crisis of a human generated climate change and help to inspire its containment?
... Just as with those that went white water rafting, college students experienced greater well-being on days during which they were more immersed in nature. 9 All together, awe is responsible for a wide range of benefits. This singular emotion is so powerful that it has been suggested as a therapeutic tool to address mental health issues. ...
... Taken together, these independent lines of research find that nature reliably elicits awe and that awe is related to improvements in well-being. 20 It's difficult to measure the amount of stress nurses faced during the pandemic years. Record high workforce turnover, increase in clinician suicides, and poor health system engagement scores give us quantifiable data that all point to an excessive burden of stress among the workforce. ...
Article
The last 2 years created a nursing environment that added new complexities to an already fragile state. As the COVID-19 pandemic started to wane, data began coming out that nurses were experiencing symptoms of post-traumatic stress. These studies cautiously revealed current pain points, predictions for the future highlighting an ever-shrinking workforce, increases in clinician suicide, and caregiver burnout at all-time highs. As leaders began looking for new solutions, a growing consensus about nature and awe rose to the top, identifying that these experiences transform the stress and struggles of daily living. In the midst and aftermath of the experience of awe, daily personal concerns—small, ordinary events causing anxiety, distress, and pain—seem to diminish in their significance, offering a solution that the nursing profession can adopt to help individuals heal and continue on.
... Experiencing awe in natural settings has positive effects on overall well-being. For example, researchers have found that nature engagement is related to reduced stress and increased life satisfaction for military veterans, at-risk youth, and college students (Anderson et al., 2018). Tyrväinen et al. (2014) found that more time spent in natural greenery (e.g., a city center, an urban park, or a woodland) resulted in lowered salivary cortisol levels and higher levels of perceived restoration among adults. ...
Article
There is a strong association between nature engagement and stress reduction, restoration, and increased well-being. Recently, practitioners and researchers are integrating nature into psychotherapeutic interventions in clinical settings to address individuals’ mental health and wellness. The purpose of this systematic review is to (a) identify nature interventions that are currently integrated within counseling, (b) summarize the outcomes of research studies that integrate nature interventions, and (c) review the quality of research studies to date. We found that most nature interven- tions include forms of adventure and wilderness therapy. Counseling intervention pro- tocol varies among nature interventions. Overall, we found preliminary evidence that nature engagement in the counseling process contributes to positive client outcomes. However, the methodology in the available studies makes it challenging to delineate the contribution of nature versus the counseling intervention in client outcomes, or what aspects of the nature intervention are helpful for clients.
... Exposure to the natural environment facilitates positive changes in emotions and well-being (Bowler et al., 2010;Hyvö;nen et al., 2018). The natural environment can also lead to more positive emotions, such as gratitude, amusement, pride, contentment, and joy, influencing emotional well-being and reducing stress-related symptoms (Anderson et al., 2018). Howell et al. (2013) confirmed the correlations between the natural environments and meaning in life, which were further associated with psychological well-being. ...
Article
The current study explored customers' psychological responses caused by biophilic design in the context of hotels and investigated the relationship between self-image congruity, delight, and subjective well-being of hotel guests. Based on a 2 × 2 between-subject experimental design, 390 participants were randomly assigned to different manipulated conditions. Data were subjected to ANOVA, and the results show non-significant differences between biophilic elements and customer psychological reactions and subjective well-being. Moreover, the findings evoked that customer self-image congruity and delight evoked subjective well-being through regression analysis. Theoretical and managerial implications are also discussed.
... Social relational emotions (such as awe) may directly contribute to the experience of wellbeing when in nature (Anderson et al., 2018;Petersen et al., 2019). As with social connectedness, nature-connection may also reflect a basic psychological need (Baxter and Pelletier, 2019). ...
Article
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The construct of wellbeing has been difficult to define and has avoided straightforward solutions (Bache et al., 2016). This also makes the topic a fascinating one to reflect on and study. Here we introduce the complex construct of wellbeing, then discuss how the vagus nerve might support the experience of it, before reflecting on some complexities and opportunities arising from a focus on vagal function as target for “inner development” and transformation of the self.
... The deconstruction of this binary between social and ecological systems has received widespread support in the academic literature (e.g., Haila, 2000;Oetelaar, 2014;Linnell et al., 2015). Despite this, the reviewed literature suggests that feelings of awe associated with large, rural natural areas (e.g., Loeffler, 2004;D'Amato and Krasny, 2011;Anderson et al., 2018) have been researched more frequently in comparison to urban outdoor areas. This may potentially limit how awe is understood in relation to the natural spaces within cities, also constraining our understanding of how leisure and eudaimonia can be promoted as well. ...
Article
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Outdoor leisure experiences may represent an understudied yet effective pathway to promote connectedness to nature for urban park visitors. In contrast to outdoor recreation, this critical essay argues outdoor leisure more heavily emphasizes eudaimonic sentiments and intrinsic motivation in comparison to the goal-oriented and hedonic nature of outdoor recreation. It is further argued that two specific social psychological constructs, awe and solitude, may be especially useful in promoting leisure experiences in urban outdoor spaces. Relevant philosophical and social psychological literature is reviewed and synthesized to outline how land managers and environmental educators may facilitate experiences of awe and solitude to better promote contexts for experiencing outdoor leisure in urban parks. Specifically, reviewed literature suggests that utilizing the recreation opportunity spectrum framework and co-creative processes may be an effective path forward in better supporting urban park environments that are conducive to awe, solitude, and leisure. The review and synthesis of this research may ultimately guide environmental educators, land managers, and researchers in ways to more effectively support connectedness to nature via outdoor leisure experiences as an outcome for visitors to outdoor urban spaces.
... Studies have indeed shown that awe is positively associated with scientific thinking, to help fulfill the need for accommodation (Valdesolo et al., 2017;Gottlieb et al., 2018). Overall, the experience of awe at the coast reported by our participants is in line with previous studies demonstrating nature, and more specifically the coast, as an elicitor of awe (Shiota et al., 2007;Anderson et al., 2018;Ballew and Omoto, 2018). ...
Article
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Coastal environments are increasingly shown to have a positive effect on our health and well-being. Various mechanisms have been suggested to explain this effect. However, so far little focus has been devoted to emotions that might be relevant in this context, especially for people who are directly or indirectly exposed to the coast on a daily basis. Our preregistered qualitative study explored how coastal residents experience the emotions they feel at the coast and how they interpret the effect these emotions have on them. We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of eight Belgian coastal residents aged 21–25 years old. The interviews were analyzed with the approach of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Five superordinate themes were identified and indicate that, for our participants, the coast represents a safe haven (1) in which they can experience emotional restoration (2), awe (3), and nostalgia (4). These emotional states are accompanied with adaptive emotion regulating strategies (5), such as reflection and positive reappraisal, that may facilitate coping with difficult thoughts and feelings. Our study demonstrates the importance of investigating specific emotions and related processes triggered at the coast and how these could contribute to the therapeutic value of the coast.
... A few participants (Int1, Int16) mentioned the biophilia hypothesis, the idea that humans are innately inclined toward nature and that a reconnection with it will improve our health (Kellert & Wilson, 1993). Awe researchers are, in fact, quite fond of this suggestion, with clinicians in this area devising awe-based nature interventions to treat people with depression, anxiety, and other mental health problems (e.g., Anderson et al., 2018). ...
Article
Awe is a valued emotion in science communication and assumes a variety of functions in relation to the cultural mandates of the various spaces where it is represented. Based on a reflexive thematic analysis of interviews with 22 science communication practitioners, we constructed seven themes referencing this emotion’s various sociocultural roles in this space. These included the functions of awe in entertainment, curiosity, admiration, revelation, and connection. Drawing from a constructionist view of emotions, we argue that these varieties of awe co-construct many of the differing, and sometimes conflicting, mandates that circulate in the culture of science communication.
... For example, animals who experience physical or mental discomfort as a result of sickness or strain during the course of work usually express it explicitly through body language cues to their handlers in order to obtain a reciprocal response of care. This plays a key role in informing human behavior and attitudes toward these animals, upon which the quality of human-animal interactions is contingent (Amiot & Bastian, 2015). Numerous studies have also documented strong relationships between human handlers and their animal colleagues (e.g., Payne et al., 2015), and compassion is most readily experienced toward entities with which one has a close communal relationship (Batson & Shaw, 1991). ...
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Human‐animal work represents a collaboration between humans and animals to achieve work goals, and is common in the domains of healthcare, therapy, entertainment, and education. Although the scopes and types of human‐animal work is diversifying and increasing, organizational scholars have yet to explore its impacts on employees. Drawing from the models of compassion and mind perception theories, we first develop a theoretical model pertaining to the development of compassion as a result of human‐animal work. In a study with zookeepers (Study 1), we find that human‐animal work evokes the emotion of compassion, which in turn is positively associated with employee prosocial behavior and task performance. These mediated effects are moderated by how employees perceive animals – employees are more likely to experience compassion, and in turn become more prosocial and work better when they generally perceive animals to be able to experience emotions and bodily sensations. Furthermore, two follow‐up studies (i.e., Studies 2 and 3) with employees who engage in human‐animal work in Hong Kong and the United States reveal that working with animals evokes awe in addition to compassion, and provides insight into their resultant impact on prosocial behavior and task performance. We end by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of this work. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... As a result of contemplation and spirituality, awe (Hu et al. 2018;Kearns and Tyler 2020) and enthrallment are born (Stebbins 2015). Awe has been related to reduced negative effect (Lopes et al. 2020), enhanced well-being and life satisfaction (Anderson et al. 2018;Dong and Ni 2020;Rudd et al. 2012), pro-sociality (Sturm et al. 2020), and pro-environmental behavior (Wang and Lyu 2019). It was also identified as a primary component of conversions and religious experiences (Keltner and Haidt 2003), and a starting point for religious development (Negami and Ellard 2021). ...
Article
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This article addresses the issue of the importance of contemporary architecture—especially Christian architecture—for the aesthetic and spiritual development of an individual. It also highlights the educational aspect that may arise in the framework of the contact of a human with the works of religious architecture. Among many things, the article points out the values of truth and beauty in the space of the sacrum. The major importance in the process of human development involves personal, individual and group experiences of meetings in various areas of religious architecture that operate with the language of signs and symbols, modern artistic forms, single-space harmony, and atmosphere—an invisible order of things. In recent years, a number of studies have been carried out that attempted to define what makes the place of sacrum sufficiently meaningful, mysterious, and still necessary in order to establish a spiritual relationship with the community of believers and with God, which is relevant in one’s transition to adulthood.
... Awe can be experienced in a variety of ways, including nature, space, art, music, religious and spiritual moments, another's or your own accomplishments, and social interactions (Shiota et al., 2007;Pilgrim et al., 2017;Allen, 2018;Anderson et al., 2018;Graziosi and Yaden, 2019). Awe has been elicited in various environments, including in person in settings such as nature , laboratory settings (Gallagher et al., 2014), and through virtual reality (Chirico et al., 2017). ...
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It is necessary to have available a variety of evidence-based resilience practices as we experience life’s stressors including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Evoking, experiencing, and reflecting on awe moments by developing and sharing an “awe narrative” are a type of mindfulness technique that can have the potential to help someone flourish, enhance their resilience, and have a positive impact on their overall wellbeing. This paper explores how constructing an awe narrative can assist the individual while also possibly having a positive impact on others.
... For example, Ballew and Omoto (2018) found that compared to built environments, natural environments significantly enhanced feelings of awe and other positive emotions. More importantly, compared with other positive emotions, such as amusement and joy, the connection between the experience of awe and the perception of the natural environment was significantly stronger (Anderson et al., 2018). Joye and Bolderdijk (2015) showed that, when participants are shown an awe-inspiring natural slideshow, they usually feel small and humble, feelings that are the central appraisals of the experience of awe. ...
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The promotion of tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior (TERB) plays a central role in destination management for sustainability. Based on the stimulus–organism–response framework, this study proposes an integrated model for behavior management by examining the relationship between stimuli (natural environment and availability of infrastructure) and response factors (satisfaction and TERB) through the organism (the emotion of awe). Survey data from 458 tourists visiting Mount Heng in Hunan Province, Southern China, were used to empirically evaluate the proposed framework. The findings demonstrate that the perception of a destination’s natural environment positively impacts tourists’ sense of awe and satisfaction; the perception of availability of infrastructure positively and significantly influences awe, satisfaction, and TERB; and awe positively impacts satisfaction and TERB. Moreover, the emotion of awe plays a significant mediating role in this proposed model. The theoretical significance of this study and the implications for tourism destinations are discussed.
... 43 44 Furthermore, in the studies including Veterans, important limitations include low retention for follow-up, absence of control groups and insufficient statistical power. [52][53][54][55][56][57][58] In addition to nature contact and PA, a third important constituent of many green exercise interventions is a group component. Some recent research suggests that increased social cohesion and connectedness may mediate benefits of green exercise, 59 but findings are inconsistent. ...
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Objectives To evaluate feasibility and acceptability of a group-based nature recreation intervention (nature hiking) and control condition (urban hiking) for military Veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Design and setting A pilot randomised controlled trial conducted in the US Pacific Northwest. Participants Veterans with PTSD due to any cause. Interventions Twenty-six participants were randomised to a 12-week intervention involving either six nature hikes (n=13) or six urban hikes (n=13). Primary and secondary outcome measures Feasibility was assessed based on recruitment, retention and attendance. Questionnaires and postintervention qualitative interviews were conducted to explore intervention acceptability. Questionnaires assessing acceptability and outcomes planned for the future trial (eg, PTSD symptoms) were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks (immediately after the final hike) and 24 weeks follow-up. Results Of 415 people assessed for eligibility/interest, 97 were interested and passed preliminary eligibility screening, and 26 were randomised. Mean completion of all questionnaires was 91% among those in the nature hiking group and 68% in those in the urban hiking group. Over the course of the intervention, participants in the nature and urban groups attended an average of 56% and 58%, respectively, of scheduled hikes. Acceptability of both urban and nature hikes was high; over 70% reported a positive rating (ie, good/excellent) for the study communication, as well as hike locations, distance and pace. Median PTSD symptom scores (PTSD Checklist-5) improved more at 12 weeks and 24 weeks among those in the nature versus urban hiking group. Conclusions This pilot study largely confirmed the feasibility and acceptability of nature hiking as a potential treatment for Veterans with PTSD. Adaptations will be needed to improve recruitment and increase hike attendance for a future randomised controlled trial to effectively test and isolate the ways in which nature contact, physical activity and social support conferred by the group impact outcomes. Trial registration number NCT03997344 .
... Two types (Erotic and Tenderness) involved interpersonal affiliative content (sexual desire and affectionate feelings, respectively ;Feldman, 2017 ;Moll et al., 2012 ;Stoléru et al., 2012 ), one type involved broader affiliative content including living as well as non-living stimuli ( i.e . nature-related awe; Anderson et al. 2018 ;Stellar et al. 2017 ), and two types involved either nonaffiliative reward stimuli ( i.e ., Food, represented by tasty meals and desserts) or neutral stimuli ( i.e ., daily actions; see Methods for stimuli description and selection). Of the affiliative videos, while erotic videos tend to induce sexual desire (characterized by increased frequency and intensity of sexual thoughts, as well as urges to interact and initiate or respond to sexual stimulation; Cacioppo et al. 2012 ), tenderness videos instead tend to induce warm feelings (characterized by care, love and nurturance motivations, Moll et al. 2012 ;Shiota et al., 2011Shiota et al., , 2017. ...
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Humans are intrinsically motivated to bond with others. The ability to experience affiliative emotions (such as affection/tenderness, sexual attraction, and admiration/awe) may incentivize and promote these affiliative bonds. Here, we interrogate the role of the critical reward circuitry, especially the Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc) and the septo-hypothalamic region, in the anticipation of and response to affiliative rewards using a novel incentive delay task. During Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI), participants (n=23 healthy humans; 14 female) anticipated and watched videos involving affiliative (tenderness, erotic desire, and awe) and nonaffiliative (i.e., food) rewards, as well as neutral scenes. On the one hand, anticipation of both affiliative and nonaffiliative rewards increased activity in the NAcc, anterior insula, and supplementary motor cortex, but activity in the amygdala and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) increased in response to reward outcomes. On the other hand, affiliative rewards more specifically increased activity in the septo-hypothalamic area. Moreover, NAcc activity during anticipation correlated with positive arousal for all rewards, whereas septo-hypothalamic activity during the outcome correlated with positive arousal and motivation for subsequent re-exposure only for affiliative rewards. Together, these findings implicate a general appetitive response in the NAcc to different types of rewards but suggests a more specific response in the septo-hypothalamic region in response to affiliative rewards outcomes. This work also presents a new task for distinguishing between neural responses to affiliative and non-affiliative rewards.
... For instance, higher dispositional awe is associated with higher resilience, in general, and predicts lower negative health effects (Tian et al., 2016;Koh et al., 2017;Atamba, 2019). Anderson et al. (2018) recently found that, compared with general positive emotion, awe experience induced by outdoor activities (e.g., rapid rafting) was able to give predictions on the changes of individual happiness and stress-related symptoms a week later, and awe experience plays a positive role on improvement in wellbeing. Life satisfaction could be taken as a reactive indicator to assess the mental health and happiness of teachers (Greenspoon and Sasklofske, 2001). ...
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Based on the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, this study explored the mediating effect of spiritual intelligence between awe and life satisfaction among Chinese primary school teachers and whether this effect was moderated by ethnicity. Participants comprised 569 teachers from 24 primary schools in southwestern China, where many of the ethnic minority groups of China reside. Awe and spiritual intelligence were found to positively predict life satisfaction among primary school teachers, while awe also indirectly influenced life satisfaction through the partial mediation of spiritual intelligence. Ethnicity was also found to moderate the relation between awe and life satisfaction, i.e., when compared with the Han teachers, there is a more significant and positive relation between awe and life satisfaction in ethnic minority teachers. These findings not only indicate the critical role of awe in promoting life satisfaction of primary school teachers but also especially show that awe embodied in the traditional cultural activities makes it easier to breed life satisfaction in ethnic minority teachers.
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This investigation focused on the antecedents and impacts on volunteer pro-environmental behavior, and explored the effects of meaningfulness through pride and environmental passion according to the cognitive appraisal theory of emotions. A mixed method research design was used, consisting of interviews, observations, and surveys with volunteers. The research was conducted at Danxia Mountain in Guangdong Province, China, a protected area, UNESCO World Heritage List site, and Geopark. Based on a survey of 302 volunteers, a sequential mediating model was tested through bootstrapping. It was found that perceived volunteering meaningfulness improved sustainable pro-environmental behavior, and pride and environmental passion played sequential mediating roles between meaningfulness and pro-environmental behavior. Compared with pride, environmental passion was the more significant and proximal antecedent of pro-environmental behavior. In addition, awe of the place strengthened the effects of pride and environmental passion on pro-environmental behavior. Theoretical and managerial implications for sustainable development practices in protected areas are outlined.
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It is difficult to fathom how an organization could be successful without its employees engaging in self-reflection. Gone would be its personnel's capacity to problem-solve, learn from past experiences, and engage in countless other introspective activities that are vital to success. Indeed, a large body of research highlights the positive value of reflection. Yet, as both common experience and a wealth of findings demonstrate, engaging in this introspective process while focusing on negative experiences often backfires, undermining people's health, well-being, performance, and relationships. Here we synthesize research on the benefits and costs of self-reflection in organizational contexts and discuss the role that psychological distance plays in allowing people to harness the potential of self-reflection while avoiding its common pitfalls.
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There is little empirical research into the benefits and experiences of coaching specifically in the outdoors. Attention Restoration Theory (ART) identifies four facets that explain why nature enables the brain to restore directed attention, improve cognitive capabilities and relieve stress. It is proposed that ART is relevant to understanding the benefits of outdoor coaching because, according to ART, natural environments can help the brain to focus more efficiently, make decisions, think creatively and process information effectively by restoring directed attention and cognitive capacity - all of which are aspects of high quality coaching conversations. The aim of the research is to identify the benefits of outdoor coaching experienced by the participants and analyse them using Attention Restoration Theory as a framework to explain these benefits. Data regarding the felt experiences of nine participants who are currently having, or recently had, outdoor coaching is analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) and discussed. The key findings show six identified key themes linking the participants’ felt experiences with the four facets of ART: Being side-by-side; movement and pace; the perceived benefits of outdoors vs indoors; thinking differently; openness and expanse; senses, emotions and feelings. We conclude that there are benefits to taking coaching conversations outside and that ART is a framework that can explain these benefits.
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Research shows the experience of awe is associated with a variety of benefits ranging from increased well-being and prosocial behavior to enhanced cognition. The adaptive purpose of awe, however, is elusive. In this article, we aim to show that the current framework used to conceptualize awe points towards higher-order cognition as the key adaptive function. This goes against past evolutionary positions that posit social benefits or unidimensional behavioral adaptations. In the second half of the article, we highlight a distinct cognitive advantage of awe. The literature connecting awe and cognition is surveyed and used to develop a view that situates awe as a critical component in the cognitive success of the human species.
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When people have the freedom to create and post content on the internet, particularly anonymously, they do not always respect the rules and regulations of the websites on which they post, leaving other unsuspecting users vulnerable to sexism, racism, threats, and other unacceptable content in their daily cyberspace diet. However, content moderators witness the worst of humanity on a daily basis in place of the average netizen. This takes its toll on moderators, causing stress, fatigue, and emotional distress akin to the symptomology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The goal of the present study was to explore whether adding positive stimuli to breaktimes-images of baby animals or beautiful, aweinspiring landscapes-could help reduce the negative side-effects of being a content moderator. To test this, we had over 300 experienced content moderators read and decide whether 200 fake text-based social media posts were acceptable or not for public consumption. Although we set out to test positive emotional stimulation, however, we actually found that it is the cumulative nature of the negative emotions that likely negates most of the effects of the intervention: the longer the person had practiced content moderation, the stronger their negative experience. Connections to compassion fatigue and how best to spend work breaks as a content moderator are discussed.
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Human wellbeing is inextricably linked with nature’s wellbeing. If we harm our natural environment then we harm ourselves, and the risks from loss of habitats and a warming planet are incalculable. The climate crisis and wildlife emergency show that the existing relationship between people and the rest of nature is failing. Too often we see nature as something to use, to control or as a threat to us, rather than as a fundamental part of ourselves. We urgently need a new relationship with nature in order to transform our attitudes and behaviours into positive and meaningful outcomes for the environment, and help tackle the crisis in our mental health and wellbeing. Recent research evidence suggests that being connected to nature is not an optional extra for achieving good health and wellbeing, but a basic human need. We must build a new relationship by developing an affinity with nature and by celebrating the role of nature in healthy, sustainable and meaningful lives. This chapter explores theories of nature connectedness, wellbeing and pro-environmental behaviours, the contexts in which people become related to nature, the role that different types and qualities of nature have in this relationship, and the key societal and individual factors necessary for strengthening this connection. We call for a life-course approach towards developing and nurturing our affinity with nature as a vital means of safeguarding both human and planetary well-being.
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Existential empathy – or the capacity to resonate with the client’s existential concerns – is an important condition for posttraumatic growth and for profound change. Existential empathy can help clients to bridge their existential isolation, to mourn about their lost meanings, to make sense of their lives, and to develop an awe-based attitude towards life. As the therapist shares the same existential reality with their client, empathy with the client’s ultimate concerns does not leave the therapist untouched. Through existential empathy, both client and therapist can find a way to embrace the ambiguity of life, the human condition, and awe-based wisdom.KeywordsExistentialempathyExperiential-existentialFocusingPosttraumatic growth
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As a self-transcendent emotion, awe can enhance one's sense of connection; however, this has not been extensively studied to date. Although existing research on awe and well-being have identified some mechanisms in this relationship, there is no evidence of connectedness (e.g., nature connectedness) as a possible mechanism. Moreover, threatening awe, a subtype of awe, has been insufficiently examined. The present research focused on awe of nature and nature connectedness to examine whether and how different subtypes of awe can improve well-being. The results showed that positive awe improves well-being mainly by increasing nature connectedness. Threatening awe has no significant impact on well-being, mostly because there are two indirect and opposing effects between threatening awe and well-being: the positive indirect effect of nature connectedness and negative indirect effect of powerlessness. These results suggest that different subtypes of awe have different effects on well-being through different mechanisms. In particular, nature connectedness is an important mechanism in the process of awe enhancing one's well-being.
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Mental health and experience value at tourism destinations are multidimensional concepts with complex mechanisms. They are built on parallel bodies of research, especially for outdoor nature and adventure destinations. Their theoretical frameworks have the same components, connected in the same structures: place and activity, personalities, senses, emotions, and memories. The two distinct outcomes, health and experience respectively, depend on detailed differences in how these components are perceived and processed by individual tourists at particular destinations. Quantitative measures are already available for tourist personality and satisfaction, but not yet for tourist senses, emotions, memories, or mental health. Since each has multiple components, vector or matrix measures will be needed. We propose these as priorities for future research in destination marketing and management.
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This review adopts the conceptual framework of awe laid out by Keltner and Haidt (2003) to explore the relationship between awe and nature. It does so from two perspectives: awe as a self-transcendent emotion and awe as an epistemic emotion. In short, nature is a frequent elicitor of awe, and awe in turn motivates the exploration and explanation of the natural environment. The many benefits of being in nature to health and well-being may be, at least in part, attributable to the experience of awe.
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How do experiences in nature or in spiritual contemplation or in being moved by music or with psychedelics promote mental and physical health? Our proposal in this article is awe. To make this argument, we first review recent advances in the scientific study of awe, an emotion often considered ineffable and beyond measurement. Awe engages five processes—shifts in neurophysiology, a diminished focus on the self, increased prosocial relationality, greater social integration, and a heightened sense of meaning—that benefit well-being. We then apply this model to illuminate how experiences of awe that arise in nature, spirituality, music, collective movement, and psychedelics strengthen the mind and body.
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Scholars have long speculated that experiencing awe – an emotional state where people believe they are in the presence of something grand – might be beneficial for well-being. We explore a manifestation of awe that is unique to religion – awe of God. Drawing on a national sample from the United States, being in awe of God was associated with lower depression, higher life satisfaction, and better self-rated health, associations partially mediated by the sense of meaning in life. Awe of God may bolster well-being by allowing people to view their life according to the vastness and complexity of a divine plan.
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Introduction: Despite broad consensus about multicultural experience's benefits, there is a lack of research on the antecedents to multicultural experiences. Research has indicated that awe shifts attention away from the self towards larger entities, which could include elements of other cultures. Methods: Four studies (N = 2,915) tested whether trait, daily, and induced awe promoted multicultural experience. Results: Studies 1-2 (adolescents, young, middle, and older adults) showed that trait awe predicted greater multicultural identity and experience independent of other positive emotions and openness. Study 3 (students & adults in U.S. & Malaysia) demonstrated that daily awe predicted more daily multicultural experience independent of yesterday's multicultural experience. These results were explained by trait and daily curiosity. Study 4 (adults) found that induction of awe increased state multicultural identity and experience via state curious emotions and then state curious personality. Conclusion: We found that experiencing more awe can be a tool for enhancing the multicultural experience. The discussion focuses on the implications for future research on awe and multicultural experiences.
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The experience of awe, an emotional response to vast stimuli overwhelming ones’ current mental structure, has often been measured using a questionnaire method. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate the Japanese version of the Situational Awe Scale (SAS), which is a useful tool for measuring awe experiences from the perspective of the discriminability between positive- and threat-awe. The present study investigated the factor structure and validity of the Japanese version of the SAS (SAS-J) using awe-inducing video clips, through three online surveys (N = 1034; mean age = 38.74, SD = 10.95, range = 18–75). Results revealed that the SAS-J consisted of the same four factors as the original SAS (i.e., connection, oppression, chills, and diminished self) and had the convergent, criterion, and discriminative validity in measuring both positive- and threat-awe experiences. Additionally, results showed that the SAS-J could distinguish between positive- and threat-awe experiences. These results suggested that the SAS-J could measure both positive- and threat-awe experiences with validity. This study would make a methodological contribution to awe research.
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Romantic relationships are a special type of relationship that affect happiness and wellbeing, but little is known about how romantic couples use the built environment to perpetuate their bond. We conducted a survey of 124 geolocated individuals in romantic relationships in State College, Pennsylvania, and used a mixed-method geographic information systems (GIS)/qualitative research framework to show how couples use the built environment. We illustrate their favorite places, the characteristics of these places, and how the town’s amenities and design helps their bond. Our results show that pedestrian and transportation infrastructure and a variety of proximal, affordable activities, (primarily restaurants and nature/outdoor spaces) are important for couples. We also find that on-campus attractions, not just those of the town, play an important role for romantic outings. We use these findings to encourage and recommend infrastructure for supporting romantic relationships in the future.
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Key messages: People value ecosystems for the different contributions that they make to human well-being, both material and non-material. Non-material contributions, such as those related to identity, sense of place and psychological well-being, have affective, cognitive and sensory dimensions. Although overlooked in ecosystem management and research, the affective and sensory aspects are important for connectedness with nature, human well-being, conservation and environmental justice. This brief summarizes the main findings of qualitative research in Apurimac (Peru) that explores the affective, cognitive and sensory dimensions of people’s ecosystem experiences and imaginaries. Understanding the diversity of people’s experiences and imaginaries is important for more equitable and sustainable ecosystem management.
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Abstract The cultural ecosystem services (CES) construct has evolved to accommodate multiple worldviews, knowledge systems and conceptualizations of nature and values, including relational and mental health values. Cultural ecosystem services research and practice has mostly focused on cognitive ways of constructing and expressing intangible values of, and relationships with, nature. But our non‐material relationships with nature are not exclusively cognitive: sensory and affective processes are fundamental to how we build, enact and experience these relationships. Building on the core ideas of relational values, embodied experiences and connectedness with nature, we present a simple framework to explore the sensory, affective and cognitive dimensions of human–nature interactions, as well as the settings and activities that frame them. We demonstrate its use in a case study in the Peruvian Andes, where we applied an inductive, exploratory approach to elicit personal imageries and imaginings related to nature, place and recreation. The narratives shared were rich with symbolism and personal sensory experiences, emotions and memories, which the interviewees linked with general assertions about people, place and nature. We discuss the usefulness of such a perspective for CES research, and for human well‐being, environmental justice and landscape management.
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Awe is an emotion frequently experienced in religious contexts. Research has documented the effects of awe on feelings of small self, spirituality, and sense of interconnectedness. We extend this literature by investigating the relationship between awe and religious group cohesion, which can ultimately lead to sacrifice for one’s religious group. Study 1 found that U.S. adult participants (N = 782) who experience greater dispositional awe-proneness are more willing to self-sacrifice for their group. This relationship was explained (mediated) by greater reports of a sense of vastness and greater cohesion with one’s religious group. In Study 2, U.S. community participants (N = 187) were randomly assigned to an awe induction condition or a neutral condition. While the manipulation successfully elicited feelings of awe and small self (both vastness and self-diminishment), it did not directly affect our other measures. We still found partial evidence for an indirect pathway from awe to vastness, group cohesion, and sacrifice for one’s religious group. This research highlights an emotional component of religious group cohesion, with implications for the role of awe in self-sacrificial forms of devotion.
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This capstone seeks to explore the complex emotion of awe and the effects of flow and anxiety on the experience of awe in scuba diving. Scuba diving is a strong elicitor of awe and is a challenging, high risk activity requiring both technical skill and a calm mind. In this mixed methods study, awe elicited by scuba diving was studied immediately following a scuba dive (Study 1) and via the internet through recollection tasks (Study 2). Results of Study 1 indicate that in the context of scuba diving, flow is correlated with the connectedness component of awe. Results of Study 2 indicate that when scuba diving experiences are recalled using a writing task (1) awe is experienced differently based on context, (2) flow is correlated with Composite Awe and negatively correlated with anxiety, (3) flow is correlated with the vastness, altered time perception and connectedness components of awe, when recalling a positive dive experience, and (4) anxiety is correlated with the small-self and accommodation components of awe when recalling a negative dive experience. This study reveals additional complexity in the study of awe, leads to further understanding of the subcomponents of the experience of awe, and provides evidence that in the experience of awe – context matters.
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Awe is an emotional response to perceptually vast stimuli that transcend current frames of reference. Guided by conceptual analyses of awe as a collective emotion, across 5 studies (N = 2,078) we tested the hypothesis that awe can result in a diminishment of the individual self and its concerns, and increase prosocial behavior. In a representative national sample (Study 1), dispositional tendencies to experience awe predicted greater generosity in an economic game above and beyond other prosocial emotions (e.g., compassion). In follow-up experiments, inductions of awe (relative to various control states) increased ethical decision-making (Study 2), generosity (Study 3), and prosocial values (Study 4). Finally, a naturalistic induction of awe in which participants stood in a grove of towering trees enhanced prosocial helping behavior and decreased entitlement compared to participants in a control condition (Study 5). Mediational data demonstrate that the effects of awe on prosociality are explained, in part, by feelings of a small self. These findings indicate that awe may help situate individuals within broader social contexts and enhance collective concern. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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Natural environments offer a high potential for human well-being, restoration and stress recovery in terms of allostatic load. A growing body of literature is investigating psychological and physiological health benefits of contact with Nature. So far, a synthesis of physiological health outcomes of direct outdoor nature experiences and its potential for improving Public Health is missing. We were interested in summarizing the outcomes of studies that investigated physiological outcomes of experiencing Nature measuring at least one physiological parameter during the last two decades. Studies on effects of indoor or simulated Nature exposure via videos or photos, animal contact, and wood as building material were excluded from further analysis. As an online literature research delivered heterogeneous data inappropriate for quantitative synthesis approaches, we descriptively summarized and narratively synthesized studies. The procedure started with 1,187 titles. Research articles in English language published in international peer-reviewed journals that investigated the effects of natural outdoor environments on humans by were included. We identified 17 relevant articles reporting on effects of Nature by measuring 20 different physiological parameters. We assigned these parameters to one of the four body systems brain activity, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and immune function. These studies reported mainly direct and positive effects, however, our analyses revealed heterogeneous outcomes regarding significance of results. Most of the studies were conducted in Japan, based on quite small samples, predominantly with male students as participants in a cross-sectional design. In general, our narrative review provided an ambiguous illustration of the effects outdoor nature exerted on physiological parameters. However, the majority of studies reported significant positive effects. A harmonizing effect of Nature, especially on physiological stress reactions, was found across all body systems. From a Public Health perspective, interdisciplinary work on utilizing benefits of Nature regarding health promotion, disease prevention, and nature-based therapy should be optimized in order to eventually diminish given methodological limitations from mono-disciplinary studies.
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Emotions are discrete, automatic responses to universally shared, culture-specific and individual-specific events. The emotion terms, such as anger, fear, etcetera, denote a family of related states sharing at least 12 characteristics, which distinguish one emotion family from another, as well as from other affective states. These affective responses are preprogrammed and involuntary, but are also shaped by life experiences.
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Three studies examine the effects of exposure to nature on positive affect and ability to reflect on a life problem. Participants spent 15 min walking in a natural setting (Studies 1, 2, & 3), an urban setting (Study 1), or watching videos of natural and urban settings (Studies 2 & 3). In all three studies, exposure to nature increased connectedness to nature, attentional capacity, positive emotions, and ability to reflect on a life problem; these effects are more dramatic for actual nature than for virtual nature. Mediational analyses indicate that the positive effects of exposure to nature are partially mediated by increases in connectedness to nature and are not mediated by increases in attentional capacity. The discussion focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the exposure to nature/well-being effects.
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Do individuals with high self-esteem enjoy positive interpersonal relationships, or are they aggressive and antisocial? Does narcissism reflect an abundance of self-worth, or inflated self-views driven by an overcompensation for low self-esteem? The present research addresses the apparently two-sided nature of self-esteem and narcissism by distinguishing between two distinct self-regulatory processes (narcissistic self-aggrandizement and genuine self-esteem), and proposing that two distinct facets of pride—authentic and hubristic—form the affective core of each. Specifically, findings demonstrate that when narcissistic and genuine self-esteem are empirically distinguished, genuine self-esteem (along with authentic pride) is positively related to successful social relationships and mental health, whereas narcissistic self-aggrandizement (along with hubristic pride) is positively related to aggression and other antisocial behaviors.
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What happens when people suppress their emotions when they sacrifice for a romantic partner? This multimethod study investigates how suppressing emotions during sacrifice shapes affective and relationship outcomes. In Part 1, dating couples came into the laboratory to discuss important romantic relationship sacrifices. Suppressing emotions was associated with emotional costs for the partner discussing his or her sacrifice. In Part 2, couples participated in a 14-day daily experience study. Within-person increases in emotional suppression during daily sacrifice were associated with decreases in emotional well-being and relationship quality as reported by both members of romantic dyads. In Part 3, suppression predicted decreases in relationship satisfaction and increases in thoughts about breaking up with a romantic partner 3 months later. In the first two parts of the study, authenticity mediated the costly effects of suppression. Implications for research on close relationships and emotion regulation are discussed.
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Although dozens of studies have examined the autonomic nervous system (ANS) aspects of negative emotions, less is known about ANS responding in positive emotion. An evolutionary framework was used to define five positive emotions in terms of fitness-enhancing function, and to guide hypotheses regarding autonomic responding. In a repeated measures design, participants viewed sets of visual images eliciting these positive emotions (anticipatory enthusiasm, attachment love, nurturant love, amusement, and awe) plus an emotionally neutral state. Peripheral measures of sympathetic and vagal parasympathetic activation were assessed. Results indicated that the emotion conditions were characterized by qualitatively distinct profiles of autonomic activation, suggesting the existence of multiple, physiologically distinct positive emotions.
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An 8-month-long experimental study examined the immediate and longer term effects of regularly practicing two assigned positive activities (expressing optimism and gratitude) on well-being. More important, this intervention allowed us to explore the impact of two metafactors that are likely to influence the success of any positive activity: whether one self-selects into the study knowing that it is about increasing happiness and whether one invests effort into the activity over time. Our results indicate that initial self-selection makes a difference, but only in the two positive activity conditions, not the control, and that continued effort also makes a difference, but, again, only in the treatment conditions. We conclude that happiness interventions are more than just placebos, but that they are most successful when participants know about, endorse, and commit to the intervention.
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There is increasing interest in the potential role of the natural environment in human health and well-being. However, the evidence-base for specific and direct health or well-being benefits of activity within natural compared to more synthetic environments has not been systematically assessed. We conducted a systematic review to collate and synthesise the findings of studies that compare measurements of health or well-being in natural and synthetic environments. Effect sizes of the differences between environments were calculated and meta-analysis used to synthesise data from studies measuring similar outcomes. Twenty-five studies met the review inclusion criteria. Most of these studies were crossover or controlled trials that investigated the effects of short-term exposure to each environment during a walk or run. This included 'natural' environments, such as public parks and green university campuses, and synthetic environments, such as indoor and outdoor built environments. The most common outcome measures were scores of different self-reported emotions. Based on these data, a meta-analysis provided some evidence of a positive benefit of a walk or run in a natural environment in comparison to a synthetic environment. There was also some support for greater attention after exposure to a natural environment but not after adjusting effect sizes for pretest differences. Meta-analysis of data on blood pressure and cortisol concentrations found less evidence of a consistent difference between environments across studies. Overall, the studies are suggestive that natural environments may have direct and positive impacts on well-being, but support the need for investment in further research on this question to understand the general significance for public health.
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There is growing interest in understanding how emotion regulation affects adaptation. The present study examined expressive suppression (which involves inhibiting the overt expression of emotion) and how it affects a critical domain of adaptation, social functioning. This investigation focused on the transition to college, a time that presents a variety of emotional and social challenges. Analyses focused on 2 components of suppression: a stable component, representing individual differences expressed both before and after the transition, and a dynamic component, representing variance specific to the new college context. Both components of suppression predicted lower social support, less closeness to others, and lower social satisfaction. These findings were robustly corroborated across weekly experience reports, self-reports, and peer reports and are consistent with a theoretical framework that defines emotion regulation as a dynamic process shaped by both stable person factors and environmental demands.
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This paper introduces and applies an operationalization of mental health as a syndrome of symptoms of positive feelings and positive functioning in life. Dimensions and scales of subjective well-being are reviewed and conceived of as mental health symptoms. A diagnosis of the presence of mental health, described as flourishing, and the absence of mental health, characterized as languishing, is applied to data from the 1995 Midlife in the United States study of adults between the ages of 25 and 74 (n = 3,032). Findings revealed that 17.2 percent fit the criteria for flourishing, 56.6 percent were moderately mentally healthy, 12.1 percent of adults fit the criteria for languishing, and 14.1 percent fit the criteria for DSM-III-R major depressive episode (12-month), of which 9.4 percent were not languishing and 4.7 percent were also languishing. The risk of a major depressive episode was two times more likely among languishing than moderately mentally healthy adults, and nearly six times greater among languishing than flourishing adults. Multivariate analyses revealed that languishing and depression were associated with significant psychosocial impairment in terms of perceived emotional health, limitations of activities of daily living, and workdays lost or cutback. Flourishing and moderate mental health were associated with superior profiles of psychosocial functioning. The descriptive epidemiology revealed that males, older adults, more educated individuals, and married adults were more likely to be mentally healthy. Implications for the conception of mental health and the treatment and prevention of mental illness are discussed.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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To provide support for the theoretical distinction between 2 facets of pride, authentic and hubristic (J. L. Tracy & R. W. Robins, 2004a), the authors conducted 7 studies. Studies 1-4 demonstrate that the 2 facets (a) emerge in analyses of the semantic meaning of pride-related words, the dispositional tendency to experience pride, and reports of actual pride experiences; (b) have divergent personality correlates and distinct antecedent causal attributions; and (c) do not simply reflect positively and negatively valenced, high- and low-activation, or state versus trait forms of pride. In Studies 5-7, the authors develop and demonstrate the reliability and validity of brief, 7-item scales that can be used to assess the facets of pride in future research.
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While trait positive emotionality and state positive-valence affect have long been the subject of intense study, the importance of differentiating among several “discrete” positive emotions has only recently begun to receive serious attention. In this article, we synthesize existing literature on positive emotion differentiation, proposing that the positive emotions are best described as branches of a “family tree” emerging from a common ancestor mediating adaptive management of fitness-critical resources (e.g., food). Examples are presented of research indicating the importance of differentiating several positive emotion constructs. We then offer a new theoretical framework, built upon a foundation of phylogenetic, neuroscience, and behavioral evidence, that accounts for core features as well as mechanisms for differentiation. We propose several directions for future research suggested by this framework and develop implications for the application of positive emotion research to translational issues in clinical psychology and the science of behavior change.
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Awe has been theorized as a collective emotion, one that enables individuals to integrate into social collectives. In keeping with this theorizing, we propose that awe diminishes the sense of self and shifts attention away from individual interests and concerns. In testing this hypothesis across 6 studies (N = 2137), we first validate pictorial and verbal measures of the small self; we then document that daily, in vivo, and lab experiences of awe, but not other positive emotions, diminish the sense of the self. These findings were observed across collectivist and individualistic cultures, but also varied across cultures in magnitude and content. Evidence from the last 2 studies showed that the influence of awe upon the small self accounted for increases in collective engagement, fitting with claims that awe promotes integration into social groups. Discussion focused on how the small self might mediate the effects of awe on collective cognition and behavior, the need to study more negatively valenced varieties of awe, and other potential cultural variations of the small self.
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This study investigated the impact of nature experience on affect and cognition. We randomly assigned sixty participants to a 50-min walk in either a natural or an urban environment in and around Stanford, California. Before and after their walk, participants completed a series of psychological assessments of affective and cognitive functioning. Compared to the urban walk, the nature walk resulted in affective benefits (decreased anxiety, rumination, and negative affect, and preservation of positive affect) as well as cognitive benefits (increased working memory performance). This study extends previous research by demonstrating additional benefits of nature experience on affect and cognition through assessments of anxiety, rumination, and a complex measure of working memory (operation span task). These findings further our understanding of the influence of relatively brief nature experiences on affect and cognition, and help to lay the foundation for future research on the mechanisms underlying these effects. Available here: http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1QdlwcUG4~B3U
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Negative emotions are reliably associated with poorer health (e.g., Kiecolt-Glaser, McGuire, Robles, & Glaser, 2002), but only recently has research begun to acknowledge the important role of positive emotions for our physical health (Fredrickson, 2003). We examine the link between dispositional positive affect and one potential biological pathway between positive emotions and health-proinflammatory cytokines, specifically levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6). We hypothesized that greater trait positive affect would be associated with lower levels of IL-6 in a healthy sample. We found support for this hypothesis across two studies. We also explored the relationship between discrete positive emotions and IL-6 levels, finding that awe, measured in two different ways, was the strongest predictor of lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines. These effects held when controlling for relevant personality and health variables. This work suggests a potential biological pathway between positive emotions and health through proinflammatory cytokines. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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Though interest in the emotion of gratitude has historically focused on its role in social exchange, new evidence suggests a different and more important role for gratitude in social life. The find-remind-and-bind theory of gratitude posits that the positive emotion of gratitude serves the evolutionary function of strengthening a relationship with a responsive interaction partner (Algoe, Haidt, & Gable, 2008). The current article identifies prior, economic models of gratitude, elaborates on unique features of the find-remind-and-bind theory, reviews the accumulating evidence for gratitude in social life in light of this novel perspective, and discusses how the find-remind-and-bind theory is relevant to methodology and hypothesis testing. In sum, within the context of reciprocally-altruistic relationships, gratitude signals communal relationship norms and may be an evolved mechanism to fuel upward spirals of mutually responsive behaviors between recipient and benefactor. In this way, gratitude is important for forming and maintaining the most important relationships of our lives, those with the people we interact with every day.
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Awe has been defined as an emotional response to perceptually vast stimuli that overwhelm current mental structures, yet facilitate attempts at accommodation. Four studies are presented showing the information-focused nature of awe elicitors, documenting the self-diminishing effects of awe experience, and exploring the effects of awe on the content of the self-concept. Study 1 documented the information-focused, asocial nature of awe elicitors in participant narratives. Study 2 contrasted the stimulus-focused, self-diminishing nature of appraisals and feelings associated with a prototypical awe experience with the self-focused appraisals and feelings associated with pride. Study 3 found that dispositional awe-proneness, but not dispositional joy or pride, was associated with low Need for Cognitive Closure, and also documented a relationship between dispositional awe and increased emphasis on membership in "universal" categories in participants' self-concepts. Study 4 replicated the self-concept finding from Study 3 using experimentally elicited awe. Implications for future work on awe are discussed.
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Urbanization, resource exploitation, and lifestyle changes have diminished possibilities for human contact with nature in urbanized societies. Concern about the loss has helped motivate research on the health benefits of contact with nature. Reviewing that research here, we focus on nature as represented by aspects of the physical environment relevant to planning, design, and policy measures that serve broad segments of urbanized societies. We discuss difficulties in defining "nature" and reasons for the current expansion of the research field, and we assess available reviews. We then consider research on pathways between nature and health involving air quality, physical activity, social cohesion, and stress reduction. Finally, we discuss methodological issues and priorities for future research. The extant research does describe an array of benefits of contact with nature, and evidence regarding some benefits is strong; however, some findings indicate caution is needed in applying beliefs about those benefits, and substantial gaps in knowledge remain. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 35 is March 18, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
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Across five studies, we found that awe increases both supernatural belief (Studies 1, 2, and 5) and intentional-pattern perception (Studies 3 and 4)-two phenomena that have been linked to agency detection, or the tendency to interpret events as the consequence of intentional and purpose-driven agents. Effects were both directly and conceptually replicated, and mediational analyses revealed that these effects were driven by the influence of awe on tolerance for uncertainty. Experiences of awe decreased tolerance for uncertainty, which, in turn, increased the tendency to believe in nonhuman agents and to perceive human agency in random events.
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In this paper we present a prototype approach to awe. We suggest that two appraisals are central and are present in all clear cases of awe: perceived vastness, and a need for accommodation, defined as an inability to assimilate an experience into current mental structures. Five additional appraisals account for variation in the hedonic tone of awe experiences: threat, beauty, exceptional ability, virtue, and the supernatural. We derive this perspective from a review of what has been written about awe in religion, philosophy, sociology, and psychology, and then we apply this perspective to an analysis of awe and related states such as admiration, elevation, and the epiphanic experience.
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When do people feel as if they are rich in time? Not often, research and daily experience suggest. However, three experiments showed that participants who felt awe, relative to other emotions, felt they had more time available (Experiments 1 and 3) and were less impatient (Experiment 2). Participants who experienced awe also were more willing to volunteer their time to help other people (Experiment 2), more strongly preferred experiences over material products (Experiment 3), and experienced greater life satisfaction (Experiment 3). Mediation analyses revealed that these changes in decision making and well-being were due to awe's ability to alter the subjective experience of time. Experiences of awe bring people into the present moment, and being in the present moment underlies awe's capacity to adjust time perception, influence decisions, and make life feel more satisfying than it would otherwise.
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Based on evolutionary logic, Henrich and Gil-White [Evolution and Human Behavior, 22(3), 165–196] distinguished between two routes to attaining social status in human societies: dominance, based on intimidation, and prestige, based on the possession of skills or expertise. Independently, emotion researchers Tracy and Robins [Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(3), 506–525] demonstrated two distinct forms of pride: hubristic and authentic. Bridging these two lines of research, this paper examines whether hubristic and authentic pride, respectively, may be part of the affective-motivational suite of psychological adaptations underpinning the status-obtaining strategies of dominance and prestige. Support for this hypothesis emerged from two studies employing self-reports (Study 1), and self-and peer-reports of group members on collegiate athletic teams (Study 2). Results from both studies showed that hubristic pride is associated with dominance, whereas authentic pride is associated with prestige. Moreover, the two facets of pride are part of a larger suite of distinctive psychological traits uniquely associated with dominance or prestige. Specifically, dominance is positively associated with traits such as narcissism, aggression, and disagreeableness, whereas prestige is positively associated with traits such as genuine self-esteem, agreeableness, conscientiousness, achievement, advice-giving, and prosociality. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for our understanding of the evolutionary origins of pride and social status, and the interrelations among emotion, personality, and status attainment.
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The posttraumatic stress disorder checklist is a commonly used measure, with military (PCL-M), civilian (PCL-C), and specific trauma (PCL-S) versions. This synthesis of the psychometric properties of all three versions found the PCL to be a well-validated measure. The PCL shows good temporal stability, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. The majority of structural validity studies support four factor models. Little is available on discriminant validity and sensitivity to change. Strengths, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. Understanding the PCL's psychometric properties, strengths (e.g., items map on to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria), and limitations (e.g., may overestimate PTSD prevalence) will help clinicians and researchers make educated decisions regarding the appropriate use of this measure in their particular setting.
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Do positive psychology interventions-that is, treatment methods or intentional activities aimed at cultivating positive feelings, positive behaviors, or positive cognitions-enhance well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms? A meta-analysis of 51 such interventions with 4,266 individuals was conducted to address this question and to provide practical guidance to clinicians. The results revealed that positive psychology interventions do indeed significantly enhance well-being (mean r=.29) and decrease depressive symptoms (mean r=.31). In addition, several factors were found to impact the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions, including the depression status, self-selection, and age of participants, as well as the format and duration of the interventions. Accordingly, clinicians should be encouraged to incorporate positive psychology techniques into their clinical work, particularly for treating clients who are depressed, relatively older, or highly motivated to improve. Our findings also suggest that clinicians would do well to deliver positive psychology interventions as individual (versus group) therapy and for relatively longer periods of time.
Article
The present research examined whether the recognizable nonverbal expressions associated with pride and shame may be biologically innate behavioral responses to success and failure. Specifically, we tested whether sighted, blind, and congenitally blind individuals across cultures spontaneously display pride and shame behaviors in response to the same success and failure situations--victory and defeat at the Olympic or Paralympic Games. Results showed that sighted, blind, and congenitally blind individuals from >30 nations displayed the behaviors associated with the prototypical pride expression in response to success. Sighted, blind, and congenitally blind individuals from most cultures also displayed behaviors associated with shame in response to failure. However, culture moderated the shame response among sighted athletes: it was less pronounced among individuals from highly individualistic, self-expression-valuing cultures, primarily in North America and West Eurasia. Given that congenitally blind individuals across cultures showed the shame response to failure, findings overall are consistent with the suggestion that the behavioral expressions associated with both shame and pride are likely to be innate, but the shame display may be intentionally inhibited by some sighted individuals in accordance with cultural norms.
Article
This paper presents evidence from three samples, two of college students and one of participants in a community smoking-cessation program, for the reliability and validity of a 14-item instrument, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), designed to measure the degree to which situations in one's life are appraised as stressful. The PSS showed adequate reliability and, as predicted, was correlated with life-event scores, depressive and physical symptomatology, utilization of health services, social anxiety, and smoking-reduction maintenance. In all comparisons, the PSS was a better predictor of the outcome in question than were life-event scores. When compared to a depressive symptomatology scale, the PSS was found to measure a different and independently predictive construct. Additional data indicate adequate reliability and validity of a four-item version of the PSS for telephone interviews. The PSS is suggested for examining the role of nonspecific appraised stress in the etiology of disease and behavioral disorders and as an outcome measure of experienced levels of stress.
Article
Although research on coping over the past 30 years has produced convergent evidence about the functions of coping and the factors that influence it, psychologists still have a great deal to learn about how coping mechanisms affect diverse outcomes. One of the reasons more progress has not been made is the almost exclusive focus on negative outcomes in the stress process. Coping theory and research need to consider positive outcomes as well. The authors focus on one such outcome, positive affect, and review findings about the co-occurrence of positive affect with negative affect during chronic stress, the adaptive functions of positive affect during chronic stress, and a special class of meaning-based coping processes that support positive affect during chronic stress.
Facial expressions of emotion and the course of conjugal bereavement
  • G A Bonanno
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Bonanno, G. A., & Keltner, D. (1997). Facial expressions of emotion and the course of conjugal bereavement. Jounal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 126 -137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.106.1.126
PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling
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Hayes, A. F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling. Retrieved from http://www.afhayes.com/public/process2012.pdf
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 687-702. http://dx .doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.73.4.687
Brief description of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form
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Keyes, C. L. M. (2009). Brief description of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form. Retrieved from www.sociology.emory.edu/ckeyes
Individual differences in uses of humour and their relation to psychological well-being: Development of the Humour Styles Questionnaire
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  • J Gray
  • K Weir
Martin, R. A., Puhlik-Doris, P., Larsen, G., Gray, J., & Weir, K. (2003). Individual differences in uses of humour and their relation to psychological well-being: Development of the Humour Styles Questionnaire. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 48 -75. http://dx.doi.org/10 .1016/S0092-6566(02)00534-2
MLmed: An SPSS macro for multilevel mediation and conditional process analysis. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Psychological Science
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Rockwood, N. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2017, May). MLmed: An SPSS macro for multilevel mediation and conditional process analysis. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Psychological Science, Boston, MA.