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Abstract

Describes how Skylab USA adapts SDT and Contextual Gamification to help competitive athletes be successful
Self-Determination Theory and Its Impact on
Physical Fitness, Exercise and Training
Alfred J Nigl, Ph.D. and Dean Grey
In a recent paper, the authors discussed how Skylab USA leverages the power of SDT
to maximize engagement behavior across its various business units (or planets in the
Skylab vernacular). In fact, the very high engagement levels measured across the
Skylab universe of businesses or planets are not adequately explained by the effects of
gamification alone.
A close examination of the Skylab USA platform clearly shows how Skylab was
designed to help users benefit from the positive effects of gamification yet at the same
time minimize inherent negative effects through its VRS or Value Reinforcement System
(which is based, in part, on Self-Determination Theory). It’s important to note at this
juncture that Skylab was deliberately architected to take advantage of several of the
leading theories in behavioral science and it has done an outstanding job weaving the
key concepts of these theories into a unified and totally integrated system. For example,
when a new planet is created in the Skylab universe, the planet architects follow the
social-cognitive tenets of Julian Rotter and Albert Bandura to make sure that the
behaviors to be reinforced are meaningful and the reinforcements (badges) have value
to the users which conforms to the Law of Behavior or PB=ƒ(E, VR), which both Rotter
and Bandura emphasized in their writings and their research.
Furthermore, the Skylab research team monitors the engagement statistics of each
planet (See Table A) on a monthly basis to make sure that the members of each planet
are engaged at the highest level possible.
Table A: Skylab Average Monthly Users April 2018
Planet active
users
total
users
Brand
Engage
ment %


  


  
   
   
 !"#   
$%   
&' (  (
$'
)
*
  
*
*
  
$
"
  
*%   
+%,

  (
Totals   
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  . )/%,..*
0,'1 **'#,-,
..''*##
2 #3 ..%#,-
-%,*-- '  
)/%,34#.- .'Cheer-Life5
-''-..#--/*- * 0- 
 *%' .# -6.-3 0
 '',*#'%*'.#-*
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...0'','.*#' ,
 %3
 !"#0,**'-% * -,
#',75**#'((' ' ,3 
.* - #- )#!8' %
, , * %9-'*,*
. %-6-*' -%'3
,,  '-''%.#'-,% '',#
 !"#3 ,/ '-''%,-
  )#!8' %', - 
.,# -%3
7- :/,%
;<-
%
)8
7,
--
 -/2
= 7'%
', = '.-
--
)
= '.-
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
 
'-
.
= '.-
)-  = 7'%?'.
-
>/

= 7'%?'.
-
+% = 7'%
7
+ %

= 7'%
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
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=( 7'%?'.
-

4 
= :
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76'# ,, '. )8
'#-#'%6.*  * #**'
'* !"#'',3'.-%'. 
-',#'% -'.-3
:#:- )#!8' %
+ @((A#   * %,%
.*- '@-'.-A3
)#!''- -1   
, - )-*"* %3
  ''1 - ,%* *--'. '
 -.-.#-'.--<%.'#!
'#'#'3
7 %# . .,'#'
#'. %-6-  * #!*
.-.#*6-@((A
. :',%*.- 
.-%B'. -3 C*..
 *--#  !"#-''%'%,,
 '','--  *.3 .-%
'/'*-@ - -,'%#  !"#
'',A3
8@((A:, 8@((A#-.. 
,# -'.-#' 6.#' 
-6#'.3- #   
 * ##-#  #'-#)8
'@'%-'.-A6 ,#!
'#!*3@8-:%(((A
+* #7'6*D-*
* #'%*C-%
- - ..#.*
6-.*'3%*#'%
* #7'6*D-
*6..-%6-..-.3
E:@((A#-   %.#
-' -. '#'*
6.-/**--'. '.-
6-..-.3
2-..@ )--#$'C-(AF*$% 
)/%,&)7 *'# /%'#*' %
,# '--#
-**'.#' .!;-,/3+  
#-,.* .-'#
*'C-3 #- '.!*6.' 
#C-%*C-9-#*'C-*
 * -*''--'#
'@3*3,*,'* A34 - 
@) (A #*C-*9--
' %.#<-%#'*'C
.#'3:-  # '*'C-.#''%-
#-*.%*@337'A3
; ''-    '!#
!DC- -- .%'
6 '#'*#-3
2#-   6-'-
*.#'-3
:-    .'*-- 
GBG@B 1-- #%''
  %*# * %*16.-. 
*# ..A32 ,** '*6
-.#'** B,
-!.-3:-,' *'C-%'
.'%
2- #  % * ,**'',.
,%)/%,'%,,,' *  *'C-3 
 ,  G' *G -' 
-,% ..-##' %##!
#-' %@A3)#' %@)8A
 %# ''.% #-..H
 * -.%- *-32.'%
--  ', - -..'/ ,-#
6B-#-32'%-- 
 %##!I--% - ##'H -
- /##-'37 -# - /*
 1*'-% 6/--*
* % (( - .*C-,/
#' '!.#-'!*- #
- , +).-)/+3
28C..  %#-*3%
%2>6.-* %
  .-.#,*@'*A-
#-'3% --.##!I--%
, *3 C# 
)@)-* %A3
Social-Cognitive Learning Theories
 -!-**.- '!
-- - #'!., .'%
,- **,%#- #--# #- 
',%*'.-**/  
'%.*'!.3)/%,*%
---.#'#I%*. #.*
 )/%, ,--#** * #**'
,%**,.--  .-.#--*
*-*#!I--%'*#!'3
$1@((A /%--.%*--*
* - -J'J;-. %-%6 
.5..-..
)J-.# '5--'.-.
.'  ##'
$1@((AJ
)J.-.# '--'.-.
.'  %#'#, 3
 -.,%JK*/.#'*, 5
.''%* * /*
6.-J7-.%-'#, 5.-'
#  #, 
6.--J   ..-*-'
-5-'#- *  #-'*
)#!-J*#*!-, .#'-5
..##!'***.,'*
#!
4,*J -< --,%- * 
--'# H, 52--,'# 
*, 
:#-'J:..H,  --
 / #---5'#!-
)#!I--%J .H-C-.#'*.-, 5
7..- , - *'.--
'-.*.J)*-- ,%.
 ''5.*.,'*
'*'
Reciprocal determinism: The dynamic interaction of the person, the
behavior, and the environment in which the behavior is performed; consider
multiple avenues to behavioral change, including environmental, skill, and
personal change.
Conceptual Model of Self-Determination Theory or SDT
Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and Contextual
Gamification
 - , --.'%*)#!
' %3 ''..%, 
##)8  .%- *-#'%-'.-
-3
7'%C .-*  ?  -#
? , 5  '#-
,%6#-##'/ ? -# 
, 3
'.-C#*9-H-  
-'#*,6.# #
..%H #-.-%3
: ,-- ..3
 #-# '. -%
-@33- 6'-A-
' * #**'5 6-% 9- 
-,')/%, -  -.#'-
.-%-%'*#3
Types of Motivation
  '%.#'*,%.*',
)#8' %@3*3)/%,&)7A3
L7'
L6-
L2-
 -'#'-,%)8.-..
#@,- -*:M%(('
((AJ
Amotivation ----- External-----Introjected -----Identi+ed-----
Integrated----- Intrinsic
7''   -/#
*.#', -3
62D-'***#!'
'-2C2*2- - .#
#!''3> -*#!
'' %./ -%,- % 
-%  -  %.#-
#' -%3
)86. -''   %,*  
, * # 6., -  % 
'%.'-'. 6.# ', 
H)#!I--% %@)A3
)8)!*,- %, , --.
  '*# -3)'.%. --.#
*-%'  '.-'.6'.- 
 ''/-, , .%# 3> 
)/%,.#'.-.-C--''%5  
*,-#  %#' ,  
,< %-3@)(A3
)/%, ,*...#33 E:)
%'.'...##%* )8
,-!'%-'.--3 # 
%'@,*A'.'*6 , * 
**'   %-#' --
 %**.#I%*. - #- , 5 
*.#-'*C--#-
'#)/%,32#- ##%
.
)/%,   **#*'C-'
@*'."/-A*C-%@'*N
3A  **# -#-'
-#-@'*N3A.
O3(3
2#- )/%,''%,#6$'C-
' ' *% ) ..--#%!*
36*'C-*..%' 
- 9-#*'C---'
B .'1* H**'##-3
)''%
 - #$@(A) @(A)/%,&)7
.-6-C,,.
,-#'. )-!*"* %
 - )#!I--%)#!8'!,
6$'C-.#' - *--
'.'1 /%.-.#)8-*7'%
'.-:
:#-
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$'C-#)-2-!-*')-!
*33:- $@(A
))3;3)- )3- 3*2**
)#!8' %)#!I--% % %-7-%
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