Article

Addition of luminescence process in Monte Carlo simulation to precisely estimate the light emitted from water during proton and carbon-ion irradiation

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Abstract

Although luminescence of water lower in energy than the Cerenkov-light threshold during proton and carbon-ion irradiation has been found, the phenomenon has not yet been implemented for Monte Carlo simulations. The results provided by the simulations lead to misunderstandings of the physical phenomenon in optical imaging of water during proton and carbon-ion irradiation. To solve the problems, as well as to clarify the light production of the luminescence of water, we modified a Monte Carlo simulation code to include the light production from the luminescence of water and compared them with the experimental results of luminescence imaging of water. We used GEANT4 for the simulation of emitted light from water during proton and carbon-ion irradiation. We used the light production from the luminescence of water using the scintillation process in GEANT4 while those of Cerenkov light from the secondary electrons and prompt gamma photons in water were also included in the simulation. The modified simulation results showed similar depth profiles to those of the measured data for both proton and carbon-ion. When the light production of 0.1 photons/MeV was used for the luminescence of water in the simulation, the simulated depth profiles showed the best match to those of the measured results for both the proton and carbon-ion compared with those used for smaller and larger numbers of photons/MeV. We could successively obtain the simulated depth profiles that were basically the same as the experimental data by using GEANT4 when we assumed the light production by the luminescence of water. Our results confirmed that the inclusion of the luminescence of water in Monte Carlo simulation is indispensable to calculate the precise light distribution in water during irradiation of proton and carbon-ion.

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... 26 We also found that the optical photon production of the luminescence of water is ∼0.1 photons∕MeV, by comparing the experimental results with those of the simulation. 27 These findings suggest that the optical light emitted by the irradiation of various radiations or radionuclides contain some luminescence of water in the light, even at a higher energy than the CL threshold. In some cases, the term "CL" or "CL imaging" might not be appropriate if the optical light were mainly from the luminescence of water. ...
... Monte Carlo simulation is a possible method to separately calculate the intensities of these two types of light if we incorporate the process of the luminescence of water in this simulation. 27 Thus, we have used Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the fractions of the luminescence of water for various types of radiations and radionuclides that emit radiation with a higher energy than the CL threshold as a way to clarify the major components of the produced light. ...
... 20 To simulate the optical processes, light photons of 0.1 photons/MeV were used for the luminescence of water. 27 For the refractive index of water and the spectrum of the luminescence of water in the simulation, we used the same values used in the previous work. 27 The wavelength of optical photons was simulated between 200 and 800 nm. ...
Article
Although the luminescence of water at a lower energy than the Cerenkov-light (CL) threshold has been found for various types of radiation, the fractions of the luminescence of water to the total produced light have not been obvious for radiations at a higher energy than the CL threshold because it is difficult to separate these two types of light. Thus, we used a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the fractions of the luminescence of water for various types of radiation at a higher energy than the CL threshold to confirm the major component of the produced light. After we confirmed that the estimated light production of the luminescence of water could adequately simulate the experimental results, we calculated the produced light photons of this luminescence and the CL from water for protons (170 MeV), carbon ions (330 MeV/n), high-energy x-ray (6 MV) from a linear accelerator (LINAC), high-energy electrons (9 MeV) from LINAC, positrons (F-18, C-11, O-15, and N-13), and high-energy gamma photon radionuclides (Co-60). For protons, the major fraction of the produced light was the luminescence of water in addition to the CL from the prompt gamma photons produced by the nuclear interactions. For carbon ions, the major fraction of the produced light was the luminescence of water and the CL produced by the secondary electrons in addition to the prompt gamma photons produced by the nuclear interactions. For high-energy x-ray and electrons from LINAC, the fractions of luminescence of water were ∼0.1 % to 0.2%. The fractions of luminescence of water for positrons were 0.2% to 1.5% and that for Co-60 was 0.4%. We conclude that the major fractions of light produced from x-ray and electrons from LINAC, positron radionuclides, and the Co-60 source are CL, with fractions of the luminescence of water from <0.1 % to 1.5%.
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... A simulation study was performed in order to assess if the postulated photoacoustic effect is the origin of our experimental observations. Figure 5 shows the results obtained by reproducing water luminescence from scintillation light, as suggested by Yabe et al. 19 . It should be noted that, the simulations performed do not model the Physics responsible for the water luminescence (which remains to be clarified), but is only using the equivalent model proposed www.nature.com/scientificreports/ ...
... Scintillation light production was activated in FLUKA to model the optical photon emission from water luminescence as proposed by Yabe et al. 19 and Cherenkov light production was deactivated. The optical photons spectrum was defined using a dedicated user routine, randomly sampling the wavelength of the generated optical photons ( ) assuming a −2 distribution (see Fig. S9 in the supplementary information). ...
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... The experimental results confirm that water emits a weak luminescence signal in the visible wavelength range when irradiated with protons as was reported earlier [1,4,11,13,14]. It is also possible to detect this very weak signal in a clinical proton therapy environment with a modern sCMOS camera in combination with a sensitive camera lens. ...
Article
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... Yamamoto et al. conducted various luminescence imaging experiments with different sources of radiation to image both water and air. Using proton-beam irradiation, they found that water was able to luminesce even during traditional proton-therapy, and determined that this information could be useful for dose and range estimation [20][21][22][23]30]. With carbon-ion irradiation, they performed similar luminescence imaging (also with energy below the Cerenkov-threshold) and determined, by measuring and deriving the light spectra, that this water luminescence was likely caused by an electromagnetic pulse produced from the dipole displacement inside water molecules as the derived spectra was found to be proportional to λ −2.0 [24,25]. ...
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... Geant4 also includes the optical photon processes (G4OpticalPhysics) with Cerenkov-light (G4Cerenkov) and scintillation photon generation (G4Scintillation) in the library. As the light production from the luminescence of water at lower energy than the Cerenkov-light threshold [8][9][10][11][12][13] , we used the scintillation process. These were the same procedures as we conducted the simulation for positive muons 30 . ...
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... The measured waveforms by the Si-PM modules (luminescence and Cerenkov-light) shown in figure 5 were deviated compared with that of the beam current shown in figure 9(A). The higher deviation of the waveforms by the Si-PM modules attributed to the statistical noise of the limited number of light photons detected by the sensors because the number of light photon productions of the luminescence and Cerenkov-light are small [1,2,16,17]. Although the limited number of light photons detected by the sensors was small, the waveforms of the light produced during the irradiation of carbon-ion were really signals from the luminescence or Cerenkov-light produced in water. ...
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Purpose: Proton beam dosimetry using bare plastic optical fibers has emerged as a simple approach to proton beam dosimetry. The source of the signal in this method has been attributed to Čerenkov radiation. The aim of this work was a phenomenological study of the nature of the visible light responsible for the signal in bare fiber optic dosimetry of proton therapy beams. Methods: Plastic fiber optic probes embedded in solid water phantoms were irradiated with proton beams of energies 100, 180, and 225 MeV produced by a proton therapy cyclotron. Luminescence spectroscopy was performed by a CCD-coupled spectrometer. The spectra were acquired at various depths in phantom to measure the percentage depth dose (PDD) for each beam energy. For comparison, the PDD curves were acquired using a standard multilayer ion chamber device. In order to further analyze the contribution of the Čerenkov radiation in the spectra, Monte Carlo simulation was performed using fluka Monte Carlo code to stochastically simulate radiation transport, ionizing radiation dose deposition, and optical emission of Čerenkov radiation. Results: The measured depth doses using the bare fiber are in agreement with measurements performed by the multilayer ion chamber device, indicating the feasibility of using bare fiber probes for proton beam dosimetry. The spectroscopic study of proton-irradiated fibers showed a continuous spectrum with a shape different from that of Čerenkov radiation. The Monte Carlo simulations confirmed that the amount of the generated Čerenkov light does not follow the radiation absorbed dose in a medium. Conclusions: The source of the optical signal responsible for the proton dose measurement using bare optical fibers is not Čerenkov radiation. It is fluorescence of the plastic material of the fiber.
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The purpose of this paper is to describe an outline of a proton therapy system in Nagoya Proton Therapy Center (NPTC). The NPTC has a synchrotron with a linac injector and three treatment rooms: two rooms are equipped with a gantry and the other one is equipped with a fixed horizontal beamline. One gantry treatment room has a pencil beam scanning treatment delivery nozzle. The other two treatment rooms have a passive scattering treatment delivery nozzle. In the scanning treatment delivery nozzle, an energy absorber and an aperture system to treat head and neck cancer have been equipped. In the passive treatment delivery nozzle, a multi-leaf collimator is equipped. We employ respiratory gating to treat lung and liver cancers for passive irradiation. The proton therapy system passed all acceptance tests. The first patient was treated on February 25, 2013, using passive scattering fixed beams. Respiratory gating is commonly used to treat lung and liver cancers in the passive scattering system. The MLCs are our first choice to limit the irradiation field. The use of the aperture for scanning irradiation reduced the lateral fall off by half or less. The energy absorber and aperture system in scanning delivery is beneficial to treat head and neck cancer.
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The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy.
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There is increasing interest in using Cerenkov emissions for quality assurance and in vivo dosimetry in photon and electron therapy. Here, we investigate the production of Cerenkov light during proton therapy and its potential applications in proton therapy. A primary proton beam does not have sufficient energy to generate Cerenkov emissions directly, but we have demonstrated two mechanisms by which such emissions may occur indirectly: (1) a fast component from fast electrons liberated by prompt gamma (99.13%) and neutron (0.87%) emission; and (2) a slow component from the decay of radioactive positron emitters. The fast component is linear with dose and doserate but carries little spatial information; the slow component is non-linear but may be localised. The properties of the two types of emission are explored using Monte Carlo modelling in GEANT4 with some experimental verification. We propose that Cerenkov emissions could contribute to the visual sensation reported by some patients undergoing proton therapy of the eye and we discuss the feasibility of some potential applications of Cerenkov imaging in proton therapy.
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Recent studies have proposed that light emitted by the Cherenkov effect may be used for a number of radiation therapy dosimetry applications. There is a correlation between the captured light and expected dose under certain conditions, yet discrepancies have also been observed and a complete examination of the theoretical differences has not been done. In this study, a fundamental comparison between the Cherenkov emission and absorbed dose was explored for x-ray photons, electrons, and protons using both a theoretical and Monte Carlo-based analysis. Based on the findings of where dose correlates with Cherenkov emission, it was concluded that for x-ray photons the light emission would be optimally suited for narrow beam stereotactic radiation therapy and surgery validation studies, for verification of dynamic intensity-modulated and volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans in water tanks, near monoenergetic sources (e.g., Co-60 and brachy therapy sources) and also for entrance and exit surface imaging dosimetry of both narrow and broad beams. For electron use, Cherenkov emission was found to be only suitable for surface dosimetry applications. Finally, for proton dosimetry, there exists a fundamental lack of Cherenkov emission at the Bragg peak, making the technique of little use, although post-irradiation detection of light emission from radioisotopes could prove to be useful.
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Since its discovery during the 1930s the Čerenkov effect (light emission from charged particles traveling faster than the local speed of light in a dielectric medium) has been paramount in the development of high-energy physics research. The ability of the emitted light to describe a charged particle's trajectory, energy, velocity, and mass has allowed scientists to study subatomic particles, detect neutrinos, and explore the properties of interstellar matter. However, to our knowledge, all applications of the process to date have focused on the identification of particles themselves, rather than their effect upon the surroundings through which they travel. Here we explore a novel application of the Čerenkov effect for the recovery of the spatial distribution of ionizing radiation energy deposition in a medium and apply it to the issue of dose determination in medical physics. By capturing multiple projection images of the Čerenkov light induced by a medical linear accelerator x-ray photon beam, we demonstrate the successful three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of the imparted dose distribution.
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Purpose: A novel technique for beam profiling of megavoltage photon beams was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced Čerenkov emission in water, as a potential surrogate for the imparted dose in irradiated media. Methods: A high-sensitivity, intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was configured to acquire 2D projection images of Čerenkov emission from a 4 × 4 cm(2) 6 MV linear accelerator (LINAC) x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 400 MU∕min incident on a water tank with transparent walls. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the LINAC sync pulse to reduce background light artifacts, and the measurement quality was investigated by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and measurement repeatability as a function of delivered dose. Monte Carlo simulations were used to derive a calibration factor for differences between the optical images and deposited dose arising from the anisotropic angular dependence of Čerenkov emission. Finally, Čerenkov-based beam profiles were compared to a percent depth dose (PDD) and lateral dose profile at a depth of d(max) from a reference dose distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system (TPS). Results: The signal to noise ratio was found to be 20 at a delivered dose of 66.6 cGy, and proportional to the square root of the delivered dose as expected from Poisson photon counting statistics. A 2.1% mean standard deviation and 5.6% maximum variation in successive measurements were observed, and the Monte Carlo derived calibration factor resulted in Čerenkov emission images which were directly correlated to deposited dose, with some spatial issues. The dose difference between the TPS and PDD predicted by Čerenkov measurements was within 20% in the buildup region with a distance to agreement (DTA) of 1.5-2 mm and ±3% at depths beyond d(max). In the lateral profile, the dose difference at the beam penumbra was within ±13% with a DTA of 0-2 mm, ±5% in the central beam region, and 2%-3% in the beam umbra. Conclusions: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of Čerenkov emission imaging to profile x-ray photon LINAC beams in water. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods, and upon future refinement may prove to be a robust and novel dosimetry method.
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Although luminescence imaging of water during proton-beam irradiation can be applied to range estimation, the height of the Bragg peak of the luminescence image was smaller than that measured with an ionization chamber. We hypothesized that the reasons of the difference were attributed to the optical phenomena; parallax errors of the optical system and the reflection of the luminescence from the water phantom. We estimated the errors cause by these optical phenomena affecting the luminescence image of water. To estimate the parallax error on the luminescence images, we measured the luminescence images during proton-beam irradiation using a cooled charge-coupled camera by changing the heights of the optical axis of the camera from those of the Bragg peak. When the heights of the optical axis matched to the depths of the Bragg peak, the Bragg peak heights in the depth profiles were the highest. The reflection of the luminescence of water with a black wall phantom was slightly smaller than that with a transparent phantom and changed the shapes of the depth profiles. We conclude that the parallax error significantly affects the heights of the Bragg peak and the reflection of the phantom affects the shapes of depth profiles of the luminescence images of water.
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Luminescence of water during irradiations of proton-beams or X-ray photons lower energy than the Cerenkov-light threshold is promising for range estimation or the distribution measurements of beams. However it is not yet obvious whether the intensities and distributions are stable with the water conditions such as temperature or addition of solvable materials. It remains also unclear whether the luminescence of water linearly increases with the irradiated proton or X-ray energies. Consequently we measured the luminescence of water during irradiations of proton-beam or X-ray photons lower energy than the Cerenkov-light threshold with different water conditions and energies to evaluate the stability and linearity of luminescence of water. We placed a water phantom set with a proton therapy or X-ray system, luminescence images of water with different conditions and energies were measured with a high-sensitivity cooled charge coupled device (CCD) camera during proton or X-ray irradiations to the water phantom. In the stability measurements, imaging was made for different temperatures of water and addition of inorganic and organic materials to water. In the linearity measurements for the proton, we irradiated with four different energies below Cerenkov light threshold. In the linearity measurements for the X-ray, we irradiated X-ray with different supplied voltages. We evaluated the depth profiles for the luminescence images and evaluated the light intensities and distributions. The results showed that the luminescence of water was quite stable with the water conditions. There were no significant changes of intensities and distributions with the different temperatures. Results from the linearity experiments showed that the luminescence of water linearly increased with their energies. We confirmed that luminescence of water is stable with conditions of water. We also confirmed that the luminescence of water linearly increased with their energies.
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Measurements of dose distribution are important for high energy X-ray beam from linear accelerators (LINAC) for quality assessment (QA) of the system. Although ionization chambers are commonly used for this purpose, measurements need relatively long time to obtain the data especially for the two- or three-dimensional dose distributions. To solve the problem, we conducted optical imaging of water during irradiations of high energy X-ray beam from a LINAC. We placed a water phantom set on a table with a LINAC system, and optical images of water were measured with a high-sensitivity cooled charge coupled device (CCD) camera during X-ray beam irradiations to the water phantom from the upper side. Measurements were made for different energies and doses of X-ray beams. We also measured dynamic images while moving the multi-leaf collimators of the LINAC system to evaluate the performance for more practical condition. Then we measured the light spectra of the optical images of water for X-ray beam by changing the optical filters. In all irradiations of different energies and doses of X-ray beam, we could obtain clear optical images in water. The lateral profiles of the images were almost identical to those calculated by planning system. However the depth profiles were slightly smaller at the deeper area. We obtained dynamic images while moving the multi-leaf collimators. The light spectrum of the image during X-ray beam irradiation was similar to that of the Cerenkov-light. There was not a significant difference in the depth profiles between different wave lengths of light. Optical imaging of water during irradiations of X-ray beam has a potential to be used for the lateral profile of the beams. Also it might be useful to estimate the depth profiles with slight under estimations at deeper areas. Dynamic optical imaging while moving the multi-leaf collimators during irradiation of X-ray were possible.
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The luminescence imaging of water during irradiation of beta particles with energy lower than the Cerenkov-light threshold has widely been considered impossible because such particles do not emit Cerenkov light. Contrary to this consensus, we found that luminescence imaging of water is in fact possible with such relatively low-energy beta particles. Beta particles from a 500-kBq 45Ca beta source (maximum energy: 257-keV) were irradiated to pure water, and the source’s luminescence images were acquired with a high-sensitivity, cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We also conducted image acquisition for an acrylic plate and a plastic scintillator. The water’s luminescence image during beta particle irradiation became visualized after a 1200-s acquisition time. The luminescence intensity with the beta irradiation of water was 0.54 photons/MeV, and the luminescence intensity with that of the acrylic plate was 3.3 photons/MeV. Consequently, we have shown that luminescence imaging of water using beta particles with energy lower than the Cerenkov-light threshold is a promising new method for beta particle detection and distribution measurements.
Article
Luminescence imaging of water using X-ray photon irradiation at energy lower than maximum energy of ~200 keV is thought to be impossible because the secondary electrons produced in this energy range do not emit Cerenkov light. Contrary to this consensus assumption, we show that the luminescence imaging of water can be achieved by X-ray irradiation at energy lower than 120 keV. We placed water phantoms on a table with a conventional X-ray imaging system, and luminescence images of these phantoms were measured with a high-sensitivity, cooled charge coupled device (CCD) camera during X-ray photon irradiation at energy below 120 keV. We also carried out such imaging of an acrylic block and plastic scintillator. The luminescence images of water phantoms taken during X-ray photon irradiation clearly showed X-ray photon distribution. The intensity of the X-ray photon images of the phantom increased almost proportionally to the number of X-ray irradiations. Lower-energy X-ray photon irradiation showed lower-intensity luminescence at the deeper parts of the phantom due to the higher X-ray absorption in the water phantom. Furthermore, lower-intensity luminescence also appeared at the deeper parts of the acrylic phantom due to its higher density than water. The intensity of the luminescence for water was 0.005% of that for plastic scintillator. Luminescence imaging of water during X-ray photon irradiation at energy lower than 120 keV was possible. This luminescence imaging method is promising for dose estimation in X-ray imaging systems.
Article
Purpose: The authors previously reported successful luminescence imaging of water during proton irradiation and its application to range estimation. However, since the feasibility of this approach for carbon-ion irradiation remained unclear, the authors conducted luminescence imaging during carbon-ion irradiation and estimated the ranges. Methods: The authors placed a pure-water phantom on the patient couch of a carbon-ion therapy system and measured the luminescence images with a high-sensitivity, cooled charge-coupled device camera during carbon-ion irradiation. The authors also carried out imaging of three types of phantoms (tap-water, an acrylic block, and a plastic scintillator) and compared their intensities and distributions with those of a phantom containing pure-water. Results: The luminescence images of pure-water phantoms during carbon-ion irradiation showed clear Bragg peaks, and the measured carbon-ion ranges from the images were almost the same as those obtained by simulation. The image of the tap-water phantom showed almost the same distribution as that of the pure-water phantom. The acrylic block phantom's luminescence image produced seven times higher luminescence and had a 13% shorter range than that of the water phantoms; the range with the acrylic phantom generally matched the calculated value. The plastic scintillator showed ∼15 000 times higher light than that of water. Conclusions: Luminescence imaging during carbon-ion irradiation of water is not only possible but also a promising method for range estimation in carbon-ion therapy.
Article
The luminescence imaging of water using the alpha particle irradiation of several MeV energy range is thought to be impossible because this alpha particle energy is far below the Cerenkov-light threshold and the secondary electrons produced in this energy range do not emit Cerenkov-light. Contrary to this consensus, we found that the luminescence imaging of water was possible with 5.5 MeV alpha particle irradiation. We placed a 2 MBq of 241Am alpha source in water, and luminescence images of the source were conducted with a high-sensitivity, cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We also carried out such imaging of the alpha source in three different conditions to compare the photon productions with that of water, in air, with a plastic scintillator, and an acrylic plate. The luminescence imaging of water was observed from 10 to 20 s acquisition, and the intensity was linearly increased with time. The intensity of the luminescence with the alpha irradiation of water was 0.05% of that with the plastic scintillator, 4% with air, and 15% with the acrylic plate. The resolution of the luminescence image of water was better than 0.25 mm FWHM. Alpha particles of 5.5 MeV energy emit luminescence in water. Although the intensity of the luminescence was smaller than that in air, it was clearly observable. The luminescence of water with alpha particles would be a new method for alpha particle detection and distribution measurements in water.
Article
Purpose: Proton therapy has the ability to selectively deliver a dose to the target tumor, so the dose distribution should be accurately measured by a precise and efficient method. The authors found that luminescence was emitted from water during proton irradiation and conjectured that this phenomenon could be used for estimating the dose distribution. Methods: To achieve more accurate dose distribution, the authors set water phantoms on a table with a spot scanning proton therapy system and measured the luminescence images of these phantoms with a high-sensitivity, cooled charge coupled device camera during proton-beam irradiation. The authors imaged the phantoms of pure water, fluorescein solution, and an acrylic block. Results: The luminescence images of water phantoms taken during proton-beam irradiation showed clear Bragg peaks, and the measured proton ranges from the images were almost the same as those obtained with an ionization chamber. Furthermore, the image of the pure-water phantom showed almost the same distribution as the tap-water phantom, indicating that the luminescence image was not related to impurities in the water. The luminescence image of the fluorescein solution had ∼3 times higher intensity than water, with the same proton range as that of water. The luminescence image of the acrylic phantom had a 14.5% shorter proton range than that of water; the proton range in the acrylic phantom generally matched the calculated value. The luminescence images of the tap-water phantom during proton irradiation could be obtained in less than 2 s. Conclusions: Luminescence imaging during proton-beam irradiation is promising as an effective method for range estimation in proton therapy.
Article
A new automatic quality assurance (AutoRCQA) system using a three-dimensional scanner (3DS) with system automation was developed to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the quality assurance (QA) procedure for proton range compensators (RCs). The system performance was evaluated for clinical implementation. The AutoRCQA system consists of a three-dimensional measurement system (3DMS) based on 3DS and in-house developed verification software (3DVS). To verify the geometrical accuracy, the planned RC data (PRC), calculated with the treatment planning system (TPS), were reconstructed and coregistered with the measured RC data (MRC) based on the beam isocenter. The PRC and MRC inner surfaces were compared with composite analysis (CA) using 3DVS, using the CA pass rate for quantitative analysis. To evaluate the detection accuracy of the system, the authors designed a fake PRC by artificially adding small cubic islands with side lengths of 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 mm on the inner surface of the PRC and performed CA with the depth difference and distance-to-agreement tolerances of [1 mm, 1 mm], [2 mm, 2 mm], and [3 mm, 3 mm]. In addition, the authors performed clinical tests using seven RCs [computerized milling machine (CMM)-RCs] manufactured by CMM, which were designed for treating various disease sites. The systematic offsets of the seven CMM-RCs were evaluated through the automatic registration function of AutoRCQA. For comparison with conventional technique, the authors measured the thickness at three points in each of the seven CMM-RCs using a manual depth measurement device and calculated thickness difference based on the TPS data (TPS-manual measurement). These results were compared with data obtained from 3DVS. The geometrical accuracy of each CMM-RC inner surface was investigated using the TPS data by performing CA with the same criteria. The authors also measured the net processing time, including the scan and analysis time. The AutoRCQA system accurately detected all fake objects in accordance with the given criteria. The median systematic offset of the seven CMM-RCs was 0.08 mm (interquartile range: -0.25 to 0.37 mm) and -0.08 mm (-0.58 to 0.01 mm) in the X- and Y-directions, respectively, while the median distance difference was 0.37 mm (0.23-0.94 mm). The median thickness difference of the TPS-manual measurement at points 1, 2, and 3 was -0.4 mm (-0.4 to -0.2 mm), -0.2 mm (-0.3 to 0.0 mm), and -0.3 mm (-0.6 to -0.1 mm), respectively, while the median difference of 3DMS was 0.0 mm (-0.1 to 0.2 mm), 0.0 mm (-0.1 to 0.3 mm), and 0.1 mm (-0.1 to 0.2 mm), respectively. Thus, 3DMS showed slightly better values compared to the manual measurements for points 1 and 3 in statistical analysis (p < 0.05). The average pass rate of the seven CMM-RCs was 97.97% ± 1.68% for 1-mm CA conditions, increasing to 99.98% ± 0.03% and 100% ± 0.00% for 2- and 3-mm CA conditions, respectively. The average net analysis time was 18.01 ± 1.65 min. The authors have developed an automated 3DS-based proton RC QA system and verified its performance. The AutoRCQA system may improve the accuracy and efficiency of QA for RCs.
Article
In radiation therapy, it is necessary to preset a monitor unit in an irradiation control system to deliver a prescribed absolute dose to a reference point in the planning target volume. The purpose of this study was to develop a model-based monitor unit calculation method for proton-beam therapy with a single-ring wobbling system. The absorbed dose at a calibration point per monitor unit had been measured for each beam-specific measurement condition without a patient-specific collimator or range compensator before proton therapeutic irradiation at Shizuoka Cancer Center. In this paper, we propose a simplified dose output model to obtain the output ratio between a beam-specific dose and a reference field dose, from which a monitor unit for the proton treatment could be derived without beam-specific measurements. The model parameters were determined to fit some typical data measured in a proton treatment room, called a Gantry 1 course. Then, the model calculation was compared with 5456 dose output ratios that had been measured for 150-, 190- and 220 MeV therapeutic proton beams in two treatment rooms over the past decade. The mean value and standard deviation of the difference between the measurement and the model calculation were respectively 0.00% and 0.27% for the Gantry 1 course, and -0.25% and 0.35% for the Gantry 2 course. The model calculation was in good agreement with the measured beam-specific doses, within 1%, except for conditions less frequently used for treatment. The small variation for the various beam conditions shows the high long-term reproducibility of the measurement and high degree of compatibility of the two treatment rooms. Therefore, the model was expected to assure the setting value of the dose monitor for treatment, to save the effort required for beam-specific measurement, and to predict the dose output for new beam conditions in the future.
Article
A new potential quality assurance (QA) method is explored (including assessment of depth dose, dose linearity, dose rate linearity and beam profile) for clinical electron beams based on imaging Cerenkov light. The potential of using a standard commercial camera to image Cerenkov light generated from electrons in water for fast QA measurement of a clinical electron beam was explored and compared to ionization chamber measurements. The new method was found to be linear with dose and independent of dose rate (to within 3%). The uncorrected practical range measured in Cerenkov images was found to overestimate the actual value by 3 mm in the worst case. The field size measurements underestimated the dose at the edges by 5% without applying any correction factor. Still, the measured field size could be used to monitor relative changes in the beam profile. Finally, the beam-direction profile measurements were independent of the field size within 2%. A simulation was also performed of the deposited energy and of Cerenkov production in water using GEANT4. Monte Carlo simulation was used to predict the measured light distribution around the water phantom, to reproduce Cerenkov images and to find the relation between deposited energy and Cerenkov production. The camera was modelled as a pinhole camera in GEANT4, to attempt to reproduce Cerenkov images. Simulations of the deposited energy and the Cerenkov light production agreed with each other for a pencil beam of electrons, while for a realistic field size, Cerenkov production in the build-up region overestimated the dose by +8%.
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For the study of charmonium resonances above and including the w c0 ; Fermilab experiment E-835 required an intense and stochastically cooled antiproton beam with kinetic energies from 8 GeV (the injection energy of the Accumulator) down to 4 GeV: We developed a scheme in which the momentum compaction factor of the machine was changed as the antiprotons were decelerated, so that the energies of interest to the experiment were kept above transition. The scheme was used during the E-835 10-month run of the year 2000. Here we describe the design criteria, operational procedures and diagnostic tools we used to exploit the machine as an efficient antiproton decelerator. The machine performance during data taking is also discussed, in relation to the main experimental requirements.
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Charged particle beams offer an improved dose conformation to the target volume when compared with photon radiotherapy, with better sparing of normal tissue structures close to the target. In addition, beams of heavier ions exhibit a strong increase of the linear energy transfer in the Bragg peak when compared with the entrance region. These physical and biological properties make ion beams more favourable for radiation therapy of cancer than photon beams. As a consequence, particle therapy with protons and heavy ions has gained increasing interest worldwide. This contribution summarises the physical and biological principles of charged particle therapy with ion beams and highlights some of the developments in the field of beam delivery, the principles of treatment planning and the determination of absorbed dose in ion beams. The clinical experience gathered so far with carbon ion therapy is briefly reviewed.
Article
By the minimum deviation method using a prism shaped cell, the absolute refractive indices of high-performance liquid chromatography distilled water were measured at the wavelengths from 1129 to 182 nm, at the temperature of 19 degrees C, 21.5 degrees C, and 24 degrees C, and then dn/dt at 21.5 degrees C was calculated. The coefficients of the four-term Sellmeier dispersion formula were determined by using the refractive indices at each temperature. As a result of the comparison of our refractive index data in the visible wavelength region with the formula by Tilton et al. at the National Bureau of Standards in 1938, both the refractive index data corresponded within 6 x 10(-6). In the UV region, the absolute refractive index at 193.39 nm calculated by the data measured nearby the wavelengths from 200 to 190 nm was 1.436517 (21.5 degrees C). The value was lower by 9 x 10(-5) or 10 x 10(-5) than the data measured by Burnett et al. at the National Institute of Standards and Technology.