Mycoplasmas primarily cause respiratory or urogenital tract infections impacting avian, bovine, canine, caprine, murine, and reptilian hosts. In animal husbandry, mycoplasmas cause reduced feed-conversion, decreased egg production, arthritis, hypogalactia or agalactia, increased condemnations, culling, and mortality in some cases. Antibiotics reduce transmission and mitigate clinical signs; however, concerning levels of antibiotic resistance in Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. capricolum isolates exist. To address these issues, we evaluated the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of halogenated phenazine and quinoline compounds, an N-arylated NH125 analogue, and triclosan against six representative veterinary mycoplasmas via microbroth or agar dilution methods. Thereafter, we evaluated the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of efficacious drugs.
We identified several compounds with MICs ≤25 μM against M. pulmonis (n = 5), M. capricolum (n = 4), M. gallisepticum (n = 3), M. alligatoris (n = 3), M. agassizii (n = 2), and M. canis (n = 1). An N-arylated NH125 analogue, compound 21, served as the most efficacious, having a MIC ≤25 μM against all mycoplasmas tested, followed by two quinolines, nitroxoline (compound 12) and compound 20, which were effective against four and three mycoplasma type strains, respectively. Nitroxoline exhibited bactericidal activity among all susceptible mycoplasmas, and compound 21 exhibited bactericidal activity when the MBC was able to be determined.
These findings highlight a number of promising agents from novel drug classes with potential applications to treat veterinary mycoplasma infections and present the opportunity to evaluate preliminary pharmacokinetic indices using M. pulmonis in rodents as an animal model of human infection.