Reply to Comment on Adôrno et al. (2017) “ Cloudina lucianoi (Beurlen & Sommer, 1957), Tamengo Formation, Ediacaran, Brazil: Taxonomy, Analysis of Stratigraphic Distribution and Biostratigraphy”

To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Full-text available
Building bridges between environmental and political agendas is essential nowadays in face of the increasing human pressure on natural environments, including wetlands. Wetlands provide critical ecosystem services for humanity, and can generate a considerable direct or indirect income to the local communities. In order to meet many of the sustainable development goals, we need to move our trajectory from the current environmental destructive development to a wiser wetland use. The current paper contain a proposed agenda for the Pantanal aiming the improvement of public policy for conservation in the Pantanal, one of the largest, most diverse, and continuous inland wetland in the world. We suggest and discuss a list of 10 essential interfaces between science, policy, and development in region linked to the proposed agenda. We believe that a functional science network can booster the collaborative capability to generate creative ideas and solutions to address the big challenges faced by the Pantanal wetland.
Full-text available
The evolutionary events during the Ediacaran–Cambrian transition (~541 Myr ago) are unparalleled in Earth history. The fossil record suggests that most extant animal phyla appeared in a geologically brief interval, with the oldest unequivocal bilaterian body fossils found in the Early Cambrian. Molecular clocks and biomarkers provide independent estimates for the timing of animal origins, and both suggest a cryptic Neoproterozoic history for Metazoa that extends considerably beyond the Cambrian fossil record. We report an assemblage of ichnofossils from Ediacaran–Cambrian siltstones in Brazil, alongside U–Pb radioisotopic dates that constrain the age of the oldest specimens to 555–542 Myr. X-ray microtomography reveals three-dimensionally preserved traces ranging from 50 to 600 μ m in diameter, indicative of small-bodied, meiofaunal tracemakers. Burrow morphologies suggest they were created by a nematoid-like organism that used undulating locomotion to move through the sediment.This assemblage demonstrates animal–sediment interactions in the latest Ediacaran period, and provides the oldest known fossil evidence for meiofaunal bilaterians. Our discovery highlights meiofaunal ichnofossils as a hitherto unexplored window for tracking animal evolution in deep time, and reveals that both meiofaunal and macrofaunal bilaterians began to explore infaunal niches during the late Ediacaran.
Full-text available
At the Ediacaran/Cambrian boundary, ecosystems witnessed an unparalleled biological innovation: the appearance of shelled animals. Here, we report new paleoecological and paleobiological data on Cloudina, which was one of the most abundant shelled animals at the end of the Ediacaran. We report the close association of Cloudina tubes with microbial mat textures as well as organic-rich material, syndepositional calcite and goethite cement between their flanges, thus reinforcing the awareness of metazoan/microorganism interactions at the end of the Ediacaran. The preservation of in situ tubes suggests a great plasticity of substrate utilization, with evidence of different life modes and avoidance behavior. Geochemical analysis revealed walls composed of two secondary laminae and organic sheets. Some walls presented boreholes that are here described as predation marks. Taken together, these data add further information regarding the structuring of shelled animal communities in marine ecosystems.
Full-text available
This study aims to update the knowledge about the importance of the late Ediacaran fossil record and geochemical data from Corumbá, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, at the Brazilian-Bolivian border. The Corumbá graben system is located near a triple junction developed above a hot spot of two young (545-480 Ma) Brasiliano provinces: the mostly Bolivian Chiquitos-Tucavaca aulacogen which cuts across the Amazon Craton/Rio Apa Block, and Paraguay Fold Belt. The Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover of South Paraguay Belt starts with the metasediments, diamictites and iron formation of the Jacadigo Group, now related to an end-Cryogenian age. Most remarkable geochemical and paleontological data come from the overlying Corumbá group, mainly from the dolostones with stromatolites of the Bocaina Formation, and limestones with shale and silty intercalations at this group's upper part, in the Tamengo Formation. This last unit contains a fossil assemblage correlated to late Ediacaran fauna. This fauna contains originally substrate-emergent tube-like Corumbella werneri, Cloudina lucianoi and microfossils. Furthermore, the fossils from the Corumbá Group in Brazil and Paraguay represent the most important witnesses for the occurrence of late Ediacaran fossils close to the basal Cambrian boundary in South America. Therefore, the Corumbá region is significant for paleogeographical reasons and, on the other hand, allows insights into the evolution of the oldest skeletonized metazoans. After new research results, the high degree of similarity of the geological facies evolution with other parts of the world (e.g. Yangtze Platform/Southern China, Siberia, Spain and Namíbia) can be demonstrated, where the fragmentation of the Rodinia super-continent and Neoproterozoic glaciations are also well-documented. The sharp top contact of the shallow marine Tamengo Formation with the laminated black shales (containing rare angular dropstones) of the discordantly overlying Guaicurus Formation indicates that the latter represents a new transgressive glacially influenced marine onlap succession. A Cambrian age of the Guaicurus Shales is not (yet) biostratigraphically verified, however, the underlying fossil record of cloudinids indicates a terminal Ediacaran age for the top of the Tamengo Formation. The microtubular cloudinids are interpreted as dysoxic analogues of recent tubeworms and are suggested to serve as first skeletonized worldwide "index fossils" to delineate the onset of a Phanerozoic-type body fossil vectorial evolutionary pathway. Based on the FAD of cloudinids as marker fossils, a revision of the Precambrian/Cambrian boundary is here advocated. This would avoid placing this important GSSP into the virtually worldwide Nomtsas-Baykonurian glacial hiatus.
Full-text available
Terra Nova, 23, 382–389, 2011 An in situ assemblage of Cloudina, thrombolites and an ichnofossil (cf. Archaeonassa), together with fragments of Corumbella werneri, is reported here, from a tidally influenced, shallow, lagoonal setting on a carbonate ramp within the Itapucumi Group, Paraguay. The association of Cloudina with thrombolites is comparable to other terminal Neoproterozoic occurrences, but the coexistence of shelly fossils in situ with trace fossils and microbially induced sedimentary structures is apparently unique. This discovery extends the record of Cloudina and Corumbella in South America and further elucidates the diversity, distribution and palaeoecology of shelled organisms in late Ediacaran time.
Full-text available
Neoproterozoico del Cratón del Río de la Plata, a saber: Grupo Arroyo del Soldado (GAS), Uruguay y Grupo Sierras Bayas – Formación Cerro Negro (GSB-FmCN) de Tandilia (Argentina). Ambas sucesiones se caracterizan por la intercalación de unidades carbonáticas y siliciclásticas, así como por un ambiente geotectónico correspondiente a un margen continental pasivo. Las formaciones Yerbal, Polanco y Cerro Espuelitas inferior se correlacionan litoestratigráficamente con las formaciones Cerro Largo, Loma Negra y Cerro Negro de Tandilia. Las formaciones siliciclásticas Yerbal y Cerro Largo representan la ingresión del mar Vendiano (Ediacarense) sobre el Cratón del Río de La Plata. Las sobreyacentes formaciones Polanco y Loma Negra se caracterizan por importantes depósitos carbonáticos, culminando con una expresiva superficie kárstica indicando regresión y exposición subaérea de la plataforma. La parte inferior de la Formación Cerro Espuelitas y la Formación Cerro Negro se caracterizan por depósitos margosos en la base, pasando a pelitas y facies heterolíticas hacia el tope. Se comunica el hallazgo de Cloudina cf. C. riemkeae de calizas micríticas de la Formación Loma Negra, apoyando la correlación de esta unidad con la parte inferior de la Formación Polanco y la asignación de ambas unidades al Ediacarense superior. Una microflora de acritarcas de baja diversidad ocurre en el GAS y en el GSB-FmCN. En el GAS se distinguen dos asociaciones de microfósiles de pared orgánica: una dominada por Bavlinella faveolata y Soldadophycus que ocurre en las formaciones siliciclásticas, y una de diversidad algo mayor denominada de Leiosphaeridia-Lophosphaeridium, característica de la Formación Polanco. En el GSB-FmCN la asociación está dominada por esferomorfos, principalmente Leiosphaeridia, siendo comparable a la asociación de Leiosphaeridia-Lophosphaeridium del GAS. Se reportan por primera vez para la Formación Villa Mónica las siguientes especies de acritarcas: Leiosphaeridia minutissima, Leiosphaeridia tenuissima y Synsphaeridium sp. Trátase de los fósiles más antiguos que se conocen en territorio de Argentina. En la Formación Cerro Largo superior aparece Leiosphaeridia tenuissima como elemento dominante y una sola vesícula de Leiosphaeridia minutissima, sumándose a previas descripciones de acritarcas de esta unidad. En la Formación Cerro Negro pudieron aislarse acritarcas asignables a Leiosphaeridia tenuissima. Se verifica una disminución del diámetro máximo de las acritarcas hacia el tope: de 450 μm para la Formación Villa Mónica a 380 μm para la Formación Cerro Largo y finalmente 200 μm para la Formación Cerro Negro. La asociación de acritarcas del GSB-FmCN puede correlacionarse con la Palinoflora de Leiosferas Simples o con la asociación Kotlin-Rovno del Ediacarense. La asociación de acritarcas del GAS inferior y medio ha sido asignada a la asociación Kotlin-Rovno y por tanto apoya una correlación entre las formaciones Cerro Largo, Loma Negra y Cerro Negro con la mitad inferior del GAS. Los datos quimioestratigráficos disponibles apoyan esta correlación, verificándose valores de 87Sr/86Sr entre 0.7069 y 0.7087 y variaciones seculares de δ13C para los carbonatos entre –3.5 y +5.8 ‰ PDB. Respecto a la Formación Villa Mónica, los datos disponibles son ambiguos en cuanto a su edad y posibles correlaciones. Mientras la asociación de estromatolitos que ocurre en esa unidad sugiere una edad Neoproterozoico temprano, la similitud de la microflora allí preservada con la de las unidades suprayacentes sugiere que no existe un hiato temporal muy importante entre las mismas. Desde el punto de vista paleogeográfico, las correlaciones arriba planteadas implican el desarrollo de una extensa plataforma en el Ediacarense tardío y en condiciones tropicales, que abarcaba una gran parte del Cratón del Río de la Plata e incluía posiblemente al Grupo Corumbá en Mato Grosso, Brasil.
Full-text available
Acritarchs and other organic-walled microfossils occurring in siltstones of the Las Ventanas Formation (Quebrada de Viera and El Perdido members) are systematically described and illustrated. The assemblage includes the following species: Leiosphaeridia tenuissima, Leiosphaeridia minutissima, Lophosphaeridium sp., Soldadophycus bossii, Soldadophycus major, Soldadophycus sp. and Vendotaenia antiqua. The microflora is characterized by low diversity (six species), dominance of L. tenuissima, absence of acanthomorphic acritarchs, and relatively large size of sphaeromorphs, reaching 400 μm in diameter. A number of species are shared with acritarch assemblages preserved in the overlying Arroyo del Soldado Group. Differences between assemblages include the occurrence of abundant Bavlinella faveolata and small size of spheroids in the Arroyo del Soldado Group. The assemblage occurring in Las Ventanas Formation is assigned to the Ediacaran Leiosphere Palynoflora, which spans the interval between the base of the Ediacaran (end of the Marinoan Glaciation, 635 Ma) and the termination of the Gaskiers Glaciation (582 Ma). An early Ediacaran age between 615 and 579 Ma is also supported by available radiometric ages. An extensional setting for Las Ventanas basin is suggested on the basis of the bimodal, synsedimentary volcanism, strong palaeorelief, great thickness of alluvial fan conglomerates and the evolution from continental to open marine environments. Diamictites occurring in the Quebrada de Viera Member are described for the first time, including associated dropstones which suggest a glacial origin. If confirmed, this would be one more example of the association between rifting and glaciation in the Neoproterozoic, coeval with a low-diversity, high-abundance acritarch microflora. A causal relationship between these tectonic, climatic and biologic events is discussed.
Cloudina is a late Ediacaran tubular fossil known from almost every continent. It is typically a mm- to cm-sized conical tube consisting of multiple, nested, funnel-shaped elements, forming the diagnostic “funnel-in-funnel” tube construction. Although the morphology and paleoecology of Cloudina have been extensively reconstructed, a comprehensive morphological description, specifically to enable interspecific distinction, is yet lacking, primarily due to poor taphonomic resolution. Here we illustrate a number of interspecific variations of three-dimensionally preserved Cloudina fossils from the late Ediacaran Dengying Formation (southern Shaanxi Province, South China). A systematic re-evaluation of previously published Chinese Cloudina is documented: two published species (C. sinensis and C. lijiagouensis) are synonymized with the type species (C. hartmannae) and two new species (C. ningqiangensis n. sp. and C. xuanjiangpingensis n. sp.) are established. The type species and the two new species are distinguished by the location of transverse and/or oblique annulations occurring at different portions of the funnel. A new co-occurring Cloudina-like fossil, Multiconotubus chinensis gen. et sp. nov., with a “cone-in-cone” tubular construction is also reported and described in this study, and a detailed comparison is provided between these taxa. The revised taxonomy of Cloudina fossils not only adds to our knowledge of morphological disparity of these important organisms, but also helps to reconstruct their paleogeographic distribution and related paleoecological dynamics.
The intriguing Ediacaran fossil Namacalathus is described from limestones of the Tagatiya Guazú Formation, Itapucumi Group, Paraguay. This is the fifth occurrence of the genus in the Ediacaran geologic record of the world. The Paraguayan Namacalathus specimens are preserved as partially complete spheroidal cups with an opening at the top and thin walled stems. The remains of this soft-calcified globe-shaped organism occur as sparse disarticulated parautochthonous fragments within bioclastic deposits dominated by Cloudina shells with subordinate Corumbella fragments. The co-occurrence of these three skeletal metazoan species in the same environmental context attests that the diversity of the Paraguayan accumulations is ecologically comparable to the typical assemblage of the Nama Group. The discovery of new samples of Namacalathus in the Itapucumi Group also indicates that this genus presented a broader paleobiogeographic distribution than previously thought and, in the same way as Cloudina, it represents a low latitude, shallow water metazoan of the Ediacaran Gondwana.
The Ediacaran–Cambrian transition records distinct evolutionary changes of metazoans. The Ediacaran fossils (i.e., Ediacara-type biota and tubular fossils) are in contrasting with the diverse small skeletal fossils (SSFs) from the early Cambrian. The apparent dissimilarities hindered people deciphering their evolutionary relationships. This also led to a popular assumption of mass extinction of the Ediacara biota and cloudinids at the Precambrian–Cambrian (Pc–C) boundary. Here we report for the first time a transitional fauna which consists of typical elements of Ediacaran, i.e. cloudinids and related tube-forming organisms, together with Cambrian SSFs including protoconodonts, anabaritids and siphogonuchitids from South China and Maly Karatau (Kazakhstan). The sequences yielding the transitional fauna are characterized by siliceous rocks in both areas and always considered to be unfossiliferous. Their chronostratigraphic assignment in South China has been debated for years. Based on the new fossil assemblage, the siliceous strata of the Daibu Member (Northeast Yunnan, South China) and the basal Kuanchuanpu Formation (South Shaanxi, South China) can be assigned to the earliest Cambrian SSF biozone (Anabarites trisulcatus–Protohertzina anabarica Assemblage Zone) and thus should be early Cambrian in age. A new subzone of the earliest SSF zone in eastern Yunnan (South China) is proposed herein defined as Ganloudina symmetrica–Rugatotheca typica Interval Subzone. The new fauna demonstrated that the cloudinids, characterized fossils of the late Ediacaran, persisted into the Cambrian Fortunian, and no major extinction event at the Pc–C transition.
Sinotubulites is a late Ediacaran biomineralizing tubular fossil with a probable animal affinity. It is characterized by millimeter- to centimeter-sized and multi-layered tubes open at both ends. The tube consists of two morphologically different walls: a multi-layered inner wall with weak ornamentations and a multi-layered outer wall with transverse or oblique corrugations and sometimes longitudinal ridges. The majority of previously published Sinotubulites species are considered as synonymous with the type species: S. baimatuoensis. Three new species—S. triangularis n. sp., S. pentacarinalis n. sp., and S. hexagonus n. sp.—are reported from the late Ediacaran Beiwan Member of the Dengying Formation in southern Shaanxi Province, South China. The three new species are similar to the type species in having nested, multilayered inner and outer tube walls. However, they are different in their polygonal cross sections and longitudinal ridges. S. baimatuoensis is more or less circular in cross section and lack longitudinal ridges on the outer tube wall, whereas S. triangularis, S. pentacarinalis, and S. hexagonus are respectively triangular, pentagonal, and hexagonal in cross section with three, five, and six longitudinal ridges on the exterior surface of the outer wall. The new material adds to the diversity of late Ediacaran biomineralizing animals. The triradial, pentaradial, and hexaradial tubes of S. triangularis, S. pentacarinalis, and S. hexagonus share some intriguing similarities in body symmetry with some early Cambrian tubular fossils, although these Cambrian tubes are not open at both ends. Still, it would be interesting to explore the tantalizing possibility of evolutionary continuity of triradial, pentaradial, and hexaradial tubular animals across the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary.
The earliest 'shdly' fossils deserve more detailed studies than they have received. Examination of the Cambrian genus Volborthella shows that it resembles in significant characters tubes of sabellariid worms, and on this basis the morphology and ecology of the animal can be reconstructed. The Cribricyathida, which include Cloudina and range from late Precambrian to lower Cambrian, are not related to Archaeoeyatha but are polychaete worm tubes with some structural characters which resemble those of serpulids. The problematic Angustiochreida (Anabarites etc.), of similar age, also show such resemblances. The first appearance in the geological record of mineralized skeletons ('shelly fossils'), built according to various interrelated modes in annelids and in a different manner in other Metazoa, is not a suitable stratigraphic marker. The early differentiation of annelid worms can now be documented palaeontologically.
The terminal Ediacaran genus Cloudina includes some of the earliest biomineralized fossils. It consists of a tube formed by stacked funnel-shaped elements, and is usually interpreted as the external skeleton of an early metazoan. Although a number of species have been described within this genus, their distinctiveness remains unclear and they may all belong to the type species, Cloudina hartmannae Germs, 1972. Here we describe the new species Cloudina carinata, from central Spain. C. carinata n. sp. has a distinct morphology characterized by external longitudinal crests, which confer on the tube an irregular polygonal cross-section. The funnels have a thickened apertural rim and a basal, slightly constricted circular opening. Successive funnels appear less deeply imbricated than in previously described material of Cloudina. The evidence of tube disarticulation in the material studied, particularly the abundance of loose funnels, indicates that funnels were secreted as independent elements, not fused to the previous ones. However, they could become fused during the life of the organism through the precipitation of inorganic cements between their walls. Several specimens of C. carinata n. sp. show evidence of asexual reproduction.
The Corumbá Group, cropping out in the southern Paraguay Belt in Brazil, is one of the most complete Ediacaran sedimentary archives of palaeogeographic, climatic, biogeochemical and biotic evolution in southwestern Gondwana. The unit hosts a rich fossil record, including acritarchs, vendotaenids (Vendotaenia, Eoholynia), soft-bodied metazoans (Corumbella) and skeletal fossils (Cloudina, Titanotheca). The Tamengo Formation, made up mainly of limestones and marls, provides a rich bio- and chemostratigraphic record. Several outcrops, formerly assigned to the Cuiabá Group, are here included in the Tamengo Formation on the basis of lithological and chemostratigraphical criteria. High-resolution carbon isotopic analyses are reported for the Tamengo Formation, showing (from base to top): (1) a positive δ13C excursion to +4‰ PDB above post-glacial negative values, (2) a negative excursion to −3.5‰ associated with a marked regression and subsequent transgression, (3) a positive excursion to +5.5‰, and (4) a plateau characterized by δ13C around +3‰. A U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age of an ash bed interbedded in the upper part of the δ13C positive plateau yielded 543 ± 3 Ma, which is considered as the depositional age (Babinski et al., 2008a). The positive plateau in the upper Tamengo Formation and the preceding positive excursion are ubiquitous features in several successions worldwide, including the Nama Group (Namibia), the Dengying Formation (South China) and the Nafun and Ara groups (Oman). This plateau is constrained between 542 and 551 Ma, thus consistent with the age of the upper Tamengo Formation. The negative excursion of the lower Tamengo Formation may be correlated to the Shuram–Wonoka negative anomaly, although δ13C values do not fall beyond −3.5‰ in the Brazilian sections. Sedimentary breccias occur just beneath this negative excursion in the lower Tamengo Formation. One possible interpretation of the origin of these breccias is a glacioeustatic sea-level fall, but a tectonic interpretation cannot be completely ruled out.
Cloudina-bearing biosparites and biomicrites in the lower part of the Nama Group, Namibia, contain a wide morphological diversity of shell fragments that can all be attributed to the two named species C. hartmannae and C. riemkeae. The unusual shell structure of Cloudina gives rise to a characteristic suite of taphonomic and diagenetic features that can be used to identify Cloudina-bearing deposits within the Nama Group and in other terminal Proterozoic deposits around the world. It is possible, moreover, to suggest that metazoan biomineralization occurred on a global scale by the latest Proterozoic, at the same time that evidence for complex multicellularity and locomotion in animals appears in siliciclastic "Ediacaran' rocks in the form of body and trace fossils. -from Author
Observações estratigráficas e paleontológicas sobre o calcário Corumbá, Boletim da Divisão de Geologia e Mineralogia
  • K Beurlen
  • F W Sommer
Beurlen, K., Sommer, F.W., 1957. Observações estratigráficas e paleontológicas sobre o calcário Corumbá, Boletim da Divisão de Geologia e Mineralogia. Rio de Janeiro.
Análise Estratigráfica da Bacia Corumbá (Neoproterozóico) -Mato Grosso do Sul. Tese de Doutorado, Instituto de Geociência -USP
  • P C Bogggiani
Bogggiani, P.C., 1998. Análise Estratigráfica da Bacia Corumbá (Neoproterozóico) -Mato Grosso do Sul. Tese de Doutorado, Instituto de Geociência -USP, São Paulo, 181p.
The Study of the Late Sinian-Early Cambrian Biotas from the Northern Margin of the Yangtze Platform. Scientific and Technical Documents Publishing House
  • L Ding
  • L Zhang
  • Y Li
  • J Dong
Ding, L., Zhang, L., Li, Y., Dong, J., 1992. The Study of the Late Sinian-Early Cambrian Biotas from the Northern Margin of the Yangtze Platform. Scientific and Technical Documents Publishing House, Beijing, 135 pp.
Integrated correlation of the Vendian to Cambrian Arroyo del Soldado and Corumbá Groups (Uruguay and Brazil): Palaeogeographic, Paleoclimatic and Palaeobiologic Implications
  • C Gaucher
  • P C Boggiani
  • P Sprechman
  • A N Sial
  • T R Fairchild
Gaucher, C.; Boggiani, P.C.; Sprechman, P.; Sial, A.N.; Fairchild, T.R., 2003. Integrated correlation of the Vendian to Cambrian Arroyo del Soldado and Corumbá Groups (Uruguay and Brazil): Palaeogeographic, Paleoclimatic and Palaeobiologic Implications. Precambrian Research, 120: 24-278. DOI:
Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: a focus on southwestern Gondwana
  • C Gaucher
  • G J B Germs
Gaucher, C., Germs, G.J.B., 2009. Skeletonised Metazoans and Protists. Neoproterozoic-Cambrian biota. In: Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., Frimmel, H.E. (Eds): Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: a focus on southwestern Gondwana. Developments in Precambrian Geology, 16, Elsevier, pp. 327-338. DOI:10.1016/S0166-2635(09)01623-5
Latin american journal of sedimentology and basin analysis
  • La Plata
La Plata (Uruguay y Argentina). Latin american journal of sedimentology and basin analysis, 12 (2), 145-160.
Caracterização Tafonômica e Estratigráfica ee Cloudina lucianoi (Beurlen & Sommer, 1957) Zaine & Fairchild, 1985, no Grupo Corumbá, Ediacarano do sudoeste do Brasil
  • F V E Meira
Meira, F.V.E., 2011. Caracterização Tafonômica e Estratigráfica ee Cloudina lucianoi (Beurlen & Sommer, 1957) Zaine & Fairchild, 1985, no Grupo Corumbá, Ediacarano do sudoeste do Brasil. Master dissertation, University of São Paulo, 103p.
Depósitos de rampa carbonática neoproterozóica do Grupo Corumbá, região de Corumbá
  • R S Oliveira
Oliveira, R.S., 2010. Depósitos de rampa carbonática neoproterozóica do Grupo Corumbá, região de Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul. Master dissertation, Instituto de Geociências, Universidade Federal do Pará, 88p.
Corumbella and in situ Cloudina in association with thrombolites in the Ediacaran Itapucumi Group
J. C. G. 2011. Corumbella and in situ Cloudina in association with thrombolites in the Ediacaran Itapucumi Group, Paraguay. Terra Nova, 23, 382-389. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2011.01023.x
Cloudina-Corumbella-Namacalathus association from the chronostratigraphy and metazoan evolution
  • L V Warren
  • F Quaglio
  • M G Simões
  • C Gaucher
  • C Riccomini
  • D G Poiré
  • B T Freitas
  • P C Boggiani
  • A N Sial
Warren, L.V., Quaglio, F., Simões, M.G., Gaucher, C., Riccomini, C., Poiré, D.G., Freitas, B.T., Boggiani, P.C., Sial, A.N., 2017. Cloudina-Corumbella-Namacalathus association from the chronostratigraphy and metazoan evolution. Precambrian Research, 285, 202-215. DOI:
Análise dos fósseis de parte da Faixa Paraguai (MS, MT) e seu contexto temporal e paleoambiental. Programa de Pós-graduação em Geologia Sedimentar
  • M F Zaine
Zaine, M.F., 1991. Análise dos fósseis de parte da Faixa Paraguai (MS, MT) e seu contexto temporal e paleoambiental. Programa de Pós-graduação em Geologia Sedimentar, Universidade de São Paulo, PhD Thesis, 215p.
Three-dimensional Cloudina specimens extraction from limestone of the Nama Group, Namibia. 35th. International Geological Congress, Capetown, Session: The dawn of animals
  • R R Adôrno
  • D A Do Carmo
  • M Denezine
  • C G Rodriguez
Adôrno, R.R., Do Carmo, D. A., Denezine, M., Rodriguez, C.G., 2016. Three-dimensional Cloudina specimens extraction from limestone of the Nama Group, Namibia. 35th. International Geological Congress, Capetown, Session: The dawn of animals, abstract number 4131.
Taxonomic remarks and stratigraphic implications of Cloudina species in Neoproterozoic strata
  • M C Baptista
Baptista, M.C. (forthcoming 2018). Taxonomic remarks and stratigraphic implications of Cloudina species in Neoproterozoic strata. Abstract accepted for the International Conference on Ediacaran Cambrian Sciences, Xi'an, China, 12-16 ago 2018.