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ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ ЭФИРНЫХ МАСЕЛ В МЕДИЦИНЕ, АРОМАТЕРАПИИ, ВЕТЕРИНАРИИ И РАСТЕНИЕВОДСТВЕ (ОБЗОР)
The article gives an overview of the research of essential oils (basically essential oils of the family Lamiaceae) and the possibilities of their use in medicine, aromatherapy, veterinary and plant growing. The components of essential oils with a high antimicrobial, antibacterial effect are determined: thymol, carvacrol (most active components of oils), eugenol, linalool, geraniol, menthol, neral, geranial, citronellal, thujone, fenchone, carvone, pinocampone, camphor, menton, anethole, estragol. These phenolic compounds are contained in significant quantities in the essential oils of such representatives of the family Lamiaceae, as oregano, summer savory, winter savory or mountain savory, wild bergamot or bee balm, common thyme or garden thyme. The mechanism of action of essential oils and their components on microorganisms is not fully understood. It is assumed that they reduce the permeability of cytoplasmic membranes of microorganisms, reducing activity of their aerobic respiration, counteract their survival, preventing them from adapting to an aggressive agent. The problem of replacing chemical antibiotics with phytobiotics, to which essential oils and their individual components are assigned, is becoming more and more urgent. Studies had shown that components of essential oils have some antioxidant, antimycotic, geroprotective, antiviral, and antituberculous properties. The above, far from complete, review of research on essential oils indicates a high demand for them in various areas of human activity. It is obvious that the properties of essential oils as well as their physiological aspect have not yet been fully studied, and the range of their use in various spheres of human activity can be substantially expanded. Keywords: essential oil, phytobiotics, antimicrobial, antibacterial activity.