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In this chapter, I provide an argument for why we should stop using equity as a goal and, instead, move toward rehumanizing mathematics. I provide 8 dimensions we should consider when rehumanizing mathematics teaching and learning.

Content uploaded by Rochelle Gutierrez

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All content in this area was uploaded by Rochelle Gutierrez on Jun 18, 2018

Content may be subject to copyright.

... 8). Current research (Gutiérrez, 2018;Trakulphadetkrai et al., 2019) suggests that when students experience stories with positive characters who look like them, the likelihood increases that students will see their race and culture as successful. ...

... I reviewed familiar titles and considered new resources critically to develop CRP, create a positive space for learning, and meet the people making mathematics in our world. The four perspectives, described with specific examples, illuminate possibilities for increasing representation of historically excluded communities and for rehumanizing mathematics (Gutiérrez, 2018). ...

... Developing CRP through the integration of stories, encourages all students to explore their narrative and experience mathematics rehumanized (Gutiérrez, 2018). It is my hope that connecting mathematics to students' lives and cultural experiences in this way will provoke more students to say, "Count me in!". ...

This article explores the potential of using children's literature in elementary mathematics classrooms as contexts for students to understand more fully the issues of equity, diversity, and inclusion. Informed by culturally responsive pedagogy, opportunities to link children's literature to mathematics education create cultural relevance for students and inspire confidence. An analytic framework for selecting and using children's literature provides a promising tool for teachers to question their resource choices and develop more culturally responsive pedagogy. Suggestions for resources that honor students' cultural identities, backgrounds, and languages offer teachers possibilities for building relationships, thinking mathematically, reading the world, and integrating for learning.

... Despite the best efforts of justice-oriented mathematics educators, mathematics education continues to be a site and source of marginalization, exclusion, and oppression for many students. Some researchers attribute this situation to unjust practices of mathematics education or to practices of mathematics education that are inadequate for remediating the injustices surrounding mathematics education, such as those created by racism, neoliberalism, settler colonialism, ableism, patriarchy, and other intersecting forms of oppression (e.g., Battey & Leyva, 2016;Gutiérrez, 2018;Martin et al., 2019;Yeh et al., 2020). Others blame mathematics education itself, claiming that its entanglements with oppressive currents make mathematics education inherently unjust (e.g., Chronaki, 2018;de Roock & Baildon, 2019;Pais & Valero, 2012). ...

... is often repetitive, traumatic, and assigned or graded in status-reinforcing ways; students are tracked by perceived ability level; hierarchies of ability are rigorously constructed and reinforced; competence is narrowly defined; and mathematics content is divorced from politics or ethics (e.g., Bishop, 1990;Calarco et al., 2022;Gutiérrez, 2018;Herbel-Eisenmann, 2007;Lange & Meaney, 2011;Louie, 2017;Mendick, 2005;Wagner & Shahjahan, 2015). Gutiérrez (2018) notes that each of these practices may feel minor on its own; over a decade or more of compulsory mathematics education, however, they collectively constitute a "slow violence" (p. 3) that dehumanizes students and teachers by not seeing them as whole people and by treating them as interchangeable and mechanical instruments of a static mathematics. ...

... is often repetitive, traumatic, and assigned or graded in status-reinforcing ways; students are tracked by perceived ability level; hierarchies of ability are rigorously constructed and reinforced; competence is narrowly defined; and mathematics content is divorced from politics or ethics (e.g., Bishop, 1990;Calarco et al., 2022;Gutiérrez, 2018;Herbel-Eisenmann, 2007;Lange & Meaney, 2011;Louie, 2017;Mendick, 2005;Wagner & Shahjahan, 2015). Gutiérrez (2018) notes that each of these practices may feel minor on its own; over a decade or more of compulsory mathematics education, however, they collectively constitute a "slow violence" (p. 3) that dehumanizes students and teachers by not seeing them as whole people and by treating them as interchangeable and mechanical instruments of a static mathematics. ...

What do ethical relations look like in the context of the many injustices that pervade mathematics education? In this paper, I argue, first, that violence is the relation that characterizes much of contemporary mathematics education and, second, that understanding ethical relations requires considering mathematics as an equal actor in creating possible relations rather than simply treating it as a context for human relations. I examine how literature in care theory, emancipatory pedagogies, and mathematics education have framed ethical relationality and suggest that the feminist new materialist conceptualization of response-ability offers several contributions for rethinking agency, justice, and praxis for mathematics teachers concerned with addressing mathematical violence.

... Based on our experiences as MTEs, we hypothesized that these wounds are key factors, which hinder EPSTs' professional development as mathematics learners and teachers. To help frame this phenomenon, we employed the (re)humanizing mathematics perspective (Gutiérrez, 2018). This perspective outlines how mathematics teaching has dehumanized both teachers and students and argues for mathematics teacher education research to move towards rehumanizing mathematics teaching and learning. ...

... This perspective outlines how mathematics teaching has dehumanized both teachers and students and argues for mathematics teacher education research to move towards rehumanizing mathematics teaching and learning. Gutiérrez (2018) conceptualized four ways that students and teachers can feel dehumanized in mathematics education: measuring and categorizing bodies instead of participation and positioning, evaluation of students instead of mathematics as living practice, rule following instead of rule creation, and lastly, speed instead of reflection and ownership. Measuring and categorizing bodies refers to the phenomenon of sorting students into high or low "ability" groups in mathematics classrooms as well as tracking students toward advanced mathematics courses or regular courses. ...

We, six elementary mathematics teacher educators (MTEs), noticed that many of our elementary pre-service teachers (EPSTs) were limited by their views of mathematics, typically as the result of their prior experiences with learning mathematics. Much of the research around such limiting views focuses primarily on negative experiences or treats such views as associated with individual factors (e.g., self-efficacy, mathematics anxiety, and views about problem solving). Using a (re)humanizing mathematics perspective, we sought to identify these limiting views of mathematics in a more holistic approach, considering the complexity of views that EPSTs hold. In this article, we introduce a framework, developed through collaborative self-study methodology, to give shared language to the types of mathematical wounds EPSTs may have. Utilizing this framework, MTEs can support EPSTs’ mathematical healing by enacting intentional instructional practices. We provide three general approaches to frame these intentional practices as well as reflection questions to support other MTEs in reconsidering their own courses and how they may take EPSTs’ mathematical wounds and healing into account.

... In response, there is a movement within several STEM fields to (re)humanize the subject and promote the humanity of people within the field. One of the most well-developed efforts has been led by Rochelle Gutiérrez (2009, 2018b, 2018a to rehumanize the field of mathematics. Gutiérrez calls for consideration not just of access and achievement but also the impact of politics, identity, and power at play within the learning of the subject. ...

... Gutiérrez calls for consideration not just of access and achievement but also the impact of politics, identity, and power at play within the learning of the subject. One of the critical aspects of a rehumanized mathematics is the idea of "windows and mirrors" such that learners see themselves in the field while also gaining news ways to view the world and gain appreciation for other viewpoints (Gutiérrez, 2018a). The effort to rehumanize mathematics has taken a strong footing within the field through scholarship (Jessup et al., 2021;Kress, 2019;Kurianski et al., 2022;Morales & DiNapoli, 2018;Simic-Muller, 2022;Yeh et al., 2020), workshops (Gutiérrez, 2022), and conference presentations (Dobie & MacArthur, 2021). ...

As a response to the increased need for humanization and representation in STEM, a set of open-source, customizable icons was developed using stackable vector graphics to allow participants to design their own research icons. These icons have the potential to both grant research participant’s greater agency in their representation and attempt to minimize bias introduced by the researcher. Additionally, the representation provided by the developed icons help to illuminate those that are participating in geoscience. The visual representation of research participants provides an opportunity for these individuals to see themselves represented in geoscience spaces and aids in visualizing the geoscience community. Examples of implementation in both quantitative and qualitative research are provided and the authors encourage their use by the broader research community.

... Examples of this type of instruction could be measuring angles and distance turned during traditional dances, structuring group work in a way that gives all students a voice in the discussion, and direct modelling of mathematical processes. Other studies suggest that mathematics teachers should understand traditional mathematics as presenting knowledge as a discrete, external commodity given to students but also understand and value non-traditional (Non-Western, Indigenous) views which recognize the meshing of ideas, people, and material conditions (Gutiérrez, 2018;Lakoff & Núñez, 2000;Mukhopadhyay & Roth, 2012). For example, ratio and proportion can be taught while building a fish drying rack (Kisker et al., 2012). ...

The Ohio Journal of Teacher Education (OJTE)
Bullying remains a problem as pervasive and complex with fatal and long-lasting impacts. This study investigated the effects of Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports (PBIS) on bullying in middle and secondary schools. The qualitative case study used content analysis by reviewing 200 PBIS journal articles. The authors selected and used descriptive coding for ten peer-reviewed articles resulting in six overall themes: PBIS is a comprehensive multitiered framework, sustaining a positive school climate, punitive to proactive discipline approach, building a positive school community, responsive leadership, management, and monitoring, and adhering to a sustained and integrated system. PBIS is not a solution but provides a systemic
framework to address bullying through a cohesive and holistic approach through a tiered interventions system.

... In these learning spaces that perpetuate inequities, Black learners often endure dehumanizing learning experiences where the opportunity to learn mathematics and science in a rich, relevant, and rigorous environment is not afforded to them (Hill, 2010;Spencer, 2009). Oftentimes, Black learners' funds of knowledge (Gonzalez et al., 2005) are not valued, they do not see themselves in the curriculum, or see how they can use the content to address the lived realities or the social problems they and their communities face (Gutiérrez, 2018). In most mathematics and science classrooms, learners are not empowered or equipped to understand that mathematics and science are liberatory tools that can help address racism, and improve the social condition of Black people, both locally and globally (Pitts-Bannister et al., 2017). ...

Equity by Design: Relevance and Beyond:
The Role of Socially Transformative Curriculum in Science and Mathematics Education
Image description: Group of smiling young students of Color of various gender expressions, with a smiling masculine-presenting teacher of Color, in a STEM classroom.]

... This reminded me of some recent criticism about the field of mathematics and math education where despite calls for "mathematics for all", the school system still fails so many. Gutiérrez (2018a) makes the argument that people all over the world, from all groups and ethnicities, do mathematics in everyday ways but that "schooling often creates structures, policies and rituals that can convince people they are no longer mathematical" (p. 2). ...

Justice Through the Lens of Calculus is a freely available MAA Notes Volume for anyone interested in building a more diverse, equitable, and inclusive math environment into their teaching and departmental practices. The volume contains case studies from over 30 institutions along with 8 cross-cutting thematic chapters written by math education researchers. Rather than simply listing best practices, the volume presents struggles, challenges, opportunities and achievements from our colleagues as well as theoretical frameworks and approaches to help us thoughtfully consider the impact of our intent. This volume is well-suited for discussion groups, professional development, workshops or courses on pedagogy. We encourage readers to reach out to the authors to learn more and foster dialogue within our community to improve mathematics for everyone!

In this paper, the authors take part in a duoethnographic dialogical and reflective conversation about their experiences in mathematics teaching and learning in two unincorporated United States (US) territories (Guåhan and the US Virgin Islands) and discuss how such differed from experiences since moving to the US mainland. The two authors are in a professional mentor-mentee relationship and currently work at a large research university in the central US. Informed by recent experiences since living in the US mainland, the authors used the edited book, “Rehumanizing Mathematics for Black, Indigenous, and Latinx Students” by Goffney et al. (2018) to ground their reflections and discussion. The Rehumanizing Mathematics conceptual framework was used as a sociopolitical lens to guide their dialogic exchange. As duoethnography was used as the methodological approach to analyze the discussion and reflections, the authors were the focal sites of research. Findings from this duoethnography revealed three themes: (1) a recollection of race, culture, language in mathematics; (2) math classrooms as familial community; and (3) culturally responsive mathematics. The paper concludes with implications of these findings for researcher and practitioner communities.

This article details the development of design principles to support teachers in planning for a Community-Based Mathematical Modeling task with a focus on social justice in the elementary grades. By reflecting on the dilemmas we encountered in the design and enactment of the tasks, we developed five design principles that allowed us to address issues of social justice as well as attend to powerful mathematical ideas to bring awareness and take action around a local problem. Through our article, we hope to share with mathematics teacher educators design principles to help plan for tasks with pre- and in-service teachers that prioritize connecting mathematics to social issues and empower both teachers and students to take action to make a positive impact in the community.

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