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Denne korte og populærvidenskabelige rapport har til formål at opsummere resultaterne fra den mere omfattende publikation ”Forskningsoversigt over effekter af friluftsliv på mental, fysisk og social sundhed” (Mygind et al., 2018), der på baggrund af en systematisk litteratursøgning beskriver og vurderer dokumenteret viden om effekterne af friluftsliv i fritiden, i pædagogisk praksis i forbindelse med uddannelse- og dagsinstitutioner og i social- og sundhedssektoren på fysisk, mental og social sundhed.
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This is the first investigation about education and research in friluftsliv (outdoor life) in Sweden. It also describes the corresponding fields in Denmark and Norway. A number of developmental steps are suggested.
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This prospective longitudinal survey compared the stress levels of students taught using an outdoor curriculum in a forest, with children in a normal school setting. We were especially interested in the effect outdoor teaching might have on the children's normal diurnal cortisol rhythm. 48 children (mean age = 11.23; standard deviation (SD) = 0.46) were enrolled, with 37 in the intervention group (IG), and 11 in the control group (CG). The intervention consisted of one full school day per week in the forest over the school year. Stress levels were measured in cortisol with three samples of saliva per day. Furthermore, the data allowed for statistical control of physical activity (PA) values. For data analysis, we used a linear mixed-effects model (LMM) with random intercept and general correlation matrix for the within-unit residuals. The LMM yields that IG have expected greater decline of cortisol compared to CG; rate 0.069 µg/L vs. 0.0102 µg/L (log-units/2 h), p = 0.009. PA does not show a statistically significant interaction with cortisol (p = 0.857), despite being higher in the intervention group (p < 0.001). The main effect in our measures was that the IG had a steady decline of cortisol during the school day. This is in accordance with a healthy child's diurnal rhythm, with a significant decline of cortisol from morning to noon. This effect is constant over the school year. The CG does not show this decline during either measurement day. Further research is needed to fully explain this interesting phenomenon.
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Aim: Outdoor adventure programmes aim to improve interpersonal relationships using adventurous activities. The current study examined the effectiveness of an outdoor adventure programme in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: The study included 51 participants (40 males, 11 females; age 3y 4mo-7y 4mo) enrolled in ASD special education kindergartens. Only the intervention group (n=30) participated in the outdoor adventure programme for 13 weeks, completing challenging physical activities that required cooperation and communication with peers and instructors. The control group (n=21) was not significantly different from the research group in age, sex, cognitive, and adaptive behaviour measures. Results: Outcomes after the intervention revealed significant improvement in social-communication and different directions in the two groups in the social cognition, social motivation, and autistic mannerisms subdomains of the Social Responsiveness Scale. While the group that received an outdoor adventure programme showed a tendency toward a reduction in severity, the control group showed the opposite (p<0.010). Interpretation: The outdoor adventure programme required problem-solving skills and forced the child to communicate in exciting situations. This study suggests that an outdoor adventure programme may be an effective intervention in addition to traditional treatments in young children with ASD. Future studies should examine the outcome of outdoor adventure programmes delivered for longer periods of time and maintenance of the achievements over time.
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Objective: Does learning outside the classroom (LOtC) in urban nature or cultural contexts one day per week contribute to raising children's physical activity (PA) in lower secondary school? Methods: PA was measured on 7 consecutive days using GT3x+ accelerometers. Overall, 44 girls and 40 boys from grades 4 to 6 participated. Results: Significantly higher PA levels were measured on days with LOtC compared to standard school days (12.4%; p < .001). When excluding the class using a nature setting, there was no difference in PA on LOtC days compared to standard school days. The mean PA levels among boys were significantly higher than girls in all measured settings except on days with PE. Conclusion: LOtC in a nature setting may promote PA in schoolchildren.
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In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS) test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking.
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This study considers the impact of using a series of Mindset interventions during a five-day outdoor personal development (OPD) course. Self-efficacy, resilience and Mindset were measured pre course, post course and one month post course. It was hypothesised that both experimental and control groups would increase their self-efficacy and resilience, and that the Mindset (experimental) group would significantly increase beyond the levels of the control group, who took part in the standard OPD course. It was also predicted that the Mindset group would move towards a Growth Mindset, whereas the control group would not show any change in Mindset. Hypotheses were tested using a randomised, quasi-experimental method. Separate mixed analyses of variance were carried out for each dependent variable, followed by planned comparisons and post-hoc tests using a Bonferroni correction. Results showed that both groups increased self-efficacy over time; however, there was no further significance for the experimental group. Resilience only increased significantly in the experimental group while the control group made no significant gain, and students in the experimental group moved significantly towards a Growth Mindset while the control group did not.
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Purpose and hypothesis: Improvements in pain, function and sports activity are the main goals of patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Participation in sports has become an increasingly important contributor to patients' quality of life (QoL). Hiking is one of the most popular summer activities among elderly people in alpine regions. Consequently, this randomized controlled trial investigates the impact of a 3-month guided hiking programme on patients' functional abilities and QoL following TKA. It was hypothesized that patients who participate in this programme would demonstrate improvements in functional and QoL parameters compared with a control group. Methods: Forty-eight TKA patients were included and randomized into either the intervention group (IG; n = 25) or the control group (CG; n = 23). The IG participated in a 3-month hiking programme (2-3 times a week), whereas the CG performed activities of daily living. The stair climb test (SCT), QoL questionnaires and isokinetic force measurements were completed at three time points (i.e. pre-test, post-test, retention-test). ANOVAs for repeated measurements were conducted for the SCT results. The Friedman test and the Mann-Whitney U test were performed for the QoL parameters. Results: After the 3-month hiking programme, the IG achieved faster overall walking times on the SCT. The time decreased from 4.3 ± 0.6 s (pre-test) to 3.6 ± 0.4 s (post-test) for the stair ascent (p = 0.060) and from 3.6 ± 0.6 s (pre-test) to 3.2 ± 0.5 s (post-test) for the stair descent (p = 0.036). The IG showed significant improvement on some of the subscales of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score from pre-test to retention-test (p < 0.01). In the CG, no significant changes were observed (n.s.). Conclusions: The results indicate moderate improvement in the functional abilities and QoL of TKA patients who participated in a 3-month guided hiking programme compared with the patients in the CG. Hiking did not have any acute detrimental effects on the TKA patients during this study period. Level of evidence: II.