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Resistance to Organizational Changes: Psychological Causes and Organizational Conditions

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The article discusses conducted study, the purpose of which was the development of science-based systematization of factors for resistance to organi- zational changes of the personnel and its approba- tion. The basis of the developing this idea is that the resistance to organizational changes is a form of organizational behavior and should be studied on three levels: individual, group and organizational one. On the ground of literature review the main (enlarged) factors of resistance in each level were identi ed and we developed a questionnaire where all factors are measured on a 7-point scale. The survey involved 336 line managers in the companies of Nizhny Novgorod that represents di erent spheres of the economy. Submitted data shows that priority guidelines of organizational changes in the Russian companies are technology and human resource management. It was revealed that the resistance to organizational changes of the sta has an average intensity and passive form; however the most intense cause of resistance to changes is human resource manage- ment. Also we found that the greatest in uence on the resistance of the sta shows: at the individual level – the inertia and fear of negative consequences and at the group level – group norms and cohesive- ness. According to the results of the factor analysis a conceptual model of resistance to organizational changes was suggested where psychological causes and organizational conditions are di erent. Designed systematization can be taken as the basis for di erential diagnosis of the psychological causes and organizational conditions of resistance to change. The usefulness of the diagnosis was ap- proved: individual psychological reasons should be studied by quiz of the employees with digital scaling for each cause; socio-psychological reasons – by the survey, supplemented by formal interviews with line managers and group discussions; organizational conditions – by method of group peer review and interviews with top managers of the company, in- cluding HR-managers.
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The objective of the present research is to assess roles of management information system implementation on personnel and managers resistance causes in Isfahan Power Plant Management Corporation in Iran.The research questions were based on effects of management information system implementation on individual, group — social and organizational resistance causes of personnel and managers.With regard to this matter, in this research, the researchers intended to study the effects of management information system implementation on the resistance causes of personnel. Thus the research methodology has been of descriptive with survey research.The findings of research indicated that management information system implementation created individual resistance causes in personnel.But has not created group — social and organizational resistance causes on personnel. Thus, overall it was concluded that management information system implementation created personnel resistance causes. On the other hand, research findings showed that management information system implementation did not created individual, group — social resistance causes on managers. But created organizational resistance causes. Overall, it was concluded that management information system implementation did not create managers resistance causes.
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The rapid rate of change in the world of management continues to escalate. New government regulations, new products, growth, increased competition, technological developments, and an evolving workforce compel organizations to undertake at least moderate change on a regular basis. Yet few major changes are greeted with open arms by employers and employees; they often result in protracted transitions, deadened morale, emotional upheaval, and the costly dedication of managerial time. Kotter and Schlesinger help calm the chaos by identifying four basic reasons why people resist change and offering various methods for overcoming resistance. Managers, the authors say, should recognize the most common reasons for resistance: a desire not to lose something of value, a misunderstanding of the change and its complications, a belief that the change does not make sense for the organization, and a low tolerance for change in general. Once they have diagnosed which form of resistance they are facing, managers can choose from an array of techniques for overcoming it: education and communication, participation and involvement, facilitation and support, negotiation and agreement, manipulation and co-optation, and both explicit and implicit coercion. According to the authors, successful organizational change efforts are characterized by the skillful application of a number of these approaches, with a sensitivity to their strengths and limitations and a realistic appraisal of the situation at hand. In addition, the authors found that successful strategic choices for change are both internally consistent and fit at least some key situational variables.
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