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Hardness in Drinking-Water, its Sources, its Effects on Humans and its Household Treatment
Hard Water is very dangerous to health of human beings. It causes many diseases in humans. It also disturbs the industries. It is not safe to drink, also for other domestic purposes. The hardness in water is caused by polyvalent metallic ions from sedimentary rocks, seepage and runoff from soils. Calcium and magnesium, the two principal ions, are present in many sedimentary rocks, are the principal ions causing Water Hardness. They are also common essential mineral constituents of food. Excess intakes of calcium and magnesium can increase the risks of osteoporosis, nephrolithiasis, colorectal cancer, hypertension and stroke, coronary artery disease, insulin resistance and obesity. Magnesium deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, with some epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrating a negative correlation between blood pressure and serum magnesium levels. This Hard Water containing these ions can be treated at primary level for household purposes. Point-of-entry ion exchange (water softener) devices are used in some households to remove hardness (calcium, magnesium) and iron from water.