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Hardness in Drinking-Water, its Sources, its Effects on Humans and its Household Treatment

Authors:
  • Lahore Garrison University Lahore Pakistan

Abstract

Hard Water is very dangerous to health of human beings. It causes many diseases in humans. It also disturbs the industries. It is not safe to drink, also for other domestic purposes. The hardness in water is caused by polyvalent metallic ions from sedimentary rocks, seepage and runoff from soils. Calcium and magnesium, the two principal ions, are present in many sedimentary rocks, are the principal ions causing Water Hardness. They are also common essential mineral constituents of food. Excess intakes of calcium and magnesium can increase the risks of osteoporosis, nephrolithiasis, colorectal cancer, hypertension and stroke, coronary artery disease, insulin resistance and obesity. Magnesium deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, with some epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrating a negative correlation between blood pressure and serum magnesium levels. This Hard Water containing these ions can be treated at primary level for household purposes. Point-of-entry ion exchange (water softener) devices are used in some households to remove hardness (calcium, magnesium) and iron from water.
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... Water hardness is caused by some multivalent metal ions, such as calcium (Ca 2+ ) and magnesium (Mg 2+ ). Excessive intake of calcium and magnesium can lead to osteoporosis, kidney stones, colon cancer, high blood pressure, etc. [6]. World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend drinking-water-permissive levels of 40-80 ppm calcium and 20-30 ppm magnesium. ...
... The volume of titrant consumed was recorded, and the calcium hardness was determined using Equation (5) [40]. Equation (6) was also used to obtain the concentration of calcium ions. ...
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One of the most advantageous methods for lowering water hardness is the use of low cost adsorbents. In this research, the effectiveness of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite type), activated carbon, and activated alumina was evaluated. These adsorbents were sequentially modified by NaCl, HCl, and NaCl-HCL to improve their ability to adsorb. The contact time and the amount of adsorbent used in the adsorption process were investigated experimentally to determine their effects. The results indicated that the best contact time for hardness reduction was 90 min, and the best concentrations of adsorbents in drinking water for zeolite, activated carbon, and activated alumina were 40, 60, and 60 g/L, respectively. In addition, for groundwater, these figures were 60, 40, and 40 g/L, respectively. The greatest possible decreases in total hardness under the best conditions by natural zeolite, activated carbon, and activated alumina adsorbents were 93.07%, 30.76%, and 56.92%, respectively, for drinking water and 59.23%, 15.67 %, and 39.72% for groundwater. According to the results obtained from experiments, NaCl-modified zeolite, natural zeolite, and NaCl-HCl-modified activated carbon performed better in terms of parameter reduction. The equilibrium data were well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model, whereas the kinetic data for the adsorption process were consistent with the pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium study of the adsorption process by the Morris–Weber model revealed that both chemical and physical adsorption are involved.
... The pH of overland flow, soil water, groundwater, and stream water was 8.90, 7.40, 8.40, and 6.40, respectively. Studies revealed that natural rainwater usually has a pH between 5.0 and 5.5 due to the equilibrium dissolution of the atmospheric CO 2 (Mestre et al., 2016;Akram and Rehman, 2018). ...
... The decrease in the concentration of Ca 2þ observed in soil water, overland flow, and groundwater, could be as a result of sequestering due to an ion exchange mechanism (Fageria, 2012). An increment in the Ca 2þ content in stream water was also noted, which could be an indication of hardness (Mestre et al., 2016;Akram and Rehman, 2018). ...
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Water chemistry changes when it flows through different pathways. This study aims to characterize the differences of water chemistry of five kinds of water in Obagbile Catchment including rainwater, overland flow, soil water, groundwater, and stream water, determine the changes in water chemistry that occur as the water moves from one pathway to another, and identify the factors responsible for the water chemistry changes. To do these, we collected 50 water samples from 10 heavy storms whose rainfall are equal to or more than 10 mm within an hour to test the changes of water properties across various pathways in this study. The results show that the overland flow had the highest pH and electrical conductivity (EC) and the rainwater had the lowest value of the two parameters. Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, Clˉ, and HCOŌ were found to have their highest concentrations in stream water; meanwhile, NO3⁻, NH4⁺, and SO4²⁻ were found to have almost same low concentrations in all the water samples. K⁺ was only dominant in stream water; while dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was lowest in rainwater, same in overland flow, soil water, and groundwater samples, and highest in stream flow. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that for all the water samples from different pathways, two factors mainly accounted for the total variances. The two factors were related to the crustal and anthropogenic sources in rainwater suggesting that the high loadings of major cations (e.g., Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺) in rainwater samples are soil-derived. The PCA for the overland flow and soil water showed strong correlations between pH, EC, and the concentrations of Na⁺, Mg²⁺, HCOO⁻, and CH3COO⁻, while the high loadings of all the parameters and the strong correlations among each other were evident in the stream water. In conclusion, the chemical constituents found in water are also the constituents of pathways through which the water flows. The major factors responsible for the change in the physico-chemical properties of water in Obagbile Catchment are weathering and anthropogenic activities.
... Magnesium and calcium ions are frequently found in rocks and reach in water through runoff and percolation. Total hardness is the sum of calcium and magnesium (Bansal andDwivedi, 2018 andAkram andRehman, 2018). According to the Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS, 2012), the acceptable limit of total hardness in drinking water is 200 mg/l and the permissible limit is 600 mg/l in the absence of an alternative source. ...
... Magnesium and calcium ions are frequently found in rocks and reach in water through runoff and percolation. Total hardness is the sum of calcium and magnesium (Bansal andDwivedi, 2018 andAkram andRehman, 2018). According to the Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS, 2012), the acceptable limit of total hardness in drinking water is 200 mg/l and the permissible limit is 600 mg/l in the absence of an alternative source. ...
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Due to increasing anthropogenic activities, all the forms of water resources of the world are being polluted continuously and creating a threat for all living organisms. The specific objective of this research paper is to examine the physicochemical and bacteriological water quality parameters of raw water of the Upper Kosi River of the Central Himalaya which water is being used for drinking by the people of the Almora Town and surrounding villages. For this purpose, three years (2018-2020) water quality data of raw water of Kosi River were collected from the Jal Sansthan Department Almora and these were examined based on the Bureau of Indian Standard. Out of total 14 water quality parameters, 11 parameters (i. e., pH, alkalinity, arsenic, calcium, fluoride, chloride, total hardness, iron, magnesium, nitrate and sulphate) were found within the range of permissible and acceptable limit of drinking water and 03 parameters (i. e., turbidity, e. coli and total coliform) were found exceeding the acceptable and permissible limit of drinking water. The present study reveals that the raw water of the Upper Kosi River is experiencing a high concentration of faecal coliform because of human activities. Thus, the study suggests that human activities along with the river sites and untreated disposal of sewerage into the river should be strictly banned for the sake of the life of the people.
... Both Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ are important nutrients and are required for the proper functioning of the human body. These minerals originate from the dissolution of carbonate (CO 3− ) minerals and dolomite rocks [39,40]. Sodium and K + generally originate from dissolution of clay minerals and the evaporation of silicates [41]. ...
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We investigated the quality of drinking water and its possible effects on human health in the Dera Ghazi Khan (D. G. Khan) district of Pakistan. Samples were collected from three tehsils of the D. G. Khan district, namely D. G. Khan, Kot Chutta, and Taunsa. A total of 50 samples (n = 50) were collected from the study area using standard procedures. The pH of the water samples ranged from 6.52–8.75, EC 0.31–9.78 dS m−1, and TDS 105–985 mg L−1. The bacterial analysis showed that 9 out of 50 samples (18%) contained pathogenic E. coli bacterial. The results showed that the pH and EC values of some sampling sites exceeded the WHO guidelines for drinking water. It was observed that the pH of only 1 sample, and the EC of 18 samples in D. G. Khan—5 in Kot Chutta and 16 in Tehsil Taunsa—exceeded the WHO guidelines. In terms of E. coli presence and related diseases (hepatitis A, B, and C), we collected data, which were screened and belonged to the sampling sites, from 1378 patients receiving treatment related to hepatitis A, B, and C. It was revealed that 530 patients belonged to the D. G. Khan site, followed by Taunsa (460), and Kot Chutta (388). Based on the results, it was concluded that the quality of drinking water samples generally was good, except for 6% of the samples, assessed using (SAR) and Kelly’s ratio (KR), and 9 sites were positive for E. coli.
... The major sources of hardness in pond water are from dissolved polyvalent metallic ions that comes from sedimentary rocks, seepage, and stormwater. Hard water may be detrimental to human health ( Akram et al., 2018 ;Hori et al., 2021 ). ...
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