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The last decade witnessed a quantum increase in wind energy contribution to the U.S. renewable electricity mix. Although the overall environmental impact of wind energy is miniscule in comparison to fossil-fuel energy, the early stages of the wind energy life cycle have potential for a higher environmental impact. This study attempts to quantify the relative contribution of individual stages toward life cycle impacts by conducting a life cycle assessment with SimaPro® and the Impact 2002+ impact assessment method. A comparative analysis of individual stages at three locations, onshore, shallow-water, and deep-water, in Texas and the gulf coast indicates that material extraction/processing would be the dominant stage with an average impact contribution of 72% for onshore, 58% for shallow-water, and 82% for deep-water across the 15 midpoint impact categories. The payback times for CO2 and energy consumption range from 6 to 14 and 6 to 17 months, respectively, with onshore farms having shorter payback times. The greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) were in the range of 5–7 gCO2eq/kWh for the onshore location, 6–9 CO2eq/kWh for the shallow-water location, and 6–8 CO2eq/kWh for the deep-water location. A sensitivity analysis of the material extraction/processing stage to the electricity sourcing stage indicates that replacement of lignite coal with natural gas or wind would lead to marginal improvements in midpoint impact categories.
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... International standard ISO 14044 has four phases-goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment and interpretation-which are applied to wind power systems. Few studies have been undertaken on the LCA of the wind power system for onshore and offshore locations in various countries such as Denmark [32], Italy [22], Spain [9], Canada [33], Brazil [23], Mexico [34], China [10,35,36], Libya [37], Texas [38], US [39], Germany [40], Taiwan [41], Jordan [42]. Based on the various studies, the amount of CO 2 emissions is summarized in Table 1. ...
... Yang et al. [10] explored two different capacity wind turbines for offshore locations and concluded that the offshore wind farm is vulnerable to energy and emissions with steel materials and due to the replacement of components such as generators and blades. Chipindula et al. [38] explored the LCA of onshore and offshore wind farms at a different capacity factors. They suggested that increasing capacity reduces CO 2 emissions and energy payback time at a suitable location and capacity factor. ...
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... To understand this in deeper detail, Chipindula et. al. has performed a life cycle assessment using Simapro and the Impact 2002+ process to measure the relative contribution of individual stages towards life cycle impacts in Texas and the environmental impact due to the development of OWFs (42). Finally, to examine whether the future of OWF development is progressive in the USA, Musial et. ...
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... Wind energy benefits have been highlighted by life-cycle analysis, which determined that the wind industry has a short CO 2 payback period (6 to 14 months), and a payback time for energy consumption between 6 and 17 months [34]. The financial payback period of a wind farm depends on many factors, among them CapEx, OpEx, wind farm power output over time, and electricity prices [35]. ...
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... Offshore wind power is an energy that does not emit pollutants. Some coastal countries have begun to build a large number of offshore wind power plants to develop green energy [1,2]. With related wind power facilities being widely constructed, the importance of maritime search and rescue operations is more emphasized by coastal countries. ...
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... Based on the technical, economic, social, and environmental criteria, the evaluation index system of a wind farm was established [5,6]. As a result, a large number of wind farms are being installed, and their number is constantly growing [7][8][9]. The wind farms in Europe have generated 458 TWh of electricity and covered 16% of the electricity demand in 2020. ...
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