Preprint

Development and Surveillance: humanitarians caught out or in? Monitoring and Managing Globalization: Critically Investigating the Relationship between Surveillance and International Development Rianne C ten Veen

Authors:
Preprints and early-stage research may not have been peer reviewed yet.
To read the file of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

The number of conflict-affected people and global military spending are at an all-time high and growing. Global power dynamics have also changed significantly, not least since 9/11; it is thus timely to reexamine the role of humanitarian players and their role in geopolitics. Are they still fully able and willing to adhere to their stated humanitarian principles 1 , or are matters more complex than that? If biometrics are so good to be effective and efficient and empowering, it seems research-worthy to investigate why disaster affected people, and those in most complex settings at that (so most vulnerable) are prioritised for pilots instead of more straightforward settings to iron out initial hiccups and settings to more equitably prove positive impact. And there seems more than coincidence in correlation of distributions and drones. It could suggest something else is at play beyond humanitarian imperative. Thus this PhD aims to research to what extent the humanitarian sector-perhaps unwittingly-is contributing to the militarisation of global surveillance, as if so this could have severe and permanent impacts on the ability of the humanitarian sector to live up to its own stated intentions. An exploration of the case studies of iris scan (Syrian refugee camp in Jordan) and drones (Somalia).

No file available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the file of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we illustrate (a) the background and goals of the interdisciplinary research project SAFEST and (b) first insights from the socio-scientific part within the project. Technical systems are often established without considering explicitly ethical, legal, and social implications. This frequently leads to a lack of acceptance. This paper aims at compiling an analytical scheme that tries to demonstrate the relevance of the social context for the emergence of different modes of acceptance in reference to surveillance systems at airports. It is intended to guide the technical experts to deal with and reflect acceptance issues in the process of technical development.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Whilst the current model of coordination is fairly effective at enhancing cooperation and supporting good practice on the ground, it's less good at addressing ‘strategic’, response-wide issues. Earlier this year ALNAP brought together experts in coordination from inside and outside the humanitarian sector to ask how this could be improved. 'Improving Humanitarian Coordination' presents themes discussed at the meeting, and sets out actionable recommendations.
Book
Full-text available
Given the popularity of drones and the fact that they are easy and cheap to buy, it is generally expected that the ubiquity of drones will significantly increase within the next few years. This raises questions as to what is technologically feasible (now and in the future), what is acceptable from an ethical point of view and what is allowed from a legal point of view. Drone technology is to some extent already available and to some extent still in development. The aim and scope of this book is to map the opportunities and threats associated with the use of drones and to discuss the ethical and legal issues of the use of drones. This book provides an overview of current drone technologies and applications and of what to expect in the next few years. The question of how to regulate the use of drones in the future is addressed, by considering conditions and contents of future drone legislation and by analyzing issues surrounding privacy and safeguards that can be taken. As such, this book is valuable to scholars in several disciplines, such as law, ethics, sociology, politics and public administration, as well as to practitioners and others who may be confronted with the use of drones in their work, such as professionals working in the military, law enforcement, disaster management and infrastructure management. Individuals and businesses with a specific interest in drone use may also find in the nineteen contributions contained in this volume unexpected perspectives on this new field of research and innovation. Bart Custers is Associate Professor and Head of Research at eLaw, the Center for Law and Digital Technologies at Leiden University, The Netherlands. He has presented his work at international conferences in the United States, China, Japan, the Middle East and throughout Europe and has published over 80 scientific, professional and popularizing publications, including three books.
Chapter
Full-text available
Crises are complex phenomena, whereby a long-term situation produces short-term but extremely alerting incidents. Such a crisis is caused by the wave of Middle Eastern refugees and immigrants, attempting to find refuge in European countries. This crisis exhibits an obvious humanitarian component, but also severely adverse environmental effects. A systematic crisis and disaster management process that involves big data analytics with principal goal to minimize the negative impact or consequences of crises and disasters, thus protecting societal and natural environment. Green IT engineering principles are here translated as a need to analyze data in order to detect early warnings of evolving environmental effects. Big Data analytics in the context of crisis management involves efficient solutions in four fundamental aspects of the related technology: Data Volume, measuring the amount of data available, with typical data sets occupying many terabytes. Data velocity is a measure of the rate of data creation, streaming and aggregation. Data variety is a measure of the heterogeneity of data sources, together with the richness of data representation—text, images, videos etc. Data value, measures the usefulness of data in making decisions. This chapter aims to present appropriate solutions in all aspects of distributed data analysis of social media data, so as to define the enabling technologies for high performance decision support for the purpose of crisis management. The presentation will include both existing and innovative appropriate technologies and existing state of the art systems and will aim to propose the advantages and disadvantages of different possibilities for alternative integrated solutions. Additionally, sources of data related to the Syrian refugee crisis are identified in the context of the social media platforms Facebook and Twitter with effects in both the humanitarian and the environmental fronts.
Article
Full-text available
The World Humanitarian Summit held in Istanbul, Turkey on 23 and 24 May 2016 saw 9,000 delegates from governments, United Nations agencies and civil society come together to address a ‘broken humanitarian system’. Did it achieve what it set out to do?
Article
Full-text available
Big Data analytics in national security, law enforcement and the fight against fraud have the potential to reap great benefits for states, citizens and society but require extra safeguards to protect citizens' fundamental rights. This involves a crucial shift in emphasis from regulating Big Data collection to regulating the phases of analysis and use. In order to benefit from the use of Big Data analytics in the field of security, a framework has to be developed that adds new layers of protection for fundamental rights and safeguards against erroneous and malicious use. Additional regulation is needed at the levels of analysis and use, and the oversight regime is in need of strengthening. At the level of analysis – the algorithmic heart of Big Data processes – a duty of care should be introduced that is part of an internal audit and external review procedure. Big Data projects should also be subject to a sunset clause. At the level of use, profiles and (semi-) automated decision-making should be regulated more tightly. Moreover, the responsibility of the data processing party for accuracy of analysis – and decisions taken on its basis – should be anchored in legislation. The general and security-specific oversight functions should be strengthened in terms of technological expertise, access and resources. The possibilities for judicial review should be expanded to stimulate the development of case law.
Article
Full-text available
Power is the ability to affect others to get the outcomes one prefers, and that can be accomplished by coercion, payment, or attraction and persuasion. Soft power is the ability to obtain preferred outcomes by attraction rather than coercion or payment. This anecdotal comment recounts the origins of the concept as an analytical tool, and its gradual development as an instrumental concept used in political discourse in Europe, China and the United States. This article is published as part of a collection on soft power.
Article
Full-text available
Azraq, a new camp for Syrian refugees in the Jordanian desert, presents an unprecedented integration of humanitarian service delivery and harsh security measures. I argue that Azraq’s ‘innovative’ order can only be explained in reference to three security claims that international refugee aid answers to: the claim to secure Syrian refugees, the claim to secure the Jordanian state and the claim to secure aid workers. Implementing these claims entails contradictory practices, which should create dilemmas for humanitarian aid, yet in Azraq these practices merge with each other. This merging (or integration) is aided by the humanitarian sector’s eager embrace of hi-tech solutions, especially digital data management. The article contributes to the growing debate about how security is articulated in the humanitarian arena by placing this debate’s key findings into conversation within a richly researched study of Azraq’s ‘material assemblage’ (Hilhorst and Jansen, 2010; Meiches, 2015). Further, the article emphasizes the importance of the under-researched area of aid organizations’ own security management.
Article
Full-text available
In a small number of crisis-affected countries, humanitarian organizations work amid active conflict and under direct threat of violence. This insecurity, reflected in rising aid worker casualty rates, significantly constrains humanitarian operations and hinders the ability of people in emergencies to access vital aid. Extensive field- based research in Afghanistan, southern Somalia, South Sudan and Syria measured humanitarian coverage (aid presence relative to the level of need) in each con- text to determine how this coverage is affected by insecurity. Results show that humanitarian operations are highly determined by security conditions, more than any other factor. As a result, coverage is uneven relative to need and appears politically skewed in favor of areas under control of Western-supported conflict parties. Additionally, humanitarian coverage in these war zones is even lower than it outwardly appears, as aid organizations tend to remain in the country (even after suffering attacks) but reduce and contract their field presence, adopting new, often suboptimal, means of programming.1
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Disaster is a complex problem that needs to be addressed using a multidimensional and multiplatform framework in collecting information from disaster agents. Social media has been an additional source of information from the ground. eBayanihan is designed to add the human dimension by providing a mobile and web based reporting tool for citizen reporting aside from collecting information in social media. The system serves as a real time dashboard for government agencies assigned to monitor communities during disaster events. However, success of community based computing systems such as eBayanihan is measured by continuous participation from its users. Appropriate motivation is relevant assuring continuous participation. This paper presents a new method of designing a community based computing environment that uses motivation analysis in determining the most probable critical software features that will maximize continuous user participation. The features to be evaluated were extracted from the development team and an initial survey was conducted to determine user motivations based on the volunteer functions inventory. Initial factor analysis revealed three motivation types, namely: civic responsibility, career, and protection. A second survey evaluated the usefulness of each feature in usage scenarios based on the motivation types identified in the first survey. Results indicate that Posting Messages in an Open Forum, Reputation Rating by Peers and Event Notification via FB, Twitter or Text are affected by two factors, namely user motivation and scenario, further validated in usage statistics in eBayanihan.
Article
Full-text available
This article argues that to make sense of surveillance today, the concept of surveillance culture should be added to the conceptual tool kit. This goes beyond the important concerns of the surveillance state and surveillance society to examine how today's subjects make sense of, respond to, and-in some cases-initiate surveillance activities. Building conceptually on Charles Taylor's work, the concepts of surveillance imaginaries and surveillance practices are proposed as a means of analysis of how surveillance is engaged today. Previous studies have hinted at surveillance culture both explicitly and implicitly, but more is needed. This article explores further one illustrative dimension-that of online practices of sharing. These practices are seen, in turn, in relation to visibility and exposure. Finally, the concept of surveillance culture is shown to be relevant to current discussions ethics and of digital citizenship.
Article
Full-text available
Development of new technologies is accompanied by a necessary ethical reflection of them. This ethical reflection, for the sake of the legitimization of its own discourse, defines the relations between the fundamental ontological categories such as human, culture, nature, technology and product. Ontological interpretation of these relations is bound to the specific model of rationality. This study compares two types of rationality for the interpretation of the relations between the concepts of man, nature, and the culture of technological developments and formulates the ontological consequences of both approaches. The first approach is the theory of Arne Naes, who in his theory departs from an anthropocentric starting point for understanding the relation between man and nature, preferring instead an understanding of the biosphere as a bearer of moral values [1]. The bearer of values is not in the human consciousness which makes the evaluation of objects and nature but the bearer is in the ecosystem and its autonomous existence. Bruno Latour, on the contrary, includes in the complexity of being not only human beings but also the products of technological processes, calling them hybrids or quasi-objects. The nature and quasi-object together constitute a sphere of transcendence. A comparison of the two approaches is focused on the definition of transcendence as a potential bearer of values, meanings and moral responsibility. We compare both approaches and evaluate the possibility of their use in the development of new concepts in ethics of technology.
Article
Full-text available
This article seeks to understand the dynamics of twenty-first century military intervention by the United States and its allies. Based on an analysis of Bush and Obama administration policy documents, we note that these wars are new departures from previous interventions, calling on the military to undertake post-conflict reconstruction in ways that was previously left to indigenous government or to the civilian aspects of the occupation. This military-primary reconstruction is harnessed to ambitious neoliberal economics aimed at transforming the host country's political economy. Utilizing the Iraq and Afghanistan interventions as case studies, the study analyzes the dynamics set in motion by this policy. The key processes are two concatenated cycles of military pacification and economic immiseration in discrete localities operating through varying paths of causation. Pacification by the military as well as subsequent military-primary introduction of neoliberal economic reform generates immiseration; locally based resistance. As well as ameliorating efforts aimed at reconstructing the old system subsequently generates repacification. Each iteration of the cycle deepens the humanitarian crisis, and assures new rounds of local and sometimes national resistance.
Article
Full-text available
The application of the armed UAV has been questioned for years. This paper hopes to examine the ethical rationality of using the armed UAV. Before this, we question some blames from the Pacifists, especially the blaming on using UAV in the military attack on terrorists. Ethical questions about the UAV’ military actions mainly concentrate in two aspects: the right to life and ethics of science and technology. The former involves the subjects' value sequencing and moral selection problem, which requires discussions under specific situations, otherwise it will make no sense. As for the latter, ethics of technology, defects would be resolved in the development. It’s important to not get technological risk and scientific ethics confused, which would make discussions on a wrong way. ions and laws related to deep seabed mining to mitigate its effect to the marine environment coinciding to the requirements of these conventions. The purpose of this study is to explore the preparedness of Malaysia to embark on exploration of deep seabed mining in areas beyond the national jurisdiction while observing the effects of deep seabed mining to the marine environment. The challenges in exploring the deep seabed mining as well as the relevant international and national laws related to deep seabed mining will also be observed in this study.
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a vision for future unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)-assisted disaster management, considering the holistic functions of disaster prediction, assessment, and response. Here, UAVs not only survey the affected area but also assist in establishing vital wireless communication links between the survivors and nearest available cellular infrastructure. A perspective of different classes of geophysical, climate-induced, and meteorological disasters based on the extent of interaction between the UAV and terrestrially deployed wireless sensors is presented in this work, with suitable network architectures designed for each of these cases. The authors outline unique research challenges and possible solutions for maintaining connected aerial meshes for handoff between UAVs and for systems-specific, security- and energy-related issues. This article is part of a special issue on drones.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The aim of this paper is to conduct a systematic literature review to understand the state of the art of partnerships between humanitarian organizations and business corporations in managing humanitarian logistics. Design/methodology/approach A systematic literature review is conducted based on the steps proposed by Denyer and Tranfield (2009). The context-intervention-mechanism-outcome (CIMO) logic is applied to identify the state of the art of partnerships between humanitarian organizations and business corporations in humanitarian logistics. Thirty-six papers related to the topic are extracted from recognized journal databases and then classified into four categories based on the CIMO logic: situational context, intervention factors, mechanisms and outcomes. Findings The study shows that while the context and mechanisms for developing cross-sector partnerships between the humanitarian and the business sector have been examined and illuminated by many researchers, additional research (in particular, empirical studies) is needed to measure outcomes as well as the contributions of partnerships to the performance of humanitarian logistics. In addition to synthesizing the literature in this area, this study also presents challenges of such partnerships. Practical implications The study improves the understanding of the state of cross-sector partnerships in humanitarian logistics as well as identifies opportunities for future research in this area. The study provides reasons and motives of initiating humanitarian–business partnerships in humanitarian logistics as well as their mechanisms and potential outcomes. This may help in developing successful logistics partnerships with each other. Originality/value This is the first systematic literature review to examine the nature of partnerships between humanitarian organizations and business corporations in humanitarian logistics using CIMO logic.
Technical Report
Full-text available
For refugees seeking to reach Europe, the digital infrastructure is as important as the physical infrastructures of roads, railways, sea crossings and the borders controlling the free movement of people. It comprises a multitude of technologies and sources: mobile apps, websites, messaging and phone calling platforms, social media, translation services, and more. The smartphone is an essential tool for refugees because it provides access to a range of news and information resources that they depend on for their survival. Access to digital resources plays a crucial role in the planning and navigating of their perilous journeys, as well as in their protection and empowerment after arrival in Europe. But despite their utility, mobile phones have a paradoxical presence in the lives of refugees – they are both a resource and a threat. The digital traces that refugees’ phones leave behind make them vulnerable to surveillance and other dangers. The research on which this report is based was conducted collaboratively by The Open University and France Médias Monde between October 2015 and April 2016. Our aim was to assess whether the provision of news and information for refugees was adequate to their needs. So much is written about refugees but little by or for them. Their voices often get drowned out in the cacophony of media and political debate about how to tackle “the refugee crisis”. The problems are exacerbated by the lack of a pan-­‐European approach to the provision of reliable, relevant and timely information. Policy and practice are uncoordinated and ineffective. There are many initiatives using apps but the field is fragmented and there is little or no collaboration. It is our common European problem. European member states alongside international news media need urgently to work together to find solutions to the worst humanitarian crises in recent history. There are significant ethical and practical difficulties in researching refugees, including privacy, security, trust, and informed consent. Our research team was very mindful of these problems. Most of us have had direct experience as researchers and/or workers in NGOs and refugees’ support groups. The research was carried out on a shoestring budget offered by Centre for Research on Socio-­‐Cultural Change at the Open University. We are very grateful to the researchers who gave their time generously, some on top of already heavy workloads. Professor Heaven Crawley and her colleagues generously shared with us a database of some 500 interviews conducted as part of the MEDMIG project. As a multi-­‐disciplinary team we are skilled in using a range of different research methods. Mixed methods enable us to offer diverse perspectives on the problem and to seek effective solutions to the information gaps that refugees face, and which often make the difference between life and death. We also involve refugees themselves in participatory research practices. We want to ensure that understanding the actual uses of technological, news and informational resources will direct any initiatives to create new resources and so contribute to their success. Refugees are not a homogenous group. The experiences of men, women and children in different places are profoundly different, as are their demographic characteristics and ideological positions as well as linguistic, social and cultural competences and digital literacy. All these factors need to shape the development of any resources for refugees. This report summarises the first of three planned phases of research. We hope this work will lead to the provision of valuable resources for refugees. This first phase feeds into plans to develop digital resources for refugees in Europe and to make recommendations to support such plans. The second and third phases will involve developing resources and monitoring and evaluating progress.
Book
Full-text available
This edited volume advances existing research on the production and use of expert knowledge by international bureaucracies. Given the complexity, technicality and apparent apolitical character of the issues dealt with in global governance arenas, ‘evidence-based’ policy-making has imposed itself as the best way to evaluate the risks and consequences of political action in global arenas. In the absence of alternative, democratic modes of legitimation, international organizations have adopted this approach to policy-making. By treating international bureaucracies as strategic actors, this volume address novel questions: why and how do international bureaucrats deploy knowledge in policy-making? Where does the knowledge they use come from, and how can we retrace pathways between the origins of certain ideas and their adoption by international administrations? What kind of evidence do international bureaucrats resort to, and with what implications? Which types of knowledge are seen as authoritative, and why? This volume makes a crucial contribution to our understanding of the way global policy agendas are shaped and propagated. It will be of great interest to scholars, policy-makers and practitioners in the fields of public policy, international relations, global governance and international organizations. © 2017 selection and editorial material, Annabelle Littoz-Monnet; individual chapters, the contributors.
Article
There have been thousands of public conferences and closed-door meetings on terrorism and counter-terrorism since 11 September 2001. They usually end up with recommendations and then everybody goes home after the group photo has been taken. This article will deal with the following questions: what happened to all these recommendations? Who has acted upon them and actually implemented them? Who has evaluated them? Were they any good? Specifically, it will analyze five critical issues: (i) the definition problem; (ii) the communication problem; (iii) the political problem; (iv) the religious problem; (v) the radicalization problem. Finally, it will be provided twelve rules for preventing and combating terrorism.
Book
President Eisenhower originally included 'academic' in the draft of his landmark, oft-quoted speech on the military-industrial-complex. Giroux tells why Eisenhower saw the academy as part of the famous complex - and how his warning was vitally prescient for 21st-century America. Giroux details the sweeping post-9/11 assault being waged on the academy by militarization, corporatization, and right-wing fundamentalists who increasingly view critical thought itself as a threat to the dominant political order. Giroux argues that the university has become a handmaiden of the Pentagon and corporate interests, it has lost its claim to independence and critical learning and has compromised its role as a democratic public sphere. And yet, in spite of its present embattled status and the inroads made by corporate power, the defense industries, and the right wing extremists, Giroux defends the university as one of the few public spaces left capable of raising important questions and educating students to be critical and engaged agents. He concludes by making a strong case for reclaiming it as a democratic public sphere.
Book
The overflow of information generated during disasters can be as paralyzing to humanitarian response as the lack of information. This flash flood of information-social media, satellite imagery and more-is often referred to as Big Data. Making sense of this data deluge during disasters is proving an impossible challenge for traditional humanitarian organizations, which explains why they're turning to Digital Humanitarians. Who exactly are these Digital Humanitarians and how do they make sense of Big Data? Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response answers this question. Digital Humanitarians are you, me, all of us-volunteers, students and professionals from the world over and from all walks of life. What do they share in common? They desire to make a difference, and they do by rapidly mobilizing online in collaboration with international humanitarian organizations. In virtually real-time, they make sense of vast volumes of social media, SMS and imagery captured from satellites and UAVs to support relief efforts worldwide. How? They craft and leverage ingenious crowdsourcing solutions with trail-blazing insights from artificial intelligence. This book charts the sudden and spectacular rise of Digital Humanitarians by sharing their remarkable, real-life stories, highlighting how their humanity coupled with innovative solutions to Big Data is changing humanitarian response forever. Digital Humanitarians will make you think differently about what it means to be humanitarian and will invite you to join the journey online.
Book
The 21st century is the age of "neo-liberalism" - a time when the free market is spreading to all areas of economic, political and social life. Yet how is this changing our individual and collective ethics? Is capitalism also becoming our new morality? From the growing popular demand for corporate social responsibility to personal desire for "work-life balance" it would appear that non-market ideals are not only surviving but also thriving. Why then does it seem that capitalism remains as strong as ever? The Ethics of Neoliberalism boldly proposes that neoliberalism strategically co-opts traditional ethics to ideologically and structurally strengthen capitalism. It produces "the ethical capitalist subject" who is personally responsible for making their society, workplace and even their lives "more ethical" in the face of an immoral but seemingly permanent free market. Rather than altering our morality, neoliberalism "individualizes" ethics, making us personally responsible for dealing with and resolving its moral failings. In doing so, individuals end up perpetuating the very market system that they morally oppose and feel powerless to ultimately change. This analysis reveals the complex and paradoxical way capitalism is currently shaping us as "ethical subjects". People are increasingly asked to ethically "save" capitalism both collectively and personally. This can range from the "moral responsibility" to politically accept austerity following the financial crisis to the willingness of employees to sacrifice their time and energy to make their neoliberal organizations more "humane" to the efforts by individuals to contribute to their family and communities despite the pressures of a franetic global business environment. Neoliberalism, thus, uses our ethics against us, relying on our "good nature" and sense of personal responsibility to reduce its human cost in practice. Ironically.
Article
We study from both a theoretical and an empirical perspective how a network of military alliances and enmities affects the intensity of a conflict. The model combines elements from network theory and from the politico-economic theory of conflict. We obtain a closed-form characterization of the Nash equilibrium. Using the equilibrium conditions, we perform an empirical analysis using data on the Second Congo War, a conflict that involves many groups in a complex network of informal alliances and rivalries. The estimates of the fighting externalities are then used to infer the extent to which the conflict intensity can be reduced through (i) dismantling specific fighting groups involved in the conflict; (ii) weapon embargoes; (iii) interventions aimed at pacifying animosity among groups. Finally, with the aid of a random utility model, we study how policy shocks can induce a reshaping of the network structure.
Book
While the military use of drones has been the subject of much scrutiny, the use of drones for humanitarian purposes has so far received little attention. As the starting point for this study, it is argued that the prospect of using drones for humanitarian and other life-saving activities has produced an alternative discourse on drones, dedicated to developing and publicizing the endless possibilities that drones have for “doing good". Furthermore, it is suggested that the Good Drone narrative has been appropriated back into the drone warfare discourse, as a strategy to make war “more human". This book explores the role of the Good Drone as an organizing narrative for political projects, technology development and humanitarian action. Its contribution to the debate is to take stock of the multiple logics and rationales according to which drones are “good", with a primary objective to initiate a critical conversation about the political currency of “good". This study recognizes the many possibilities for the use of drones and takes these possibilities seriously by critically examining the difference the drones’ functionalities can make, but also what difference the presence of drones themselves - as unmanned and flying objects - make. Discussed and analysed are the implications for the drone industry, user communities, and the areas of crisis where drones are deployed. © 2017 selection and editorial matter, Kristin Bergtora Sandvik and Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert; individual chapters, the contributors.
Book
Welcome to Milton High School, where fear is a teacher's best tool and every student is a soldier in the war on terror. A struggling public school outside the nation's capital, Milton sat squarely at the center of two trends: growing fear of resurgent terrorism and mounting pressure to run schools as job training sites. In response, the school established a specialized Homeland Security program. A Curriculum of Fear takes us into Milton for a day-to-day look at how such a program works, what it means to students and staff, and what it says about the militarization of U.S. public schools and, more broadly, the state of public education in this country. Nicole Nguyen guides us through a curriculum of national security-themed classes, electives, and internships designed through public-private partnerships with major defense contractors like Northrop Grumman and federal agencies like the NSA. She introduces us to students in the process of becoming a corps of "diverse workers" for the national security industry, learning to be "vigilant" citizens; and she shows us the everyday realities of a program intended to improve the school, revitalize the community, and eliminate the achievement gap. With reference to critical work on school militarization, neoliberal school reform, the impact of the global war on terror on everyday life, and the political uses of fear, A Curriculum of Fear maps the contexts that gave rise to Milton's Homeland Security program and its popularity. Ultimately, as the first ethnography of such a program, the book provides a disturbing close encounter with the new normal imposed by the global war on terror-a school at once under siege and actively preparing for the siege itself. © 2016 by the Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.
Chapter
This chapter elaborates the practical challenge of implementing human rights through humanitarian intervention, that is, a military intervention without the consent of the targeted state. Its opponents view it as the contemporary form of colonialism. This claim is substantiated by retrieving the historical background of this practice in the just war theory , in order to examine whether there is a precedent of such practice, and looking at its legal basis in international law. The analysis reveals that it is not easy to found humanitarian intervention on the just war theory in general, because different authors hold different opinions, and it is the same case when considering international law . Be it before or during the human rights era, scholars do not agree that humanitarian intervention is an established practice legally founded. Even the new concept of Responsibility to Protect is not shielded from the same suspicion of furthering Western interests. That is why, for the critics, when one looks at the practice, its authors and the reasons offered, humanitarian intervention is a neocolonialism, understood as both an establishment of a local political bourgeoisie that protects the interest of former colonialists, and the repetition of the colonial project.
Article
An unprecedented number of humanitarian emergencies of large magnitude and duration is causing the largest number of people in a generation to be forcibly displaced. Yet the existing humanitarian system was created for a different time and is no longer fit for purpose. On the basis of lessons learned from recent crises, particularly the Syrian conflict and the Ebola epidemic, I recommend four sets of actions that would make the humanitarian system relevant for future public health responses: (1) operationalise the concept of centrality of protection; (2) integrate affected persons into national health systems by addressing the humanitarian–development nexus; (3) remake, do not simply revise, leadership and coordination; and (4) make interventions efficient, effective, and sustainable. For these recommendations to be implemented, governments, UN agencies, multilateral organisations, and international non-governmental organisations will need to put aside differences and relinquish authority, influence, and funding.
Book
Clausewitz is often quoted but more often misunderstood. On Clausewitz presents his central ideas about war and politics - such as war as an instrument of policy, the concept of Absolute War, friction and the fog of war - in a clear and systematic fashion. It also presents the man, his life and the military and intellectual environment in which he produced his great work On War . A final section considers Clausewitz's relevance to the rapidly changing nature of war today.
Article
How do securitizing actors go about desecuritizing policy issues that have been securitized across multiple spatially bounded referent objects? Do such desecuritizations develop as a single or manifold process and with what political effect? And critically, how do we methodologically approach the study of such processes? These are pertinent questions that have been left underexamined in the (de)securitization literature. In seeking to fill this gap, this article makes two main points. First, it calls for a greater focus on the study of (de)securitizations that are constructed according to multiple spatially bounded referent objects, and on how these diverging strands of discourse and practice shape the overarching process. Second, it argues for a greater use of longitudinal methods of analysis as a better way to capture the evolutionary dynamics of desecuritization processes, which (re)constitute security policies and agendas. To illustrate these claims, the article considers the empirical case of Russia’s (de)securitization of insurgent threats since 2000 by tracing this process over a longitudinal period and across three spatial-referent objects, namely the local level: Chechnya; the sub-federal level: North Caucasus; and the national level: Russia.
Article
Purpose The devastating impact of catastrophic disasters on terrestrial infrastructure requires the adoption of alternative technology solutions among humanitarian organizations. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of the most commonly used satellite technologies in relief logistics: imagery and mapping, portable global positioning system (GPS) positioning devices, telecommunications, and GPS vehicle tracking. Design/methodology/approach The paper examines both the benefits and limitations of satellite technologies in light of the existing literature and through a complementary questionnaire survey with field workers involved in humanitarian operations in the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Findings The results show that the use of satellite technologies can facilitate most of the key logistics challenges encountered by relief actors. However, they also highlight important barriers within humanitarian organizations such as the lack of skilled workers and high costs, underlining the need for long-term training, resource investments, and cooperation between users and technology providers. Research limitations/implications The research findings remain valid only in the context of catastrophic disaster responses, which lead to similar destructions, logistical problems, and needs for satellite technologies. Practical implications This paper shows how satellite technologies can support humanitarian professionals in the field. It also provides policy recommendations that can facilitate the use of these technologies. Originality/value The applications of satellite technologies within humanitarian supply chains are not well-defined in the literature. This paper is the first to be dedicated to analyze the role of the main satellite technologies used in a relief logistics setting.
Article
The post-Snowden debates have often referred to an alleged trade-off between human rights and security that digital citizens need to negotiate, and to a balance that needs to be struck by policy makers. In this brief commentary, Gus Hosein problematizes the often uncritical discussion over an alleged balance between rights and security by addressing the recent conflict between Apple and the FBI over the encryption of mobile phones. He argues that an increase in privacy will also enhance the security of digital citizens.
Article
Since the early fifties of Twentieth Century, numbers of guidelines, frameworks and methodologies have been developed by countries, UN and other agencies to provide humanitarian assistance and manage humanitarian crisis properly. There are numbers of national policies and plans on disaster risk reduction and national plans for disaster management have also been established. However, in this Age of ICTs, anyone engaged in humanitarian crisis management activities understands that effective crisis management is now more demanding than ever before. Thus, crisis coordinators and crisis management researchers have started developing and using new ICT tools and technologies to deal crisis efficiently and effectively. However, all these tools and techniques create some critical challenges in data protection, privacy and security of users and some risks related to Malware, fear and confusion, government surveillance and so on. On this background, this research paper aims to provide a brief analysis on evolution of humanitarian crisis management approach and several risks related to Crowdsourcing for Humanitarian Crisis Management.
Article
Claims blockchain is more than just ICT innovation, but facilitates new types of economic organization and governance. Suggests two approaches to economics of blockchain: innovation-centred and governance-centred. Argues that the governance approach — based in new institutional economics and public choice economics — is most promising, because it models blockchain as a new technology for creating spontaneous organizations, i.e. new types of economies. Illustrates this with a case study of the Ethereum-based infrastructure protocol and platform Backfeed.
Article
This essay uses the theoretical lens of biolegitimacy to advance rhetorical criticism on contemporary drone warfare. As coined by anthropologist Didier Fassin, biolegitimacy describes the emergent preference for “life itself” under humanitarianism. Recasting biolegitimacy as a rhetorical achievement illuminates the strategies by which the United States accrues biolegitimacy for its drone program. In official White House rhetorics, the remotely piloted aircraft that strike over nonrecognized theaters of war, such as Pakistan, Somalia, and Yemen, are packaged in the “saving lives” logic of biolegitimacy. After exploring three rhetorical strategies of official drone rhetorics for achieving biolegitimacy, I suggest that drones themselves act as key distributors of biolegitimate social worth in the War on Terror.
Chapter
The essay makes a critical review of the legal debate in the USA and in the United Nations on moral and legal issues involved in military use of drones in wars of today. The main goal was to study the main lines of argument ant its relevance to military practice of targeted killing. We found that legal criticism is on the increase but the military practice continues. We stress the moral risk of using the autonomous weapons. In conclusion, we suggest the need for new both domestic and international regulations of any use of drones before they become fully autonomous and beyond control. Timing is crucial. If humans will not control the technology, the technology will control humans. New UN convention on smart weapons and the conditions under which its use should be allowed is a matter of practical necessity as the number of states using it increases so fast.
Chapter
This chapter looks at how nongovernmental organization (NGO) professionals think about, plan, select, and produce appeals and campaigns. Drawing on interviews with NGO practitioners, it discusses how professionals account for their communications practices and how their understanding of their organizations’ goals, structures, and values, and the conditions within which they operate, shape their decisions about how to communicate distant suffering and appeal to the public. The discussion is structured by the three types of relationship represented by the ‘humanitarian triangle’: (1) NGO-public; (2) public-beneficiaries; (3) NGO-beneficiaries. It concludes by discussing some of the consequences of NGOs’ employment of ‘intimacy at a distance’ in their communication, NGOs’ emphasis on creating comfortable and non-threatening relations with the public, and the implications of their communication’s over-reliance on the emergency model.
Chapter
The Sierra Leone Ebola disease outbreak attracted the largest cohort of international actors/states with similar or different political ideologies; actors with a history of corporation and/or competition on issues of governance (including public health governance) in Africa since the Cold War era. These actors including the GoSL, the World Health Organisation, MSF, UNMEER, USA, UK, China, Cuba, and Aspen Medical of Australia, are identified, and their motivations to intervene, and their key intervention strategies are critically examined.
Article
This special issue of the Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management gathers five papers built on contributions from the 2015 Annual Information System and Crisis Management Conference (ISCRAM). They focus on the various ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) relating to existing and emerging technologies for crisis response and management. Since 2013, the ISCRAM community has welcomed discussions around these questions, with the inclusion of a dedicated track in its annual conference. The first two rounds of papers predominantly engaged in ELS considerations related to IT innovation and use in crisis management and response in different contexts. These ranged from IT support for triage in mass casualty incidents, to restrictions placed on the use of mobile devices in organizations and the use of social media. Thus, by engaging in discussions about the unintended consequences of such innovation and use, these first occurrences allowed us to frame and propose different ways of designing and mobilizing IT for emergency management and response with an explicit and respectful engagement to ELSI by essentially ‘doing IT more carefully’ (Büscher, Liegl, Rizza & Watson, 2014).
Chapter
In this chapter, we will describe the value of the ontology in building a model of unconventional conflict. We do this by sketching the process of building a simulation using the ontology. This sketch identifies how each of the parts of the ontology supports model building. However, it is not a complete blueprint and is not meant to be one.
Article
This paper presents results from a two-round expert Delphi (N1 = 227, N2 = 126) realized in 2014 which focused on potential security related developments in Germany in the year 2030. Experts from politics, social and natural sciences, economy and end-users assessed the probability and desirability of diverse future developments such as privatization, surveillance, technological vulnerabilities and risk awareness. The data revealed discrepancies between the estimated probability and the attributed desirability of certain developments. Additionally, qualitative expert statements were analyzed in order to capture the latent structures behind the expert ratings. In terms of issues that are rated probable but undesirable, technological and economic factors dominate while more desirable but rather improbable future developments mainly concern political and social aspects of security. Furthermore, group differences between the experts are reported.
Book
Has political resistance has lost its ability to confront political and economic power and achieve social change? Despite its best intentions, resistance has often become incorporated and neutered before it achieves its aims, as new forms of power absorb it and turn it towards their own ends. Since the Enlightenment, the opposing forces of power and resistance have framed our view of society and politics. Exploring that development, this book shows how resistance can, ironically, reinforce existing status quos and fundamentally strengthen capitalist and colonial desires for “sovereignty” and “domination”. It highlights, therefore, the urgent need for new critical perspectives that breaks free from this imprisoning modern history. In this spirit, this book seeks to theorize the radical potential for a post-resistance existence and politics. One that exchanges a permanent revolution against authority with the discovery of novel forms of agency, social relations and the self that are currently lacking. That aims to construct economic and social systems based not on the possibility of freedom but enlarging the freedom of possibility. In the 21st century can we move beyond power and resistance to a politics at the radical limits that eternally expands what is socially possible?