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Serious Game Design for Flooding Triggered by Extreme Weather

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Abstract

Managing crises with limited resources through a serious game is deemed as one of the ways of training and can be regarded as an alternative to a table-top exercise. This article presents the so-called “Operasjon Tyrsdal” serious game, inspired by a real case of extreme weather that hit the west coast of Norway. This reference case is used to add realism to the game. The game is designed for a single player, while the mechanics are framed in such a way that the player will have limited resources, and elevated event pressure over time. Beside applying an iterative Scrum method with seven Sprint cycles, we combined the development work with desk research and used the involvement of testers, including crisis responders. The resulting game has expected features and behaviors, is game(ful), but allow the player to learn through an “After Action” report that logs all player's decisions, which is intended to trigger discussions.

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... Tanes and Cho (2013) conducted a user experience survey to statistically prove how "Beat the Quake" gamified application changed the playing community behaviour positively in preparing themselves for upcoming disasters. Besides, Van de Walle (2014), Mani et al. (2016), and Radianti et al. (2017) revealed the effectiveness of using gamified applications in motivating players to gain disaster awareness by conducting user experience surveys before and after playing the applications. Findings of these studies disclosed that the more people play these games, the more they get motivated. ...
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Chapter
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Chapter
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Crisis is an infrequent and unpredictable event which is challenging to prepare and resolve. Serious-game approach proved to provide potential support in training and simulating event of real-world crisis situation to different stakeholders. Yet in practice, the approach meets with difficulty on how to setup and utilize different core components such as asset management, crisis scenario generation, agent simulation, real-world constraints, and the evaluation process to yield beneficial information upon running the system. To address this issue, the key question is what can be done to propose a general crisis game-based framework providing necessary core components while generating evaluation result yielding potential analytical data for a crisis management process. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to review and consolidate the existing research on scenario generation techniques and related crisis simulation framework, then to propose novel solution to combine both processes and to derive a desirable scenario content which is also being validated in the simulation framework based on the JADE multi-agent architecture.
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Training is an important part of emergency preparedness activities. Unfortunately the budget cuts and economic downturn is taking a toll on government agencies' ability to conduct large scale exercises. The use of ICT in emergency preparedness can seriously lower the training costs if the trainees are motivated to use the systems. In this study we present an ongoing research we are carrying out with a county public health department to streamline their trainings. We use motivational affordances theory to guide our design efforts.
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The serious games community is moving toward research focusing on direct comparisons between learning outcomes of serious games and those of more traditional training methods. Such comparisons are difficult, however, due to the lack of a consistent taxonomy of game attributes for serious games. Without a clear understanding of what truly constitutes a game, scientific inquiry will continue to reveal inconsistent findings, making it hard to provide practitioners with guidance as to the most important attribute(s) for desired training outcomes. This article presents a game attribute taxonomy derived from a comprehensive literature review and subsequent card sorts performed by subject matter experts (SMEs). The categories of serious game attributes that emerged represent the shared mental models of game SMEs and serve to provide a comprehensive collection of game attributes. In order to guide future serious games research, the existing literature base is organized around the framework of this taxonomy.
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The convergence of training simulations with serious games can incite trainees to a more active participation, improving their learning experience and involvement. Games are difficult and expensive to develop thus, methodologies that support both reuse throughout the M&S lifecycle and interoperability are critical. There are different M&S methodologies proposed to facilitate the development of new serious games for training. However, these methodologies typically do not provide support to the whole M&S life cycle, from behavior modeling to communication and 3D presentation and interaction. In this paper, we introduce an M&S methodology to create, reuse and interoperate 3D serious games for training. We refined and validated this methodology by applying it in a practical undergrad discipline, in which students modeled dozens of emergency management training simulations: from START triage and fire fighting to emergency command and operations system. As results, we present a few developed scenarios.
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The lack of assessment tools to analyze serious games and insufficient knowledge on their impact on players is a recurring critique in the field of game and media studies, education science and psychology. Although initial empirical studies on serious games usage deliver discussable results, numerous questions remain unacknowledged. In particular, questions regarding the quality of their formal conceptual design in relation to their purpose mostly stay uncharted. In the majority of cases the designers' good intentions justify incoherence and insufficiencies in their design. In addition, serious games are mainly assessed in terms of the quality of their content, not in terms of their intention-based design. This paper argues that analyzing a game's formal conceptual design, its elements, and their relation to each other based on the game's purpose is a constructive first step in assessing serious games. By outlining the background of the Serious Game Design Assessment Framework and exemplifying its use, a constructive structure to examine purpose-based games is introduced. To demonstrate how to assess the formal conceptual design of serious games we applied the SGDA Framework to the online games "Sweatshop" (2011) and "ICED" (2008).
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The stated, accepted philosophy for systems development is that the development process is a well understood approach that can be planned, estimated, and successfully completed. This has proven incorrect in practice. SCRUM assumes that the systems development process is an unpredictable, complicated process that can only be roughly described as an overall progression. SCRUM defines the systems development process as a loose set of activities that combines known, workable tools and techniques with the best that a development team can devise to build systems. Since these activities are loose, controls to manage the process and inherent risk are used. SCRUM is an enhancement of the commonly used iterative/incremental object-oriented development cycle.
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a b s t r a c t The training of social skills in organizational settings has become more and more important for an effective communicative exchange between members of staff. Especially in companies where the line of communication has to be fast and unmistakable, e.g. in crisis management units, the regular training of communication skills is therefore indispensable. The DREAD-ED project proposes an innovative, tech-nology-based teaching methodology to meet these needs. The methodology provides a serious game which enables its users to train soft skills in a virtual environment under safe conditions. The current paper presents the results of two trials conducted with crisis managers and university students in Germany.
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Das Training von Soft Skills ist in Krisenstäben eine zentrale Voraussetzung für effiziente Kommunikationsabläufe, die in der Notfallsituation dringend gebraucht werden. Bisher existierende Schulungen und Simulationen sind jedoch kostenintensiv und haben einen hohen Organisationsaufwand. Mit Hilfe von Serious Games in virtuellen Umgebungen können diese Nachteile insofern reduziert werden, als dass Nutzer von ihrem Arbeitsplatz aus an dem Multi-User Spiel teilnehmen können. Das DREAD ED Projekt hat ein virtuelles Trainingsspiel entwickelt, in dem Gruppentrainings ermöglicht werden, die eine Simulation der Arbeit eines Krisenstabs in einer Katastrophensituation nachbilden. Die virtuelle Trainingsplattform wurde in zwei Studien mit einer studentischen Stichprobe und Experten für Krisenmanagement getestet. Es zeigte sich, dass die virtuelle Umgebung geeignet ist, Gruppendynamik und Kooperation in der Notfallsituation wirkungsvoll zu trainieren. The training of soft skills in crisis management teams is a central precondition for efficient and successful communication which is urgently needed in a disaster situation. However, previous trainings and simulations are costly in terms of time and money. By means of serious games in virtual environments, these disadvantages can be reduced insofar as users can participate in the multi-user game by using their workstation computer. The DREAD ED project provides a serious game in a virtual environment which simulates the work of crisis management teams during a disaster situation. The virtual training platform was tested by students and experts on crisis management in two trials. It appears that the virtual environment presented is suitable for an effective training of group dynamic and cooperation in a disaster situation. SchlüsselwörterKrisenkommunikation-Serious Games-Soft Skills KeywordsCrisis communication-Serious games-Soft skills
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Purpose – This paper seeks to define and describe agile project management using the Scrum methodology as a method for more effectively managing and completing projects. Design/methodology/approach – This paper provides a general overview and introduction to the concepts of agile project management and the Scrum methodology in particular. Findings – Agile project management using the Scrum methodology allows project teams to manage digital library projects more effectively by decreasing the amount of overhead dedicated to managing the project. Using an iterative process of continuous review and short‐design time frames, the project team is better able to quickly adapt projects to rapidly evolving environments in which systems will be used. Originality/value – This paper fills a gap in the digital library project management literature by providing an overview of agile project management methods.
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This paper presents results of the first phase of the research project “Serious Human Rescue Game” at Technische Universität Darmstadt. It presents a new serious gaming approach based on Building Information Modeling (BIM) for the exploration of the effect of building condition on human behavior during the evacuation process. In reality it is impossible to conduct rescue tests in burning buildings to study the human behavior. Therefore, the current methods of data-collecting for existing evacuation simulation models have limitations regarding the individual human factors. To overcome these limitations the research hypothesis is that the human behavior can be explored with a serious computer game: The decisions of a person during the game should be comparable to decisions during an extreme situation in the real world. To verify this hypothesis, this paper introduces a serious gaming approach for analyzing the human behavior in extreme situations. To implement a serious game, developers generally make use of 3D-modeling software to generate the game content. After this, the game logic needs to be added to the content with special software development kits for computer games. Every new game scenario has to be built manually from scratch. This is time-consuming and a great share of modeling work needs to be executed twice (e.g., 3D-modeling), at first by the architect for the parametric building model and the second time by the game designer for the 3D-game content. The key idea of the presented approach is to use the capabilities of BIM together with engineering simulations (fire, smoke) to build realistic serious game scenarios in a new and efficient way. This paper presents the first phase results of the research project mainly focusing on the conceptual design of the serious game prototype. The validation concept is also presented. The inter-operability between building information modeling applications and serious gaming platforms should allow different stakeholders to simulate building-related scenarios in a new, interactive and efficient way.
Geospatial Networks: Implications for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems
  • Fortifying Large Scale
Fortifying Large Scale, Geospatial Networks: Implications for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems
An architecture for integrated crisis management simulation
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Developing realistic crisis management training
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MacKinnon, L., & Bacon, L. (2012). Developing realistic crisis management training. Paper presented at the ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings -9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management.
Crowdsourcing and Crowdtasking in Crisis Management Lessons Learned From a Field Experiment Simulating a Flooding in the City of the Hague
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Middelhoff, M., Widera, A., Van Den Berg, R. P., Hellingrath, B., Anferbauer, D., Havlik, D., & Pielorz, J. (2017). Crowdsourcing and Crowdtasking in Crisis Management Lessons Learned FromaFieldExperimentSimulatingaFloodingintheCityoftheHague.Paper presented at the 2016 3rd International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Disaster Management, ICT-DM 2016.
Co-Designing a Virtual Training Tool for Emergency Management. Paper presented at theInformation Systems for Crisis Response and Management Conference
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Serious games in FEMA Regional Response Coordination Center training and exercises
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Brawley,R.S.(2015).Serious games in FEMA Regional Response Coordination Center training and exercises [Doctoral dissertation].
Anarchitecture forintegratedcrisismanagementsimulation.Paper presented at the20th International Congress on Modelling and Simulation
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Dihé,P.,Denzer,R.,Polese,M.,Heikkilä,A.,Havlik,D.,Sautter,J.,...Engelbach,W.(2013).Anarchitecture forintegratedcrisismanagementsimulation.Paper presented at the20th International Congress on Modelling and Simulation,Adelaide,Australia.
National Risk Analysis: Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection
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Risikoanalyse av regnflom i by: Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection
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There's no 'I' in 'Emergency Management Teamʼ:designingandevaluatingaseriousgamefortrainingemergencymanagersingroupdecisionmaking skills
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Linehan, C., Lawson, S., Doughty, M., & Kirman, B. (2009b). There's no 'I' in 'Emergency Management Teamʼ:designingandevaluatingaseriousgamefortrainingemergencymanagersingroupdecisionmaking skills.Paper presented at the39th Conference of the Society for the Advancement of Games & Simulations in Education and Training.
Research in the Large: Challenges for Large-Scale Mobile ApplicationResearch-ACaseStudyaboutNFCAdoptionusingGamificationviaanAppStore
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Matthias, K., Lukas, M., & Florian, M. (2013). Research in the Large: Challenges for Large-Scale Mobile ApplicationResearch-ACaseStudyaboutNFCAdoptionusingGamificationviaanAppStore.International Journal of Mobile Human Computer Interaction,5(1),45-61.doi:10.4018/jmhci.2013010103
Improving players' assessment in crisis managementseriousgames:TheSIMFORproject.InInternational Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management in Mediterranean Countries
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Oulhaci, A., Tranvouez, E., Fournier, S., & Espinasse, B. (2015). Improving players' assessment in crisis managementseriousgames:TheSIMFORproject.InInternational Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management in Mediterranean Countries(pp.85-99).Cham:Springer.doi:10.1007/978-3-319-24399-3_8
A MultiAgent Architecture for CollaborativeSeriousGameappliedtoCrisisManagementTraining:ImprovingAdaptabilityofNonPlayer Characters.EAI Endorsed Transactions on Game-Based Learning
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Oulhaci, M. h. A., Tranvouez, E., Fournier, S., & Espinasse, B. (2014). A MultiAgent Architecture for CollaborativeSeriousGameappliedtoCrisisManagementTraining:ImprovingAdaptabilityofNonPlayer Characters.EAI Endorsed Transactions on Game-Based Learning, 1.
Virtual Crisis CRISE
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