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Kechagias, C., Papaioannou, G., & Antoniou, A.-S. (2018). Burning Socrates' School down with Aristophanes: Learning and Teaching under Clouds. Revista Dramaturgias, (7), 512-527.

Authors:

Abstract

In Clouds (Nubes) of Aristophanes, Socrates appears as a sophist school owner, the Phrontisterion (‘thinkery’), in which he hosts students of all ages, in order to teach them not only philosophy, literature, physics but also effective sophistic techniques. In Clouds opposed ideas can be found like the aims of historical Socrates’ educational method, combined with Sophists’ modern ones. Aristophanes by using specific educational techniques, points out the educational contrasts and disagreements (Just Cause Vs Unjust Cause) and highlights the chasm between the empty theoretical discourse of young intellectuals and the real educational practical needs (learning skills, practical adjustment etc.). In this comedy, Aristophanes deals with many educational issues, which are common in every culture. What is his goal, however, when he appears with the Socratic method of learning and teaching (use of initiation vocabulary and terminology, ‘borrowings’ from the philosophic activity at the Thinkery?) What are the benefits for an apprentice student at Aristophanes’ Socrates and what is the purpose of the critical view of Aristophanes educational system of his time?
Ideias e Críticas
Burning Socrates’ School down
with Aristophanes: Learning
and teaching under Clouds
Christos-Thomas Kechagias
£ŋ'܋܅r܋܋܅¼īĀĝŋŐųń£ŋŐŨŽƬŽơŋǤŽŃ/ĤǁĝĀƹŐŽųܐ
/ơŐƬƹīűŽŨŽńǤŽŃ®ŽĝŐĀŨ®ĝŐīųĝīƬ܅ъǁƹŽƤ܅ъīĀĝŋŐųń
иƬƬŐƬƹĀųƹ܅'īơĀƤƹűīųƹŽŃ£ƤŐűĀƤǤ/ĤǁĝĀƹŐŽų܅tĀƹŐŽųĀŨ
ĀųĤfĀơŽĤŐƬƹƤŐĀųÃųŐǝīƤƬŐƹǤŽŃƹŋīųƬ܅ڊڈSơơŽťƤĀƹŽǁƬ
ƬƹƤ܅ډڈڎڐڈ܅ƹŋīųƬ܅GƤīīĝīܚ¦ S'܄ŽƤĝŐĤ܋ŽƤńܑڈڈڈڈܧ
ڈڈڈډܧڐڋڈڊܧڋڍڍڍܛ
Georgia Papaioannou
r܋܋܄®ŽĝŐŽĜŐŽŨŽńǤ܅tīǁƤŽƬĝŐīųĝīƬĀųĤ/ĤǁĝĀƹŐŽų܅
¼īĀĝŋīƤ܅'īơĀƤƹűīųƹŽŃ£ƤŐűĀƤǤ/ĤǁĝĀƹŐŽų܅tĀƹŐŽųĀŨ
ĀųĤfĀơŽĤŐƬƹƤŐĀųÃųŐǝīƤƬŐƹǤŽŃƹŋīųƬ܅ڐGŋŐĀųųŐ
¦ŐƹƬŽǁƬƹƤ܋܅ڊڋډڈڈ܅®ơĀƤƹĀ܅GƤīīĝī
Alexandros-Stamatios Antoniou
ƬƬŐƬƹĀųƹ£ƤŽŃīƬƬŽƤŽŃ£ƬǤĝŋŽŨŽńǤ܅tĀƹŐŽųĀŨĀųĤ
fĀơŽĤŐƬƹƤŐĀųÃųŐǝīƤƬŐƹǤŽŃƹŋīųƬ܅ڊڈSơơŽťƤĀƹŽǁƬƬƹƤ܅
ډڈڎڐڈ܅ƹŋīųƬ܅GƤīīĝī
ɓʰʰɷ܄ڊڍڊڍܧڑډڈڍ
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Abstract
In CloudsŁFÜÒłÁ¨žÎ¯Ò×ÁÌ¼Òį\ÁÎ×ÒÌÌÎÒÒÒÁÌ¯Ò×ÒÁÁµÁæ¼Îį
the Phrontisterion (‘thinkery’), in which he hosts students of all ages, in or-
Î×Á××»¼Á×Á¼µìÌ¯µÁÒÁÌìįµ¯×Î×ÜÎįÌìÒ¯ÒÜ×µÒÁ÷¨ׯå
sophistic techniques. In Clouds opposed ideas can be found like the aims of
¯Ò×Áίµ\ÁÎ×ÒōÜׯÁ¼µ»×ÁįÁ»¯¼æ¯×\ÁÌ¯Ò×Òō»Áμ
Á¼ÒĮžÎ¯Ò×ÁÌ¼ÒìÜÒ¯¼©ÒÌ¯õÜׯÁ¼µ×¼¯ÍÜÒįÌÁ¯¼×ÒÁÜ××
educational contrasts and disagreements (Just Cause Vs Unjust Cause) and
highlights the chasm between the empty theoretical discourse of young in-
tellectuals and the real educational practical needs (learning skills, practical
adjustment etc.). In this comedy, Aristophanes deals with many educational
issues, which are common in every culture. What is his goal, however, when
ÌÌÎÒæ¯××\ÁÎׯ»×ÁÁ¨µμ¯¼©¼×¯¼©ŁÜÒÁ¨¯¼¯×¯-
tion vocabulary and terminology, ‘borrowings’ from the philosophic activity
××a¯¼³Îìĵłp×Î×¼õ×Ò¨ÁÎ¼ÌÌÎ¼×¯Ò×Ü¼××žÎ¯Ò×ÁÌ¼Òō
\ÁÎ×Ò¼æ×¯Ò×ÌÜÎÌÁÒÁ¨×ίׯµå¯æÁ¨žÎ¯Ò×ÁÌ¼ÒÜ-
tional system of his time?
<ìæÁÎÒĭžÎ¯Ò×ÁÌ¼ÒįV¯µÁÒÁÌìÁ¨ÜׯÁ¼į\ÁÎ×ÒįÎ»×ÜΩìį
Theory of Education, teaching terminology, Comedy.
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Resumo
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&RPHG\DVƓHOGRIUHVHDUFKş3ORWRI&ORXGV
In Clouds, which was performed in 423 B.C., Aristophanes, amongst others,
µÒæ¯××¯ÒÒÜÁ¨×¯¼©¼µμ¯¼©įÁ»¯¼¯¼©µ»¼×ÒÁ¨\ÁÎׯ
V¯µÁÒÁÌìæ¯×Á¼ÒÁ¨×Î×Á¨\ÁÌ¯Ò×ÒįÎÒÁ¼¼×Üί¼©žÎ¯Ò×ÁÌ¼Òō
µ¯å¯¼©ìÎÒŁąĆāŅĄĉĆĮĮłĮ2¼×¯ÒÁ»ìįžÎ¯Ò×ÁÌ¼Òō\ÁÎ×Ò¼Ò¼
teaching physics, language, rhetoric, philosophy, etc., neither at Agora nor at
the riverside of Ilissos, but in a building that resembles a school or a confe-
rence place which it is called “Thinkery” (the original greek term is ĻT¨Ç»¶ÐªËÐǪ»¶Ľ).
This is the summarized plot of Clouds, in which the aristophanic learning
¼×¯¼©×¼¯ÍÜÒÁ¨\ÁÎ×ÒÎ¯¼×ÎÌÁµ×ĭ
\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò¯Ò¼Á×ÌµÁ¨Ì쯼©××ÒıDÓĞòùIJ created by his pro-
digal son, Phidippides, who has spent all of his paternal fortune in horse bre-
eding, which was an aristocratic habit. Being desperate, he decides to go and
¼ÌÌÎ¼×¯×ŁÒÁÌ¯ÒׯłÒÁÁµÁ¨\ÁÎ×Òį×Ŋa¯¼³ÎìŌĮaÜÒįæ¯×
the aid of the art of rhetoric, he would be capable of deceiving his creditors
and the judges. In this way, he persuades his son to join the “Thinkery” ins-
tead of him, because he is uneducated. The result of that, though, is comple-
×µì¯÷¨Î¼×ĭ¼Á×Á¼µìÁÒ¼Á××ÒÁ¼Îµ¯å¯Ò¨×Î¨ÎÁ»¯Ò×ÒįÜ×
µÒÁ×Î×Ò¯»å¯Áµ¼×µì¼¯ÎÎåÎ¼×µìĮå¼×Üµµìį\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò¼¯Ò
ÒµåÒÜμ¼Ò×ÎÁì×Ŋa¯¼³ÎìŌæ¯µëÌµµ¯¼©\ÁÎ×Ò¨ÎÁ»¯×į¯¼Ò-
×Á¨¼ÜÒ̯¯ÁÜÒ¼¯¼©Į\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò¯Ò¼Á×Á¼µì¨λÎŁÒ¯¼Á×Î
Aristophanes’ works such as Dikaiopolis [in The Acharnians], Trygaeus [in
Peace], Chremylus [in Plutus]), but also rough, raw and boorish. Thus, by
×Î쯼©×Á±Á¯¼\ÁÎ×Òį×»ÁÒ×¯»ÌÁÎ×¼×Ì¯µÁÒÁÌÎÁ¨×¼¯¼×æÁεį
predispose us about the following gags.
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If someone, though, secludes the comedy issue in Clouds, is it possible for
a literary work to provide us (enough) information about the educational sys-
tem or the principal ideas of a historic society? Rumor has it that Dionysius,
××ìÎ¼×Á¨\ìÎÜÒįÒÁ»ׯ»Ò³Vµ×ÁÁÜ×µ¯¨¯¼ž×¼ÒĮVµ×ÁÎÒ-
ponded by sending to him comedies of Aristophanes, urging him to answer
his questions by studying these works: ĺٶШãË}ãШ}Ðݨ¶ª»¶ã˪ÓËШÐãÇ}¶Ð
Ý}¶Ðл¯}Ƕ}»ÓÐШÅ»¯ªÐã»¢ШŮШ¶ª}¶ËğT¯}лË¶Ð¨ªµШÅ»ÐÇã»¢ŮÇĞįШ
}ÓË}Ъ»¶}£}ª¶ËÐZ»Ç}ÐËª¶¯»ÓËİ}¶}ܪË¨ªµлËÐÓãШů}ãËª¢¨ݻӯ
¯}ǶШªÇÅ»¯ªÐãļ(<K\aXuuo222įąćŅĊłĮŊ¯Á¼ìÒ¯ÜÒÒ¯»Ìµì×Áõ¼æÎ
reality ends and where the comedy or the truth starts”, according to Ehrenberg
(1962: 39), who tried to follow the advice of Plato during the searching of re-
composing the “atmosphere” existing for the citizens of ancient Athens.
In the incident above, although the editors skip the comment: “the accu-
ÒׯÁ¼©¯¼Ò×\ÁÎ×Ò¯¼×µÁÜÒŌŁݯӫԪӤӡӘӫԉьӰӡӨӹӫӦӬөԚӤчӜӭӺӢӘӠөӡӘӫӞӚӦӨӱӘӤ”,
see: <K\aX XXVIII: 46-9), it is really weird if and how Plato would send to
Dionysius a theatrical play (Cloudsłįæ¯Ü»¯µ¯×Ò¯Ò»¼×ÁÎį\ÁÎ×Òį
and which later was used — one way or another — in order to condemn the
greatest philosopher of the ancient world. According to ‘Vitae of Aristophanes’
(Koster XXIXa; XXIIb; XXXIII 2), his goal was to answer the questions of
Dionysius, giving him an edition of many literature works and, in particular,
theatrical ones. It is a reasonable question if nowadays someone would act
in the same way by recommending the complete works of a famous poet or
literature of the 21
st
century. It is obvious, though, that the educational sys-
tem in Athens during the Plato years urged to the study of poetic works; even
the study of dramatic poetry or Comediography1. This is the reason why the
literature works usually indicate — if not represent — the structure of the
society they refer to (see \ž*KX, 2003; <0ž+2ž\ 2005, 2016).
/LQJXLVWLFWHUPLQRORJ\DQGDLPVRIHGXFDWLRQLQ&ORXGV
Eventhough it is a comedy, Aristophanes chooses to use terms (see: BYL, 1990;
DOVER, 1993) that would sound “technical” to the audience of Athens. This
¯Ò¼Á×ÒÌ¯õŊÒ¯¼×¯õŌ×λ¯¼ÁµÁ©ì¯¼×æì××æµµ¯×¼ÁæìÒį
but a ¯»}¶Ý»Ç××ίåÒ¨ÎÁ»×VÎÒÁÎׯÌ¯µÁÒÁÌ¯ŅÒ¯¼×¯õ¼
poetic achievements and especially those of Anaxagoras school (BAXTER,
1992:127-130; FUNGHI, 1997: 33-4; JANKO, 1997: 80ݦ in: WILLI, 2006).
2×¼Ò¼å¼¨ÎÁ»×FÜĮĉĉ¨ÁÎ×õÎÒ×ׯ»\×ÎÌÒ¯ÒōÒÜ©©Ò-
tion about the way that his son, Phidippides, thinks: ĺV¢»Çµã»ÓÇ¨}ªÐË}ËÆÓª-
¯ã}ËÅ»Ë˪¯ğ}¶£»}¶¯}Ƕݨ}Ð1}ܪËļ. [ԞӡӪӫӨӜӯӦӤդөӫӹӮӠӪӫӘӫӦ՛өӪӘӬӫӦ՝
ӫӨӷӧӦӬө܈ܔӡӘՁӣӹӤӟӘӤܸԚӢӟիӤԆӤԚӚիӧӘӨӘӠӤӺӪӰ
ó
]. Apart from the imperative ‘learn
1ƬŃŽƤƹŋīŨŐųńǁŐƬƹŐĝơīĝǁŨŐĀƤŐƹŐīƬĀųĤ
ĤŐǝīƤƬŐƹŐīƬ܅Ƭīī®ĀǝŐŨŨīܧ¼ƤŽŐťīܜډڑڐڑܝ܅
NǁĤƬŽųܜډڑڑڎܝ܅'ǁƤĀųƹŐܜډڑڑڏܝīƹĝ܋Sų
ĀĤĤŐƹŐŽų܅'ŽǝīƤܜډڑڏڊܝ܅ ŽŨǝŐųܜډڑڑڑܝ
īƹĝ܋
2¼ŋīƹƤĀųƬŨĀƹīĤŨŐųīƬŐųƹŋŐƬơĀơīƤ
ŃƤŽű܄àŐŨŨŐĀűdĀűīƬNŐĝťŐīܜډڐڍڋܝ܋
ƤŐƬƹŽơŋĀųīƬ܋Clouds. The Comedies
of Aristophanes܋hŽųĤŽų܋Žŋų
ܚơīƤƬīǁƬ܋ƹǁǾƹƬ܋īĤǁܛ
517
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Ideias e Críticas
(‘ӣӹӤӟӘӤӜ’), encouragement (‘ӧӘӨӘӱӤӜӪӠө’) is also crucial for the teaching proce-
dure. The alteration of the way of thinking and the one of habits would lead
to education via encouragement (‘ӧӘӨӘӱӤӜӪӠө’). Otherwise, even nowadays, this
is the wide basis on which learning can occur (oXaaK\, 2005). The same
thing happens in DÓĞòòñĵòòò:
ZÐÇÅ˪}Ëĝ+»ğ1¶ÐÇ}Ðã»Óğ}ÇËÐ»¢µ¶ğ£»}¶Ð}Ó£¨ÐıӛӠӛӹӪӡӦӬIJĞ
T¨ªªÅŪËĝn¨ãğݨ}Ð˨}¯¯1¯}ǶĥıфӘՁӫӱӪӦӠӣӘӟӻӪӦӣӘӠĩIJ
The imperative ‘Go’ (‘ԽӟӠ’) at the beginning of the sentence indicates the
encouragement (‘ӧӘӨӘӱӤӜӪӠөōł¨ÎÁ»\×ÎÌÒ¯ÒĮž¼Á×Î¯»ÌÎׯåŁŋ×Ü-
ght’=‘ӛӠӛӹӪӡӦӬ’) completes with clarity this encouragement. Phidippides then,
answers with a question: Ļn¨ãğݨ}Ð˨}¯¯1¯}Ƕĥ (=‘фӘՁӫӱӪӦӠӣӘӟӻӪӦӣӘӠ;’). He is
not wondering about what he is going to be taught, but via the ethic (emotio-
nal) dative he uses, he shows that he is still in the terms of the initial encou-
ragement and favor that his father asked. He asks him: “What am I going to
µμ¨ÁÎìÁÜĵŌ\×ÎÌÒ¯ÒÎÒÌÁ¼ÒĭŊvÁÜ毵µµμf¼±ÜÒ×ÜÒįÒÁæ¼
pay our debts.” ıDÓĞòò÷IJĞ This is the way that the issue of need for teaching
and learning is being developed at CloudsĮ\×ÎÌÒ¯ÒÒ³Ò¯ÒÒÁ¼×Á
\ÁÎ×ÒōÌÌÎ¼×¯¨ÁÎÁ¼ÒÌ¯õÎÒÁ¼ĭ×Á×Ü©×ÁÜ××f¼±ÜÒ×
Cause, in order to deceive his creditors.
The pair ‘teach – learn’ appears again in DÓĞòóøĵôñįæ¼\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò
-
¯Ò×Á±Á¯¼\ÁÎ×Òōŋa¯¼³ÎìōÁ¼¯ÒÁæ¼ŁŋӘՓӫӷөōłįù×Î¯ÒÒÁ¼ōÒ¯¼¯×¯µÎ-
fusal: ‘..ӛӠӛӹӥӦӣӘӠ܎܎܎ӣӘӟӻӪӦӣӘӠ’. The original reaction of the people at the “Thinkery”
is to consider him asĻÓ¶Ó}ÐĽ, rough, raw, without manners, because
\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò³¯³Ò×ÁÁÎµ¯³ÌÒ¼×ŁFÜĮĂĄĆłĮ\×ÎÌÒ¯ÒįÎµ¯ñ¯¼©××
¯ÒÁ»Ìµ×µì¯ÎÎµå¼×æ¯××¯ÒÜׯÁ¼µÒìÒ×»įÌÁµÁ©¯ñÒõÎÒ×µì
(‘ӪӴӚӚӤӰӟӱӣӦӠ’, DÓĞòôùł¼×¼µÎÒ¯¼õ¼¯×æì¯Ò¼æ¯¼×¯-
ty: ‘for I here am come }Ë}ªËªÅ¯ĪËÐÓ¶Ð to this Thinkery’ (‘ԧӡӰӣӘӟӞӫԪөԚөӫՏ
ӭӨӦӤӫӠӪӫӻӨӠӦӤ’, DÓĞòõółĮ\×ÎÌÒ¯ÒÁ»Ò×Á×»×ÁÁ»Ò×Ü¼×Į0
is not yet one, nor was he. He shows his will to learn and, as a consequence,
ÁÎ¯¼©×Á×õÎÒ×µåµÁ¨×\ÁÎׯE×Áį×Á¨ÁΩ×µµ×ÁÒæ¯
he thinks he knows. The student who is responsible for welcoming and gui-
ding him into the “Thinkery”, introduces him at once into the core of the ba-
Ò¯¯××ÎܵÒ×¯ÒŊ\ÁÁµŌĭŋ2毵µ×µµìÁÜĹÜ×ìÁÜ»ÜÒ×Î©Î×ÒÒ
µãËÐǪË’ (‘ӤӦӣӱӪӘӠӛԠӫӘӴӫӘӮӨԪӣӬӪӫӻӨӠӘōįFÜĮĂąĄŀĮaÒÒÎ×Òń»ìÒ×ίÒÎ¨Î
×Á\ÁÁµÒÁ¨ÎÁ×ÎÁÁÒįÒÜÒ×Á¼Á¨×¨ÁµµÁæÎÒ¼¯Ò¯ÌµÒÁ¨
Vì×©ÁÎÒÁ¨\»ÁÒįæÎ×ÎܵÒÎ¯¼©Á¼Ò¯ÎÒÁ©»Į\¯µ¼
¯Ò¯»ÌÁÒ»Á¼©Ò×Ò×Ü¼×ÒĮ0ÁæåÎ×ÁÜ©\ÁÎ×Ò¯¼Á×å¯ÒÁæ¼
\ÁÁµ¼ÁÎ¯¯»ÌÁÒ¼ìÒ¯µ¼Į2×¯ÒÁå¯ÁÜÒ××žÎ¯Ò×ÁÌ¼ÒÁÎÎÁæÒ
518
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Ideias e Críticas
×¼»¼×¨»Á¨\ÁÎ×ÒįÜ×Î×Ò¨¼×ÒìæÁεÁ¨¼Á¼-
Ņ\ÁÎׯ\ÁÁµĭ×¯¼³Îìæ¯ÌÎÁÜÒ\ÁÌ¯Ò×ÒĮ
a¼įÒÁ»ÌÎÁëÒ¼ë©©ÎׯÁ¼ÁÜ×\ÁÎ×ÒōÒ¯å»¼×Ò
and methods (like ‘how high a bug can jump in relation to the human foot?’,
‘how the mosquitoes sing?’ etc.), all given between the comedy terms. Nevertheless,
µµ×ÒÎ¼ÁÜ©×ÁÁ¼å¯¼\×ÎÌÒ¯ÒįæÁ¯Òë¯×¼¯»Ìׯ¼×
and asks the student to start the “Thinkery” immediately, in order to take part
and learn (Ļ*»Ç1˪Çл}ªËªÅ¯Ľ(ݯܷӣӘӟӞӫӠխӚԉӨ’, DÓĞòùô). When he intro-
ÜÒ¯»Òµ¨×Á\ÁÎ×ÒįÁ¼Ò×µìÎåµÒ×ÎÒÁ¼æ¯ÎÁÜ©×¯»
there: ĻШ}Ðã»Óµ}ãÐ}¨µШ»ËШª¶£ËĽ (ݯԾӤӘӣӜӛӠӛӹӥԭө), ĻnªË¨ª¶£л¯}ǶлËÅ-
ak’ (ݯܷәӦӬӢӷӣӜӤӦөӣӘӟӜՃӤӢӺӚӜӠӤ’),ĻÓÐÐ}¨µШ»Ð¨Ç»¶»¢ã»ÓÇÐÝ»}ÓËËĽ(ݯӛӱӛӘӥӦӤ
ӫՏӤԟӫӜӨӦӤӫӦՃӤӪӦՃӤӢӷӚӦӠӤ, DÓĞóôøĵõö). He wants to be taught the Unjust Cause
ì\ÁÎ×Òį¯¼ÁÎÎ×ÁÁ¼å¯¼¯ÒÎ¯×ÁÎÒĮ0ÒÜ©©Ò×Ò××ÒÁܵ
Ìì¯»¨ÁÎ¯ÒÒÎå¯ÒÒ¯¨Ł\×ÎÌÒ¯Òł¯Ò×µ³¯¼©×ÁÒÁÌ¯Ò×ŁĻÅ}ãË¨»-
»¯¢ËĽ). He even swears to Gods (‘ՊӣӦ՝ӣӘӠӟӜӦӴө’).
\ÁÎ×ÒÒ×Î×Ò××¯¼©ÌÎÁÜÎæ¯×¯ÒµÒÒ¯Ł\ÁÎׯł×¼¯-
ÍÜÒĮ0Ò³Ò\×ÎÌÒ¯ÒĻ»ã»Óݪ˨л¶»Ý¯}ǯã¯ËЪ}¯µ}ÐÐÇËğݨ}ÐШã
Ǫ£¨Ð¯ã}ÇĥĽ(DÓĞóöñĵò). The clear knowledge of things and how these things
ÎÎµÁ¼Òׯ×Ü××»¯¼ÁÎÁ¨×\ÁÎׯ»×ÁĮaìÒ»×Áå
¼×³¼¨ÎÁ»¯Ò×Áίµ\ÁÎ×ÒĮ\Á»µ¯¼ÒµÁæįù×Î×ÁÎÜÒ¼-
trance, accompanied by loud claps of thunder, he asks for help Clouds, who
give to us “opinion” (‘ӚӤӸӣӞӤ’), “speech” (‘ӛӠӹӢӜӥӠӤ’) and “mind” (‘ӤӦ՝Ӥ’), etc.
ŁFÜĮĄĂĈłĮ2×¯ÒÁå¯ÁÜÒ××\ÁÎ×Ò¯¼×¯ÒžÎ¯Ò×ÁÌ¼Òō̵ì¼Ò×Áµµ
¯»ÓËį¯¼×Ò»æì××¯Ò×Áίµ\ÁÎ×Ò¯¼åÁ³Ò×1}Ë. These are
the ones that teach, learn, broaden the mind, propel the speech, etc.
aÎ¯¼ù×ÎÒÁÌ¯Ò×ń\ÁÎ×Òë̵¯¼Ò×Á\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò×ÜÒ¯¼©Á¨×ܼ-
derbolts in the atmosphere (DÓĞôùôĵúõł¯¼¯µίÁÜÒæìĮžù×Î××įÎ-
gues further about the similarity of phenomena in the (Greek) language
(әӨӦӤӫԪłĮa¯Ò»×Á¯Ò¨»¯µ¯Î×Á×\ÁÎׯæìĮ\Á»××»Ì×Ò×ÁÁί©¯¼
and document the ‘truth’ that lies beneath the words, from believable to far-
fetched approaches, can be found on Plato’s Cratylus (for example ‘Apollo’
origins from ԁӜӱәӹӢӢӰӤ [Pl. Crat. 405b], “soul=ӯӬӮӻ” from ӭӬӪӺӮӞ>ӭӴӪӠӤՉӮӜՃӡӘՁ
ԞӮӜӠ [Pl. Crat. 400b] etc.3. Aristophanes does not do anything more or less. He
ÜÒÒŋ\ÁÎׯō×¼¯ÍÜÒ¯¼ÁÎÎ×Áõ¼×ŋ×ÎÜ×ōæ¯ÎÁ¼å¼¯¼×¨ÁÎ
Á××¨»ÁÜÒŋÎµ¯¯µ¯×ì³ō¯¼×¯¼Ò¯Á¨×Ì¯µÁÒÁÌ¯µńÒ¯¼-
ׯõ×¯¼³¯¼©Á¨×ÌÎå¯ÁÜÒìÎÒį¼××ίù×Á¨×ÌÁׯ×ë×įæ¯¯Ò
being taught on stage. At that point, by applying this explanation technique,
×ίÒ×ÁÎ»Áå\×ÎÌÒ¯Òō¨Î¼ÌÎ±Ü¯Ł×Ò»¯Ò××»Ì×
much later by Epicure at ‘Letter to Herodotus’, in which he talks to a child in
3ĀǣƹīƤܜډڑڑڊ܄ڐڏܧڐܝ܅ܵNĀƤĀܜډڑڑڎ܄ډڏܝ܋
Collection/Anthology of all the
examples at Ferranteܜډڑڎڍ܄ڌڐڋܧڐܝ܋
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Ideias e Críticas
order to show him that he should not be afraid of thunderbolts, (ª»£Ğ<}ÇÐĞ
T¨ª¯»ËĞmªÐ}Ğ»»sğôöĵôø).
\ÁÎ×Òë̵¯¼Ò××××ܼÎίåÒ¨ÎÁ»åÁÎ×ëŁŋоՃӤӦө’). The com-
mentaries4 in Clouds (DÓĞôøõ) consider that Aristophanes has ‘Anaxagoras’
(the presocratic philosophers) in his mind, with ‘ӛӱӤӞӪӠӤӘӠӟӜӨӱӘӤ’. He correlates
оՃӤӦө’ with ‘yÓËĪª}Ë’, because ‘ӘӠӟӺӨӠӦөō¯Ò¼±ׯå××Î¨ÎÒ×Á{ÜÒŁ¯¼
the way that ‘hippios=ԾӧӧӠӦө’ refers to Poseidon), while he cites the image of
the homonymous vessel. This representation and correlation ‘оӱӤӦӬܪоӠӷө5’ lies
¯¼×Ò¯ÒÁ¨\×ÎÌÒ¯Òō¯¼×ÎÌÎ×ׯÁ¼ÁÜ××Ì¼Á»¼Á¼Á¨×ܼÎĮ
K¼×Á¼¼įÌ×Ò×ÁÒ×¼Ò¯µë̵¼ׯÁ¼Á¨\ÁÎ×ÒŁ××
Clouds / clouds while moving full of water, collide between each other, collap-
se and then thunder), but on the other hand the previous belief that this phe-
¼Á»¼Á¼ÁÜÎÒÜ×Á{ÜÒō毵µį¯ÒÁåÎ×ÎÁæ¼Į\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò¯ÒÒÁ³-
cause of this new ‘knowledge’: The vortex? What happened to me, the vortex
ÎܵÒ×æÁε¯¼Ò×Á¨{ÜÒŁDÓĞôùñĵò)6ĮaåÎ××Ò×Ü¼×ń\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò
uses on the next line is clear: ‘μԚӛӱӛӘӥӘө’ (‘you taught me’).
In another part of the play (DÓĞòóùö÷¨łį\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò×ίÒ×ÁÁ¼¨ÜÒÁ¼
of his creditors, Amynias, who comes in order to protest about Phidippides’
××Á¯»į×Î쯼©×ÁÁµµ××¯¼×ÎÒ×Á¨¯Ò»Á¼ì×µÒ×Į\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò
uses the term ‘ӫӷӡӦө’ (=interest) with its double meaning: it means the interest
of a loan and a child as well. This double meaning can be also found in
Thesmophoriazusae (_¨˵ĞùõôĵõłĮ\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò»³ÒÜÒÎÁ¨×¼¯ÍÜ
¯¼××λÒÁ¨ÒÁÌ¯Òׯ×ί³ĮV¯¯Ì̯ÒÜÒÒÒ¯»¯µÎ×ί³įù×Î××¼-
¯¼©\ÁÎ×Òōŋ\ÁÁµōįìë̵¯¼¯¼©×Á¯Ò¨×Î××ÒÁܵ¼Á×¨Î¯
of the last day of the month (‘ԟӤӞӫӜӡӘՁӤӺӘ’), when he is going to be impeached
at the jury paying the essential deposit, because it is not about one day, but
two days (‘ԟӤӞōńŋӤӺӘ’) (DÓĞòòøùǟ¢).
\ÁÎ×ÒÁ»ÒÜÌÒ×æ¯××¨×××ܼÜ×\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò¼¼Á×
understand the importance of the ‘real’ language nor the immediate connec-
tion between experience and the ‘ӺӫӬӣӦӤ’ (=original meaning) of the words.
\ÁÎ×Òį¯¼Clouds of Aristophanes, believes that the language is inherent to
mankind and he expresses this belief in many parts of the play. In DÓĞø÷÷ĵù,
\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò¼Ò×ÎæÁµµ¯¼Ò¯¼ÁÎÎ×ÁÒί©µÒÒĭĻ0}Üã»ÓÜÇ
Ë¶ШªËËл¶ª¶Ш¨µªËÐĨË˨»ÅËğШ}ÓЪ¢Ó¯}¶ÐÇ}¶ËÅ}Ç¶Ð»¶ğ¢Ç»µݨª¨
Шãª¶¯ǝÇĥp¯µ×Îń\ÁÎ×ÒÎÒÌÁ¼Ò×Á¯»æ¯×Ò¯»Ìµõ-
nition: Ļ»ã»Óµ}¶ШÓǶª¶£ĵ£¯}ËËĥĽ
In DÓĞ÷÷ñį×Ì¯µÁÒÁÌÎĺÒÁÌ¯Ò×Ò³Ò\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò×Á¯×ÒÁ»ÍÜÎÜ-
Ì»µ¼¯»µÒĮ\×Ü¼×ĺ\×ÎÌÒ¯ÒÎ¨ÎÒ×Á×ÎÁÁÒ×ÎŁŋԁӢӜӡӫӨӬӸӤ’), amon-
©Ò×Á×ÎÒįæ¯¯ÒÜÒ×Áõ¼Á××¨»µ¼×»µ¼\ÁÎ×Ò
4£ŽīƹĀī®ĝīųŐĝŐGƤĀīĝŽƤǁű܅Žƹŋī܅
hŐơƬŐĀī܅®ǁűƹŐĜǁƬŨŐĜƤĀƤŐĀīNĀŋųŐĀųĀī܅
ډڐڋڈ܋
ڍ®īī/űơīĤŽĝŨīƬ܅ŃƤĀńűīųƹĀڋډڋڍ܋
ڋܧڌ܅ܷӪӭӘӱӨӦөܪӛӱӤӦөܸ܅ǞŐƹŋàƤŐńŋƹܵƬ
ĝŽűűīųƹƬܜډڑڑڍ܄ڊڈڎܧڏܝ܂NīƤŽĤŐĀųǁƬ
ڊ܋ڑډډ܋ڏܧڑhīųƹǮ܄ܴ܉ӡӘӠӚӘӨоӱөӡӘӠрӻӤӡӘӠ
оӻӤӡӘӠрӹөӡӘӠрӻөӧӘӨӹяӜӨӜӡӴӛӜӠӡӘӫӹ
ӡӱӤӞӪӠӤӠӛӱӘӤܸӡ܎Ә܎
ڎàīƬǁńńīƬƹƹŋĀƹƤŐƬƹŽơŋĀųīƬŐƬ
ŐųƬơŐƤīĤĜǤ£ƤŽűīƹŋīǁƬŐųĝŋĀŐųƬŽŃ
īƬĝŋǤŨǁƬ܋ĝīĀųŐĤīƬŽŃƹŋĀƹƹƤĀńīĤǤ
ĀƤī ŨŽǁĤƬŋīƤī܅ƹŋīܴӘՀӣӦӕԾӜӸӥܵܜиӝӧӫ܋
чӥӣӠ܋ләӧӠ܋ڐڐܝǞŋŐĝŋŐƬŐųǝŽťīĤĜǤ
£ƤŽűŐƹŋīǁƬĀǾƹīƤƹŋīŐųƹƤŽĤǁĝƹŐŽųŽŃ
ƹŋīŋŽűŽųǤűŽǁƬƹƤĀńīĤǤĜīĝŽűīƬ
ܴлՀӡӣӦӕԶӜӷӥӝӣӦܵܜƤŐƬƹŽơŋ܋tǀě܎ڎړڋܝ
ŋīƤī܅ǞŋŐĝŋĝĀǁƬīƬƹŋīƹŋǁųĤīƤŽŃ
ŨŽǁĤƬĀųĤűĀųǤŽƹŋīƤƬ܅ǞŋŐĝŋŐƬųŽƹ
ųīīĤīĤƹŽĜīĝŐƹīĤŐųƹŋŐƬƬǁƤǝīǤ܋
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Ideias e Críticas
corrects him, teaching him to call ‘ԁӢӺӡӫӦӨӘ’ the male one and ‘ԁӢӜӡӫӨӴӘӠӤӘ’ the
¨»µÁ¼ĭŋ\ÁÎ×Òĭ»ã»ÓËݨ}Ðã»Ó}Ç»ª¶£ĥt»Ó}Ç}¯¯ª¶£»Ð¨Ш¢µ}-
¯}¶Шµ}¯}¯ÐÇ㻶ª¶ШË}µÝ}ãĽ (see: PEPPLER, 1918: 179; CHANTRAINE-
MEILLET, 1932:295; CHANTRAINE, 1933:107-9; FRAENKELįĂĊĆĆĭąăŅĆłĮ\×Ü¼×
ń\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò»³Ò×Ò»»¯Ò×³¯¼FÜĮććĈÒ¨ÁÎ×ŊӡӹӨӛӦӧӦӤ” (=trou-
gh) and ‘ӡӘӨӛӷӧӞӤ’ (Nub.678), as well as in Nub.672 with the (homosexual)
ŋµÁ¼ì»ÁÒōæÁŃÁÎ¯¼©×ÁžÎ¯Ò×ÁÌ¼Òō\ÁÎ×ÒŃÒÁܵå¼
called ‘Kleonyme’ (in Nub. 680). In addition, it happens again withĻŮµã¶ª}ËĪ
Ůµã¶ª}Ľ (in DÓĞ÷ù÷) who did not serve his army duties etc. It looks like that
žÎ¯Ò×ÁÌ¼Òō¯¼Ò̯ÎׯÁ¼Î¯ÒÌ¯µÁÒÁÌÎVÎÁ×©ÁÎÒ¼¯ÒõÎÒ×××»Ì×
to edit a grammar manual (Protag. 80 A 27 [= Aristot. Rhet. i407b6-8; Aristot.
Poet. 1458a8-17), see: XK\F\aXžf0, 1961:50-2), in which he criticizes Homer
about the use of genres (grammatically; see: WACKERNAGEL, 1928:4-5 and
WILLI, 2006). It is worth mentioning that — by some kind of irony — one of
¯Ò×Áίµ\ÁÎ×ÒōµÒ×æÁÎÒ¨ÁÎί¼³¯¼©×»µÁ³æÒŋԁӢӜӡӫӨӬӷӤӘ’(=alek-
ÐÇ㻶, the female rooster) (Pl. Phaed. 118a).
3) Socrates’ ‘Thinkery’
2¼×©¯¼¼¯¼©Á¨×̵ìį\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò»³ÒÌܼæ¯××µµ¯×ÎׯÁ¼
of the words ԅӤӛӨӜө (men) and ԅӤӟӨӘӡӜө (coal), in order to convince him to join
\ÁÎ×Òō\ÁÁµŁDÓĞúøǟ¢). In order to collate the learning procedure at that
school with something of the common experience, he compares it to a vaulted
oven that closes with a cap (‘ӧӤӠӚӜ՛өōłĭ0µ¯»Ò××\ÁÎ×Òōa¯¼³ÎìŁŋÌÎÁ¼-
tisterion’, DÓĞúõ) is ‘ӯӬӮխӤӪӦӭխӤ’ (a place of wise souls) where men who study
the sky and change other people’s minds inhabit (‘ԁӤӘӧӜӱӟӦӬӪӠӤ’). This place is
like a vaulted oven with a cap (that includes the wise men), while the others
are just coal(s) (‘ԅӤӟӨӘӡӜө’). They teach you to win in words for both the Just and
the Unjust Cause (‘ӢӺӚӦӤӫӘӤӠӡԋӤӡӘՁӛӱӡӘӠӘӡԅӛӠӡӘ’), under the circumstance that
you pay them (‘ԁӨӚӴӨӠӦӤԦӤӫӠөӛӠӛչ’) (DÓĞúõĵúłįÒ̯××¨×××\ÁÎ×ÒÁ¼-
sidered the teaching for money equal to the corporal prostitution.
\ÁÌ¯Ò×Ņ\ÁÎ×Ò¯¼Clouds and his students reside in Thinkery, in a pla-
ce of study/survey/care/thinking (see GOLDBERG, 1976)
7
. In the dictionary
of Platonic philosophical terms
8
, ‘ӭӨӦӤӫӱө’ (care) is the cogitation, the thinking
(cogitatio) and the care. The solicitousness (sollicitudo) in the way that is ex-
pressed in Modern Greek (‘cura’ and ‘curia’ in Latin): ‘ԚӡӜӱӤӦӠө܎܎ԽӪӰөӦՓӛԠӜՀөӧӜӨՁ
ӫӦӴӫӦӬӢӷӚӦөӦՓӛԠӭӨӦӤӫӱө’ (Pl. Phaed. 101łĮ\Á»Á¼Ò×Á×³ÎÁ¨×»×-
ters of soul (‘ӫԬөӯӬӮԬөՎӧӰөդөәӜӢӫӱӪӫӞԞӪӫӘӠӦՓԚӧӠӣӜӢӜՃӦՓӛԠӭӨӦӤӫӱӝӜӠө’, T¯ĞŮÅ»¯Ğ
óú), while ‘ӭӨӦӤӫӠӪӫӻө’ (indagator) is generally the researcher: ‘ӫӹӫӜӣӜӫӺӰӨӘ
ӭӨӦӤӫӠӪӫԪөӡӘՁӫԉՔӧՏӚԬөԆӧӘӤӫӘԁӤӜӝӞӫӞӡӸө’ (Pl. Apol. 18B). ‘яӨӷӤӫӠӪӣӘ’ is the object
ڏàŐŨŨŐĀűƤƤŽǞƬűŐƹŋ܏ƬīƬƹĀĜŨŐƬŋīĤ
ƹŋīƹīƤű܎¼ŋŐųťīƤǤ܎ŐųűīƤŐĝĀų
/ųńŨŐƬŋƹƤĀųƬŨĀƹŐŽų܋
ڐƬƹŐǁƬFƤŐĤīƤŐĝǁƬ'܋ܜډڐڋڐܝ܋Vocum
Platonicarum܅hŐơƬŐĀī܅hŐĜƤĀƤŐĀ
àīŐĤűĀųųŐĀųĀ܋
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Ideias e Críticas
of thinking, what someone thinks a thought. The term ‘phrontisterion’ is
being used by Philostratus the Athenean9 (Apoll Tyan. Vita. VA 350), in order
to mention a commune way of living, where students learn, study, etc.
FåÎ×µÒÒ¯Ò×Áίµ\ÁÎ×ÒōÒ¯×¯ÒæµµŅ³¼Áæ¼įÜÒ×Á×¯¼×ž©ÁÎį
in Gymnasia, in houses that was invited, in symposiums etc. and never in a
private school.
\ÁÎ×Ò¯¼Clouds is being called as ‘ӭӨӦӤӫӠӪӫӻө’ (someone who thinks de-
̵ì¼µÁ׳įÁ¼××λÒÁ¨×Á»ìŃÌÁׯ×ë×¼õ¼¯×µì¯ÎÁ-
nically. It is worth mentioning that the noun ӭӨӦӤӫӱө10 appears seven times in
Clouds (DÓĞòôøğóóúğóôôğóô÷ğøõñğø÷óğúöò) to point out the thinking / survey
(Burnet, 1924:76) and only four times more in all the other Aristophanes’ sa-
ved plays (WILLI, 2006); furthemore in these four times it is used by the
Chorus to mention the care, concern and not the thinking — study. Aristophanes
in CloudsµµÒ\ÁÎ×Ò¼¯ÒÒ×Ü¼×ÒÒŋӣӜӨӠӣӤӦӭӨӦӤӫӠӪӫӘՁ’ (=minute phi-
losophers, noble, in DÓĞòñò), because ‘ӣӺӨӠӣӤӘ’ is conceptually similar to ‘ӭӨӦӤӫӱӛӘ
ŁśÎłĮf¼Ü×\×ÎÌÒ¯ÒåÒŋԁӧӜӨӠӣӜӨӱӣӤӰө’ (=carelessly) by bru-
tally kicking the door of the Thinkery. For that reason, the student who opens
the door to him inveighs him by calling him ‘ԁӣӘӟӻө’ (uneducated) (in
DÓĞòôöĵòô÷).
When (in DÓĞóòøł\ÁÎ×ÒÌÌÎÒ¯¼Ò¯×a¯¼³Îìį\×ÎÌÒ¯ÒÒÒ
him hanging (‘ӦՓӧՁӫԬөӡӨӜӣӹӟӨӘө’): ‘I am walking in the air, and speculating
about the sun’ (=ԁӜӨӦәӘӫխ11ӡӘՁӧӜӨӠӭӨӦӤխӫՏӤԧӢӠӦӤ’, Nub.225-6), in contrast to
some of his students who saw before ‘investigating the darkness of the un-
derworld’ (‘ԚӨӜәӦӛӠӭӸӪӠӤՔӧՏӫՏӤэӹӨӫӘӨӦӤōłĮ\×ÎÌÒ¯ÒܼÎÒ×¼ÒŋӬӧӜӨܪӭӨӦӤӸ
¯¼Ò×įæ¯µÒ¯»×Á×¯¼³××ÒÁÌ¯Ò×Ń\ÁÎ×ÒÒ̯ÒÒÁ¨+ÁÒį
æ¯µ×µ××ÎÒ×Ü¯ÒįÒÜÎåìÒįµÒæ¯×ÒÁµÎ¯ÒÒÜÒĮ\ÁÎ×ÒÎÒÌÁ¼Ò×Á
him as a teacher : Ļ*»Ç1˨»Ó¯¶»Ð¨}ÜǪ£¨Ð¯ãªË»ÜÇШª¶£Ë¯ËЪ}¯ª¢1¨}
¶»ÐËÓËÅ¶Шª¶Ð¯¯Ðğ}¶µªâШШ»Ó£¨Ðª¶}ËÓЯ¢»ÇµݪШªÐËª¶Ç
}ªÇĞĽ (DÓĞóóøĵôñ). The proper examination goes along with the meaning and
×Îį¼»ÁÎ×µ\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò¯ÒÒ³¯µµŅµÒÒ¼ܼÜ×ÒæÒæÌÎ-
viously when he knocked powerfully and kicked the door. On the same way,
\ÁÎ×Ò毵µ¯¼å¯©V¯¯Ì̯ÒÒæµµŁŋӤӞӧӴӫӠӦө’, Nub. 868), which is a sy-
nonym for ‘ӤӻӧӠӦө’ (=infant, but also fool and uneducated) and is used only
once by Aristophanes at Clouds. Infants are people before the given knowle-
©Á¨ŁÜÒ¯¼©łõÎ×TÇ»µШÓË»Ó¶of Aeschylus. Infants are also Ulysses’
Á»ÎÒæÁ××Áë¼Á¨+ÁŃ\ܼ×0Á»ÎōÒ1¯ª} etc.
\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò¯Ò¯¼×ÎÁÜ×Á×\ÁÎׯa¯¼³ÎìŁDÓĞóöõĵóøõ), in pa-
rody of introduction ceremonies, the ‘ӯӬӮխӤӪӦӭխӤ’ (=of wise spirits. DÓĞúõ),
which combines elements from the teaching of Pythagoras (WILLI, 2006),
ډڈơĀƤƹŃƤŽű/űơīĤŽĝŨīƬܵŃƤĀńűīųƹĀ
ŐƹĤŽīƬųŽƹĀơơīĀƤīĤŐųơƤŽܧƬŽĝƤĀƹŐĝ
ơŋŐŨŽƬŽơŋǤ܋FŽƤƹŋīƹīƤűƬīīĀųĝŐīųƹ
GƤīīťńƤĀűűĀƹŽŨŽńǤīƬĝŋ܋ń܋ڑډڊܐ
®Žơŋ܋īĤ܋¼܋ڎڏܐ/ǁƤ܋NŐơ܋ڌڋڎ܋
ډډ£īƤŋĀơƬƤŐƬƹŽơŋĀųīƬĜŽƤƤŽǞƬĀųĤ
ƹƤĀųƬŃŽƤűƬĀƹīƤűŃƤŽűơǤƹŋĀńŋŽƤīĀų
ơŋŐŨŽƬŽơŋǤ܄ܴӘԹӟӨӦәӹӫӞөܵܜƹŋīŽųīǞŋŽ
ǞĀŨťƬŽųƹŽƹŋīĀŐƤܝ܅ǞŋŐĝŋŐƬƹŋī
ƬǁƤųĀűīŽŃǝĀƤŐƬ܅ĀƬƹǁĤīųƹŽŃŋŐƬ
ܜSĀűĜŨ܋£Ǥƹŋ܋ßŐƹĀډڋڍܧڎܝ܋
ڑFŨĀǝŐŐ£ŋŐŨŽƬƹƤĀƹŐơīƤĀܜډڐڏڈܝ܅ߎŨډ܋
£ŋŐŨŽƬƹƤĀƹǁƬƹŋīƹŋīųŐĀų܋ ĀƤŨhǁĤǞŐń
fĀǤƬīƤ܋ŐųĀīĤŐĜǁƬ܋G܋¼īǁĜųīƤŐ܋
hŐơƬŐĀī܋
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Empedocles’ poetry and other verbal shapes that were familiar but unsaid in
the society of Athens [see Ežfa2\ (1938:92-7); Dover
12
(1968:130-33), Adkins
(1970:13-24)]. He sits at ‘sacred couch’ (ԺӜӨӷӤӪӡӱӣӧӦӛӘ) and wears ‘chaplet’
(ӪӫӺӭӘӤӦӤ’, DÓĞóöõĵ÷), which is what happens exactly to all the new students
Á¨×¯ÒίÒ×ÁÌ¼¯ŋ\ÁÁµō×Į
4) Teaching techniques
In Clouds¯×¯ÒÎÜ¯µ××\ÁÎ×Ò×Ò¼\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò¼¼Á×µμį
Á¼×ÎÎì×ÁV¯¯Ì̯ÒæÁ¯Ò³¼ÎÁ¼µμ¯¼©Į*ÎÁ»×åÎìõÎÒ×»Á-
»¼×Á¨\ÁÎ×ÒōÌÌÎ¼ŁDÓĞóóô), he starts incessantly to teach, to ask,
×ÁÍÜÒׯÁ¼į×ÁÁÜ×į×ÁåµÁÌ××¯¼³¯¼©Á¨\×ÎÌÒ¯ÒĮa×λÒŋӛӠӛӹӪӡӰ
(teach) and ‘ӣӘӤӟӹӤӰ’ (learn) can be found widely throughout the play but as
certain terms can be found more than ¢»ÇÐãЪµËįæ¯µ\ÁÎ×Ò¯ÒÁ¼Ò×©
until the appearance of Just and Unjust Cause (DÓĞùùú). The teacher applies
åί×ìÁ¨»×ÁÒįµ×ÁÜ©×¯ÒÒ×Ü¼×¯ÒÒίì\ÁÎ×ÒÒŋܼ-
ducated’, ‘barbarian’ (DÓĞõúó), ‘ӹӧӦӨӦөōŁśÒÁ»Á¼æÁ¼¼Á×õ¼×Ì×łį
‘forgetful’ (DÓĞ÷óúłįÎæ¼¯÷õܵ××ÁµμŁDÓĞ÷õ÷), rough (DÓĞ÷öö) etc.
Both the basic mental procedures (observation, comparison, generaliza-
tion, hypothesis, induction, conclusion etc.) and the superior ones (resolving
¯µ¯×ìįίׯµńÎׯå×¯¼³¯¼©×Įł××\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò¯ÒÌµÁ¨ÎÒÜÒ-
tandard and completely elementary. The lack of general and wide education
of the student is more than obvious. However, when he leads his son, Phidippides,
to the Thinkery (‘learn instead of me’=ՔӧԠӨԚӣӦ՝ӣӹӤӟӘӤӜ’, DÓĞùôú), he says to
him that ‘you will know yourself, how ignorant and stupid you are’ (=ӚӤӸӪӜӠӛԠ
ӪӘӬӫՏӤդөԁӣӘӟԪө’, DÓĞùõółĮp¼×µ³Ò×Á\ÁÎ×Òį»¯×Ò××¯ÒÒÁ¼
is inherently fond of learning (‘ӟӬӣӷӪӦӭӦө’), while he recalls his son’s inventi-
å¼ÒÒ×ìÁܼ©Î©įÜ×Á¯Ò¯»©¯¼ÎìńÎׯå¯µ¯×ì¼¯¼µ¯¼ׯÁ¼
to knowledge (DÓĞùøøĵùõ). The educational techniques, though, that sophist
Ń\ÁÎ×ÒÌ̵¯ÒÎå¯Ò¯µÁ¼µì¯¼¯ÒÎµׯÁ¼Ò¯Ìæ¯×Ò×Ü¼×Ń\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò
and can be summarized as follows:
7 In order to check the level of his student, he tells him that he will examine
¯»¯¼×»ÁÜÒ××Ł\×ÎÌÒ¯ÒłµÎìÒįÒÁ××\ÁÎ×Ò¼
able to know what kind of ‘ӡӘӠӤԉөӣӞӮӘӤԉөō毵µÁ÷¨Î×Á¯»Łŋ»µ¶»ÝğÐ¯¯µ
ã»ÓÇ»Ý¶ÐÓǶ»¢µª¶ĩª¶»ÇÇШ}Ðğݨ¶1¶»Ý»¢ݨ}ÐË»ÇÐªÐªËğ1µ}ã¶»Ýğ}¢-
ÐÇШªËğ}Åůãлã»Ó¶Ý¶£ª¶ËĞ’, DÓĞõøùĵú).
7
He examines him to testify whether he is mnemonicÁÎ¼Á×Į\×ÎÌÒ¯Òį
though, responds to him that his memory is selective, and as a result, when
they owe him money he can remember it, while when he owes money he
forgets it.
12rīĀǁƹŐƬG܋ܜډڑڋڐܝ܅La Scene de
l'initiation dans les 'Nubes' d’
Aristophane܅¦N¦ډډڐ܋
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7 The teacher asks him if ¨ªËª¶¨Ç¶Ð¯ã¯}Ƕª¶£ (DÓĞõùö), but very soon he
gets disappointed.
7 As an antidote to his student’s ignorance, he threatens to punish him (‘ӣԪ
ӧӢӞӚխӤӛӺӜӠ’, DÓĞõúôłįÜ×æ¼\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò¼ÒæÎÒÁÎÎ×µìįÎæÎÒ
him (DÓĞøøô).
7 \ÁÎ×ÒÒÜ©©Ò×Ò××\×ÎÌÒ¯ÒÒÁܵõ¼»ÁµÁ¨Ò×Ü¼×įÒÁ××
he can be ª¯ª£¶Ð}¶ËÐÓª»ÓËtoo (DÓĞöñòĵó).
7
p¼\ÁÎ×ÒÎµ¯ñÒ××¯ÒÒ×Ü¼×¯Ò¼Á×ÌµÁ¨ܼÎÒ×¼¯¼©
ÒÁ»µμ¯¼©»×ÁÒŁ¯ĮĮÌÎÁÒÁìĺåÎÒ¯õׯÁ¼łįÒ³Ò¯»¯Î×µì×Á
æ¯Á©¼¯×¯åĺÜׯÁ¼µ¯Ò¯Ìµ¯¼\×ÎÌÒ¯ÒæÁܵµ¯³×Áë-
mined (DÓĞ÷ö÷ĵ÷öù) (learning objective change).
7
aÁÎÜÒ¼ÁÜÎ©Ò\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò to concentrate fully on the problem and
when he comes to a dead-end (‘ԅӧӦӨӦӤӧӺӪԭө’) to change to another ‘meaning’
(DÓĞøñöłįæ¯µ\ÁÎ×Òå¯ÒÒ××ÒÁܵÎÒ×¨ÁÎµ¯××µ¼ë»¯-
ne it again, in case of a dead-end thought (DÓĞøõôĵøõö).
7
To distribute the parts of the problem (‘ӪӮӹӪӘө܎܎ӡӘӫԉӣӠӡӨՏӤ’), by dividing
(‘ՉӨӟխөӡӘՁӪӡӦӧխӤ’, DÓĞøõñĵó).
7
Not to think innerly on his own, but to express his thoughts loudly
(DÓĞø÷ôĵø÷õ).
It is obvious from a careful listing of the lines and verses in Clouds, that
Aristophanes uses the terms ‘learning’ and ‘teaching’ nearly throughout the
whole play. However, there are some general educational principles applied
ìžÎ¯Ò×ÁÌ¼Òō\ÁÎ×ÒįÒÁ»Á¨æ¯Îĭ
i. ª}¯ЪĞ Of course it is a bad imitation of the paradigms we have from the
̵×Á¼¯¯µÁ©ÜÒį×ÎŃ\ÁÎ×Òį×ÁÜ©į¯¼Ò×ÎÜ×ÒÒ×Ü¼×Ń\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò
via questions and answers, advising that he should think carefully before
responding.
ii. 2¼¯÷¨Î¼¨ÁÎÁ»¨ÁÎ×Ò¼ÒÁÌ¯ÒׯׯÁ¼Į\ÁÎ×Ò¯ÒÒÁµÒÒ¼µ»ÁÒ×
µÁæñìįæ¯µ×Ü©Ò×\×ÎÌÒ¯Òōµ¼³×¯¼×¼Ò¯¨ì×Á»ì¯ÒÒÜĮ
iii. KÒ××ί»×Á¼ÌÎׯĮ\Á»Ìί»ÎìÁÒ××ί×¼¯ÍÜÒÎ
being used and some related forms can be found, i.e. the distraction of thou-
ght of a student (DÓĞòôøӭӨӦӤӫӱӛࠒԚӥӻӣәӢӰӡӘөԚӥӞӬӨӞӣӺӤӞӤ’), who was interrup-
×æ¯µ×¯¼³¯¼©Ü×Á×¼Á¯Òį××\×ÎÌÒ¯Ò»ì³¯³¯¼©×
ÁÁÎĮ\ÁÎ×Òįµ¯³»¯毨įµÌÒ¯¼×¯Î×Á¨¼æ2Òį¼¯¨×¯Ò
procedure discontinues, then the encapsulated thoughts become aborted.
iv. XÒÁµå¯¼©ÌÎÁÜÎĮ\ÁÎ×Òå¯ÒÒ¯ÒÒ×Ü¼×××ÒÁܵÒ×ÁÌ¼
start again, following another path, if a searching method or a thought le-
ads to a dead-end.
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v. Rhetoric tricks. Especially by examining the original meaning of each word
and the complexity of language.
vi. žÎ©Ü¯¼©ÁÜ×××Î¯×¯Á¼µ¯×¯ÒĮ\ÁÎ×ÒÎ¨ÜÒÒ×ÁÌ×××{ÜÒ
runs the world and believes that this happens because of other impersona-
lized powers of nature, which sometimes are taken from the previous po-
ׯńÒ¯¼×¯õ¯å»¼×ÒŁ¯ĮĮ»ÌÁµÒłĮ
vii. žµ»ÁÒ×µµ×ÒÁµµÒ¯¼×¯õµ¯¨ÒÁ¨¯Òׯ»ŁÒ×ÎÁ¼Á»ìį»×ÁÎÁ-
logy, language, geography, etc.) are being argued and examined again.
Besides the comedy element / issue / thing, it is useful to keep on insisting
on the searching procedure which reveals the truth.
viii. Criticism on both the despotic and the non-despotic education of his
time. The former leads the elderly to violence against the younger and the
latter vice versa.
5) Conclusion
The Agon between Just and Unjust Cause that occurs in a central scene of the
play (DÓĞúöñǟ¢Ğ), represents the struggle between two worlds and two edu-
cational methods: On the one side lays the old, traditional, the classic past
one along with the severeness and the latter morality of the Just Cause. On
the other side, there is the innovative / new perspective of the Unjust Cause
which features the learning of the sophistic art, the downgrading of severe-
ness, the focusing on physical exercise and the enjoyment of pleasures. The
poet, despite being conservative (in his beliefs), he will refer to that issue so-
metime during the play, criticizing both of them. He is interested, though, in
Education (DÓĞú÷ò), even in this corrupted form, as it is this intentional prac-
ׯÁ¨ÒÁÌ¯Òׯ×ί³Ò×Ü©×ì×Ìί¼¯ÌµŃ\ÁÎ×Ò¯¼a¯¼³ÎìŌŃ
\ÁÁµĮ\Á×Ò¼æ¼\ÁÎ×Òµ¯åÎÒ×ÒÁ¼ŁV¯¯Ì̯Òł×Á¯Ò¨-
×ÎŁ\×ÎÌÒ¯ÒłÁܵåÌÌ¼¯¼¼ì̵ÎÁܼ×æÁεį¼ìׯ»į
since the establishment of the teacher’s role:
STREPSIADES
ĻĞĞٶÐ¯¯µ}»ÓÐµãË»¶ğª¢¨¨}Ë¯}ǶШ}Ð}ÓËğݨª¨ã»Ó«ÓËÐ
¶»Ýǻӣ¨Ð¢»ÇÝ}ÇĞĞĞĽ[1148]
SOCRATES
Ļ0¨}Ë¯}ǶªÐĞ [1150]
STREPSIADES
ĻI¨ª¯ġIË»¶ġ»µ¢»ÇШ¢Ç»µШ¨»ÓËġ0}Çã»ÓÇ¢}ШÇġĽ[1165]
Iµã}Çğµã}Çġ
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SOCRATES
_}ã»ÓÇË»¶}¶Å}ÇÐĞĞ
STREPSIADES
I¨ğ»¨ğµã¨ª¯ġ0Óèè}ġ0Óèè}ġ0»Ý1}µ¯ª£¨Ð}ÐШǝÇËÐ˪£¨Ð
»¢ã»ÓÇ»µÅ¯⪻¶ġ [1170]
2Ò×Î¼ìž×¼¯¼æÁæÁܵ¼Á×µ¯³×Áå×ÎńÒÁÌ¯Ò×µ¯³\ÁÎ×Òį
who can teach him the art of rhetoric, how to speak properly, how to convince
other people with real arguments (or even quibbles), how to come through cre-
¯×ÁÎÒįÌÎÁÒÜ×ÁÎÒį×ĵ\×ÎÌÒ¯Òù×Î¯Òί¨××¼¼×\ÁÎ×Òō
Ŋa¯¼³ÎìŌ\ÁÁµįÁÒ¼Á×»¼©×Áµμ¼ì×¯¼©įÌÎ×¨ÎÁ»ÒÁ»ÒÁ-
phistic tricks. Nevertheless, when he wants to persuade his son to join these
µÒÒÁ¼Ò××¯Ò\ÁÁµį©¯åÒ¯»ÒÁ»̯Á¨å¯ĭŋՊӨԙөӦՙӤդөԁӚӘӟՏӤӫՏ
ӣӘӤӟӹӤӜӠӤ;’ (ZËÐШ»ÓğШ¶ğ¨»Ý£»»}Шª¶£ªË¯}Ƕª¶£ĥDÓĞùó÷). Phidippides,
\×ÎÌÒ¯ÒōÒÁ¼įå¼×ÁÜ©ŁłÒ»Ò×Áå©ÎÜ×ÒÌµÁ¨ÒÁ-
phist, the only thing that he manages to do by using this knowledge, is to show
extreme disobedience and mistreatment against his father even to the point of
ëÎ¯Ò¯¼©å¯Áµ¼Į*×ÎŃ\×ÎÌÒ¯ÒÎ×Ò¯¼õ¼¯×æìĭ0ÜμÒ×
Ŋa¯¼³ÎìŌń\ÁÁµÁ¨\ÁÎ×ÒįÜÒń×Á¯Òå¯æŃæ×¯Ò¯¼©×Ü©×
there does not consort with the morality of the average Athenian citizen.
As for the general purposes of knowledge, the teaching at the sophists’ “Thinkery”
\ÁÁµ¢}ª¯»µÅ¯Ð¯ã. The regularity of the drama that has been distorted,
ÜÒŁ¯¼0λÒæÁÎÒłÒÁÌ¯Ò×Ń\ÁÎ×Ò¼¯ÒÒ×Ü¼×ÒŁŋӫӦ՛өӟӜӦ՛ө
ԢӛӱӡӦӬӤ’, Nub.1509) were unfair to Gods, is now restorted innerly. This is a su-
÷õ¯¼×ÎÒÁ¼¨ÁÎžÎ¯Ò×ÁÌ¼Ò×ÁÁµ¯ÒÒÁÁµÁ¨µÒÌ»ÁÜÒÒÁÌ¯Ò×ÒĮ
VÎÌÒ×¯Ò¯æÒÒÁæµµńÒÌÎ»Á¼©Ò××¼¯¼×ž×¼¯¼Ò××ŁÁŅł
µ×Á×Ò¼×¼Á¨¯Ò×Áίµ\ÁÎ×ÒĮaÌÁ×æÁ»Á³åÎì×¯¼©
in the 423 B.C. in Athens, the poet of Frogs, who at the most crucial moments
decides to bring back to life Aeschylus and the values he represents instead
Á¨»Áμ¯Ò×Üί̯ÒįÁÁÒÒ×ÁÜμ×ÒÁÌ¯Ò×a¯¼³Îìń\ÁÁµ¯¼
Clouds. He visualizes of a city which needs the traditional, moral values ins-
tead of the sophistic art at its basis. This educational choice of Aristophanes
Ò»Ò×ÁÎÌÎÒ¼×ÒÌ¯õ¯µ¯Òׯ¼ÌÁµ¯×¯µÁ¯Òįæ¯æÎæµµń
spread in Athens of the 5th century B.C.
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Book
By examining linguistic variation in Aristophanic comedy, Andreas Willi opens up a new perspective on intra-dialectal diversity in Classical Attic Greek. A representative range of registers, technical languages, sociolects, and (comic) idiolects is described and analyzed. Stylistic and statistical observations are combined and supplemented by typological comparisons with material drawn from sociolinguistic research on modern languages. The resulting portrayal of the Attic dialect deepens our understanding of various socio-cultural phenomena reflected in Aristophanes' work.
Plato's Euthyphro, Apology of Socrates and Crito (ed. with notes)
  • J Burnet
Burnet, J. (1924). Plato's Euthyphro, Apology of Socrates and Crito (ed. with notes). Oxford.
Aristophanic Comedy. Berkeley and Los Angeles Dover
  • Kenneth J Dover
Dover, Kenneth J. (1972). Aristophanic Comedy. Berkeley and Los Angeles Dover, Kenneth J. (1993). Aristophanes: Frogs (ed. with introd. and comm.). Oxford. Duranti, Alessandro (1997). Linguistic Anthropology. Cambridge.