Antibacterial Activity of Some Traditional Plants.

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To identify new combination of plant extract with antimicrobial activity the effect of combined aqueous extract of different plant extract like neem (Azadirachta indica), Onion (Alliumcepa) green tea (Camellia sinensis), turmeric (curcuma longa) were tested against Escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp, pseudomonas aeruginosawhich are known to be resistance to various antimicrobes. The inhibitor concentration of extract and combination was determined using broth micro dilation method. The susceptibility of bacteria to combined extract was determined by measuring the diameter of inhibition zones formed around plate after the analysis the combination method done on the four plant neem, onion, green tea turmeric was found to be most showing effect on four bacteria. Escherichia coil, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus species, pseudomonas aeruginosa. The result shows that the response of extract was dependent on the concentration used.The enhance of extract concentrationenhance Inhibition Zone.

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Pagoda plant (Clerodendrum paniculatum L.) is a medicinal plant that is widely distributed in ASEAN countries, including Indonesia. Pagoda plants are believed to have good pharmacological activity. In this study, the antibacterial activity of pagoda leaves was tested against Propionibacterium acnes. The method used in this research is the antibacterial activity test utilizing agar diffusion using paper discs to assess the inhibitory power of the test substance. The test groups used were water, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane fractions, with each divided into concentrations of 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20%. The positive control used was Clindamycin, and the negative control used was dimethyl sulfoxide solution (DMSO). The results obtained with the highest inhibition value were clindamycin with an inhibition diameter of 28.70+0.15mm, then by a water fraction of 20% with an inhibitory diameter of 14.20+0.20mm. The study results concluded that the antibacterial activity of each fraction of the pagoda leaves was not vigorous in inhibiting the growth of Propionibacterium acnes bacteria.
Cryptothecia sp. is a crustose lichen having varied medicinal properties. The present study aims to isolate and to determine the antimicrobial activity of endolichenic fungi from the surface sterilized lichen thallus of Cryptothecia sp. The isolation was done on three different media i.e., Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Malt Extract Agar (MEA) and Water Agar (WA) media. A total of 19 isolates of endolichenic fungi were recovered. The isolates were identified on the basis of colonial morphology and microscopic investigation. Dominant endolichenic fungus was Monilinia sp. (23.33%) followed by Mycelia sterilia (16.66%). Other fungal isolates were Trichoderma sp., Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp.and Dreschlera sp. The fungal isolates were tested for antimicrobial activity by agar cup diffusion assay against clinically significant human pathogenic test organisms such as Escherichia coli (MTCC 443), Candida albicans (MTCC 227) and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 737) procured from IMTECH, Chandigarh. All the isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against the test pathogens in varying degree. One isolate Penicillium sp., (CRP 3a) showed highest inhibition against all the pathogens. The present study indicated that Cryptothecia sp. harbours various endolichenic fungi with potent antimicrobial activity. Further detailed investigation of the compounds isolated from endolichenic fungi may lead to therapeutic applications as a new source of novel natural products which are helpful to the mankind.
In this study extraction of curcuminoids from turmeric was explored by various methods of extraction. For extraction soxhelet, ultrasonication and distillation methods were employed for separation of curcuminoids from turmeric powder under more or less varying same parameters. The results were analyzed and compared with reference method. The UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC and TLC were used for the confirmation and quantification of extract. The TLC analysis showed the three bands denoted the presence of three curcuminoids. The UV-Vis spectral analysis specified the absorption peak at 425nm. The HPLC studies implied the existence of three peaks for sonicated extract. The interpretation of the observation emphasized that the yield of extraction was higher for sonication method than remaining other extraction methods under varying parameters. Hence sonication method was considered as optimized extraction method which was time saving and less energy consuming favorable extraction method. The emphasized characteristics of improved extraction methods including cost-effectiveness (due to much saving in time and energy consumption) and environmentally benign nature make them more favourable extraction methods.
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