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VAN HOEK, M. 2018. Formative Period Rock Art in Arequipa, Peru. An up-dated analysis of the rock art from Caravelí to Vítor. Oisterwijk, Holland.

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This book deals with a group of valleys in the Department of Arequipa: from Caravelí to Vítor. The book (156 pages in English with 105 numbered illustrations [and many more]) - called Formative Period Rock Art in Arequipa, Peru. An up-dated analysis of the rock art from Caravelí to Vítor - offers many, previously unpublished illustrations of rock art panels that prove beyond any doubt that there certainly is a much larger amount of Formative Period rock art imagery in this area than previously accepted, including more MSC-Style petroglyphs. The book also discusses and rejects the authority of the purported Siguas Culture, as I argue that this specific, individual culture never existed. An important but still modest role in the creation of the many rock art layers in the Study Area is by the Paracas Culture, while the Wari Culture has had only very, very little impact. Finally, the study offers a tentative, up-dated Time Scale for especially the rock art of the Majes Valley. I hope that this up-date will be useful to a large number of rock art researchers in Peru and outside Peru. ************************************************************************* Este libro trata de un grupo de valles en el Departamento de Arequipa: de Caravelí a Vítor. El libro (156 páginas en inglés con 105 ilustraciones numeradas [y muchas más]) - llamado Formative Period Rock Art in Arequipa, Peru. An up-dated analysis of the rock art from Caravelí to Vítor - ofrece muchas ilustraciones inéditas de paneles de arte rupestre que demuestran más allá de toda duda que ciertamente hay una cantidad mucho mayor de imágenes rupestres de Período Formativo en esta área que antes se aceptan, incluyendo más petroglifos al Estilo-MSC. El libro también discute y rechaza la autoridad de la supuesta Cultura Siguas, ya que sostengo que esta cultura individual específica nunca existió. Un papel importante pero aún modesto en la creación de las muchas manifestiones de arte rupestre en el área de estudio es por la Cultura Paracas, mientras que la Cultura Wari sólo ha tenido muy, muy poco impacto. Finalmente, el estudio ofrece una escala temporal tentativa y actualizada para especialmente el arte rupestre del Valle de Majes. Espero que esta actualización sea útil para un gran número de investigadores del arte rupestre en Perú y fuera del Perú.
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... Volcanoes in this area are all Sacred Mountains in Andean worldview (it concerns the volcanoes Pichu Pichu, Misti, Chachani, Ampato, Coropuna, Solimana and Sarasara). I have demonstrated that in this part of Peru many rock art sites are fundamentally linked with the Apus to the north of the rock art region (Van Hoek 2013a, 2018and 2021a. I now argue that this invisible, spiritual connection was materialised by the production of specific rock art images, which will be discussed in another section. ...
... It is important to know that "Carcanchas" and "Trophy" Heads are two types of rock art images that define the Majes Rock Art Style. I have discussed the "Carcancha" icon in much detail in my earlier works, to which I hereby refer for more information (Van Hoek 2013a;2015b;2018;2021a). Basically, the "Carcancha" is a symbol that expresses the important Andean life-death duality, as it often depicts a skeleton in active poses. ...
... The more complex (outlined) examples of camelids and all other recognisable Majes Rock Art Style images may date from Pre-Wari and Wari periods (but they were definitely not manufactured by the Wari).Surprisingly there are some types of images that may have been derived from the coastal Formative Period Páracas Culture, which had its heartland some 550 km NW of La Caldera. There are a few types of images in the Majes Rock Art Style that may have a Páracas origin or (more likely) are Páracas influenced (for more details seeVan Hoek 2018). They would also be among the oldest images. ...
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This paper again demonstrates that in the area of the Majes Rock Art Style (Arequipa; southern Peru) many sites are firmly and ritually connected with at least one of the Sacred Mountains (the Apus) of the area. Those volcanoes play an important role in selecting spots for rock art production. La Caldera is one example.
... "Carcanchas" are anthropomorphic figures that symbolise the Andean life-death duality symbolised by skeletons combined with active poses (for more information see Van Hoek 2013, 2018, 2019a. In my opinion the "Carcancha" is a pre-Wari icon. ...
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Toro Muerto es el sitio de arte rupestre más grande de los Andes, conocido desde 1953. En 2018, un equipo de investigación polaco-peruano inició el Proyecto de Investigación Arqueológica - Toro Muerto (PIA-TM) e inspeccionó una parte informada anteriormente, pero no inspeccionada en el extremo norte del sitio. Se llamaba Sector-X. Este estudio intenta analizar el arte rupestre del Sector-X considerando especialmente el estado del Sector-X dentro del Complejo de Arte Rupestre de Toro Muerto. Para lograr esto, mi estudio se enfoca principalmente en la ocurrencia y distribución de un petroglifo de un ave específico que es exclusivo del Valle Central de Majes en el sur de Perú. - * - Toro Muerto is the largest rock art site in the Andes, known since 1953. In 2018 a Polish-Peruvian research team started the Proyecto de Investigación Arqueológica - Toro Muerto (PIA-TM) and surveyed an earlier-reported, yet not-surveyed part in the far north of the site. It was called Sector-X. This study attempts at analysing the rock art at Sector-X especially by considering the status of Sector-X within the Rock Art Complex of Toro Muerto. To achieve this, my study mainly focusses on the occurrence and distribution of a specific bird petroglyph that is exclusive for the Central Majes Valley of southern Peru.
... In this respect it is crucial to know that Apu Misti (a volcano of 5822 m) is one of the most Sacred Mountains of this part of the Andes (together with the volcanoes of Apu Pichu Pichu, Apu Chachani, Apu Ampato, Apu Coropuna, Apu Solimana and Apu Sarasara; Apu means "Lord"). I have convincingly demonstrated that in this part of the Andes many rock art sites are fundamentally linked with the Apus to the north of the rock art region (Van Hoek 2013, 2017, 2018a, 2020, 2021and 2022. This invisible, spiritual connection was materialised and simultaneously sanctified by the production of many rock art images at several sites. ...
Article
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This paper again demonstrates that in the area of the Majes Rock Art Style (Arequipa; southern Peru) many sites are firmly and ritually connected with at least one of the Sacred Mountains (the Apus) of the area. Those volcanoes play an important role in selecting spots for rock art production. Mollebaya Chico is one of those sites.
... Those two much differing icons possibly reflect the religious expressions of a certain period of the local Majes culture of the Sihuas Valley (thus not the purported "Siguas Culture" advocated by Joerg Haeberli [2001;2002], which was rejected by me in my 2018 publication [Van Hoek 2018a]). ...
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This book was written by me to serve as a supplement to a most extensive survey of the Wari Settlement at Quilcapampa in the Sihuas Valley of Southern Peru, the results of which were published in 2021 after many years of meticulous excavation and research, which started in 2013 by the Proyecto de Investigación Arqueológica Quilcapampa La Antigua (PIAQ). Their surveys resulted in the publication of a most informative book called: Jennings, J., W. Yépez Álvarez and S. L. Bautista (eds.). 2021. Quilcapampa. A Wari Enclave in Southern Peru. University Press of Florida (https://upf.com/book.asp?id=9780813066783). However, my study only deals with the rock art at Quilcapampa, which was discussed in their Chapter 3: “Making Quilcapampa: Trails, Petroglyphs, and the Creation of a Moving Place”, written by Stephen Berquist, Felipe Gonzalez-Macqueen and Justin Jennings. Besides more general remarks about Quilcapampa rock art, I also focus on specific types of Quilcapampa petroglyphs in my book, like the “Carcancha”, the Quilcapampa Abstract Anthropomorph and in particular on the “Trophy” Head, for which I propose a purpose that differs from the generally accepted theory. The findings of the PIAQ regarding the Plaza at Quilcapampa Settlement (discussed in their Chapter 4) seem confirm my theories that Quilcapampa rock art is firmly related with Apu Ampato.
... Especialmente esos elementos en forma de V en el tórax me recordaron un grupo específico de imágenes que son muy características del Estilo de Arte Rupestre Majes. Se trata del grupo de imágenes antropomórficas que he denominado Esqueleto-Antropomorfos, o "Carcanchas", que he analizado en profundidad anteriormente (Van Hoek 2013, 2018a, 2021véase también Jennings, Van Hoek, et al. 2019: 17). ...
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The Majes drainage in southern Peru boasts the largest collection of rock art in the Andes, especially because of the abundance of petroglyphs at the Toro Muerto and Alto de Pitis. Importantly, both sites have numerous bird petroglyphs of different types. Yet there are other sites in the Majes drainage that also have idiosyncratic bird imagery. One of those sites is Cíceras, which is the subject of this study. I focus on a specific type of bird petroglyphs, for which I tentatively suggest that they have a special transcendent proficiency.
... Toro Muerto in the Majes Valley is well-known for its large array of iconic petroglyphs. Idiosyncratic and almost exclusive to Toro Muerto are the Majes "Dancer"; the "Spitter"; the "Rectangular Bird" (Van Hoek 2018;Jennings, Van Hoek et al. 2019) and the "Feathered Homunculus" (Van Hoek 2021). But also almost exclusive to Toro Muerto are the relatively large, practically inevitably vertically arranged zigzag and/or serpentine petroglyphs that are frequently combined with (often centrally placed) straight grooves -that I have called "Stripes" -and large, superficially manufactured discs or dots (Van Hoek 2003). ...
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Arequipa in southern Peru is very rich in rock art. This study investigates the relationship between the Majes Rock Art Style and the geoglyphs (not a form of rock art, though) in the area. It proves that several geoglyphs are directly related with the petroglyphs of Toro Muerto and also that they are located on ancient routes to and from the Majes Valley. ---- Arequipa en el sur de Perú es muy rico en arte rupestre. Este estudio investiga la relación entre el Estilo del Arte Rupestre de Majes y los geoglifos (no una forma de arte rupestre) en el área. Demuestra que varios geoglifos están directamente relacionados con los petroglifos de Toro Muerto y también que están ubicados en las rutas antiguas desde y hacia el Valle de Majes.
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My paper describes the images on a boulder that has one of the most complex biomorphic petroglyphs in the Majes Valley and in Arequipa rock art. It may well be death-related, as will be demonstrated. Another death-related petroglyph on an adjoining panel definitely links the boulder - and the whole site - with Apu Coropuna, the most Sacred Mountain of the whole of southern Peru.
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The paper investigates one enormous boulder with numerous petroglyphs at Alto de Pitis, a major rock art site in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. Two types of petroglyphs on this boulder are being described in more detail and discussed within the context of the rock art of the Majes Valley.
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My latest book about Arequipa rock art (Peru) exclusively deals with the icon of the enigmatic Majes “Dancer”, which proves to have an unexpected limited distribution, yet appears in large numbers and endless varieties. The book has 71 pages, more than 22.000 words, 61 numbered illustrations, an Appendix with 12 illustrations (a total of 123 illustrations) and a list of references.
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Van Hoek, M. 2013. The Carcancha and the Apu. Rock Art in the Death Valley of the Andes. Published via BLURB. Oisterwijk, The Netherlands. This book discusses the relationship between the rock art site of Alto de Pitis in the Majes Valley of southern Peru and the Sacred Mountain of Nevado Coropuna, the highest volcano of Peru. At Alto de Pitis there is an overkill of petroglyphs of Skeleton-Anthropomorphs, also called “Carcanchas”, which are figures with an active, upright pose, yet showing ribs and skeletal joints. Those petroglyphs are the start of an invisible connection between the site and the Sacred Mountain, where the deceased travel to. The book also offers a chronology regarding the rock art layers of the Majes Valley, but that chronology is outdated. An update of Majes chronology is given in my other book (only available as PDF at ResearchGate): 2018. Formative Period Rock Art in Arequipa, Peru. An up-dated analysis of the rock art from Caravelí to Vítor.
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My book ‘The Chavín Controversy’, published in 2011 is now available as PDF at ResearchGate. It exclusively deals with Andean Rock Art from the Formative Period (roughly between 2000 B.C. to A.D. 0) and focuses on imagery that has been labelled ‘Chavín-style’ in the past. Yet, rock art constitutes the main body of the book. The book begins with an extensive introduction to the subject (Chapter 1). Then follows an ‘inventory’ of more than a hundred ‘Chavín-style’ rock art images (Chapter 2 - after 2011 [up to 2020] several more images have been recorded ), while Chapter 3 offers a comprehensive analysis of the ‘Chavín Controversy’, in which I challenge the Chavín supremacy in the Andean world. I also challenge the idea that - generally speaking - ‘Chavín-style’ rock art images are of Chavín manufacture. I propose that they are much older. In order to demonstrate my points not only many rock art panels, but also architectural art (especially Sechín), textiles from the Ica Region and ceramic art support my hypotheses. For instance, I propose that one specific piece of pottery establishes a link between Chavín de Huántar and Cerro Sechín. The book explores rock art sites from the very north of Peru to the Atacama Desert in Chile and several sites and/or rock art panels have not been published until 2011. Important sites like Cerro Mulato, Alto de la Guitarra, Palamenco and Tolón are described in detail. But also rather ‘unknown’ sites like Tomabal, Río Salinas, Río Seco de Santa Ana, Santa Rita and Bogotalla are most important when discussing the ‘Chavín Controversy’. But it proved that especially the rock art site of Chillihuay is most important when discussing the ‘Chavín Controversy’. Chillihuay is notably located many hundreds of kilometres south of Chavín de Huántar and yet features several interesting rock art images. Moreover, very specific rock art images - mainly from Jequetepeque but also from Chillihuay- demonstrate that an enigmatic process of ‘disintegration’ has taken place in ‘Chavín-style’ rock art imagery. The book (10 x 8 inches / 25 x 20 cm - soft cover only) has been written in the English language. It has 222 pages. The text has been printed in Times New Roman - 10 points. The book has more than 86.000 words; more than 78.000 words, when not counting the Contents, the Appendices, the extensive List of Figures (captions and sources) section and the Bibliography and the like. The book has been lavishly decorated with 174 illustrations (mainly black-and-white drawings, but also including 23 colour plates), plus two Time Charts.
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In 2011 I published the printed version of my book commenting on the 1986-book by Núñez Jiménez about rock art in Peru. This book is called: Petroglyphs of Peru - Following the Footsteps of Antonio Núñez Jiménez. Later I created a er PDF e-version on the BLURB website. But a few years ago I deleted my BLURB account and my five printed books are no longer for sale. I now have the opportunity to give you access to my 2011-book about the 1986-work by Núñez Jiménez. It must be stressed (and I do so in my book as well) that I only comment on the 1986-work by Núñez Jiménez, not the person, nor the researcher. When I wrote the subtitle, I indeed clarified that I followed the footsteps that Núñez Jiménez made to admirably explore the petroglyphs of Peru, as I literally surveyed most of those sites myself.
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The book exclusively describes and discusses rock art images from the Desert Andes (the deserts of western Peru and northern Chile) which are associated with life and death (sex and gender related imagery). The book has been lavishly decorated with 326 illustrations (many colour photos and numerous drawings)……. El libro exclusivamente trata las imagenes en el Arte Rupestre Andino (Desert Andes = el Perú desértico y el norte de Chile) que expresan figuras y escenas relacionado con la vida y la muerte. El libro ha sido espléndidamente decorado con 326 ilustraciones (muchas fotos en color y numerosos dibujos).
Article
This article presents a practical workflow that utilizes Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based photogrammetric survey to contextualize large expanses of rock art distributed across the complex topography of an inaccessible cliff face. We demonstrate our proposed workflow through a case study of a collection of petroglyphs along a two kilometer stretch of limestone escarpment in the vicinity of the archaeological site of Quilcapampa in the Majes district of southern Peru (ca. AD 800-1500). Following a review of existing methods of petroglyph documentation and digital heritage reconstruction, we then present our workflow for using UAVs to create a precisely georeferenced registry of petroglyphs on a three-dimensional model of a vertical cliff face and compare these results to more traditional pedestrian survey. We close by outlining the value of this model for future geospatial analysis, site conservation and visualization, and public archaeology.
Article
Emblematic and esoteric uses of color combinations have been proposed for Paracas Necrópolis textiles, since their first analysis in 1930 by Rebeca Carrión. While other scholars also have traced patterns of color variation among the figures repeated on large mantles, Anne Paul has contributed thorough documentation and has traced the distribution of other artifact types and design features among the gravelots. I seek to complement Paul’s work by tracing the combination of dominant color fields that communicate at great distance, and considering the interplay between the highly visible contrasts of background fields, the layers of patterned variability perceived upon approach, and the nearly invisible messages of interlace structures and yarn composition. While most previous studies have concentrated on late, Nasca-related textile assemblages, I focus on the early mortuary bundles and the relationship between textiles associated with the Topará and Paracas ceramic traditions. Comparison of predominant and exceptional styles in each Wari Kayan mortuary context with those of textiles from contemporary Ocucaje tombs reveals color schemes that indicate social identities and exchange relationships expressed in mortuary ritual.